Educational Research and Reviews

  • Abbreviation: Educ. Res. Rev.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1990-3839
  • DOI: 10.5897/ERR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 1923

Review

A SHORT REVIEW of TPACK for TEACHER EDUCATION

Hulya Gur1*
  • Hulya Gur1*
  • 1Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Bal?kesir University, 10100 Bal?kesir, Turkey
  • Google Scholar
Ay?en Karamete2
  • Ay?en Karamete2
  • 2Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology, Bal?kesir University, 10100 Bal?kesir, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 30 October 2014
  •  Accepted: 23 March 2015
  •  Published: 10 April 2015

 ABSTRACT

The aim of this descriptive study is to examine review of the ICT and TPACK literature for teacher education.  Firstly, the general characteristics of the ICT and TPACK have been examined. In the study, the researchers answer the questions namely “How is the distribution of the articles of TPACK of the year?”, “How is the distribution of the subject of article of ICT and TPACK?”, “What is the distribution according to the year of the subject of article of ICT and TPACK?” and “How can we integrate the TPACK to our teacher training program?” 116 articles were analysed.  It focused on ICT and TPACK and findings and discussions were conducted. The study presents some recommendations to the teacher education.

Key words: Knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, technological pedagogical content knowledge, ICT.


 INTRODUCTION

A broad use of technology facilitates everyday life and brings many advantages for people. Technologies have the potential to primarily change the way we think about teaching and learning. Technological tools are seen among the most effective tools both in and out of the school in the educational process of pupils and teachers. Teachers have a role in the schools to integrate the technology into the teacher learning process. For this reason teacher and teachers trainees should follow and integrate technological developments in education. ICT and TPACK studies rapidly increased in last decay. In the literature there are seven kinds of knowledge of teachers such as technological knowledge (TK); pedagogical knowledge (PK); content knowledge (CK); technological content knowledge (TCK); pedagogical content know-ledge (PCK); technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK); technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK).

Technological Knowledge (TK) Knowledge of how to operate computers and relevant software.

Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) Knowledge for teaching that includes“…understanding of how particular topics, problems, or issues are organized, presented, and adapted to the diverse interests and abilities of learners;” and the “…most useful forms of representation of these ideas, most powerful analogies, illustrations, examples, explanations, and demonstrations,” and “…the ways of representing and formulating the subject that make it comprehensible to others,” (Shulman, Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform, 1987, pp. 8-9) Content Knowledge (CK) The grasp of information, processes, principles, theories, and skills within a field of study (Shulman, 2004).

Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) Technologi-cal content knowledge understands technology in a specific subject or discipline; and represents technology.

Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) Blends the content and the pedagogy into understanding of how these are associated for successful teaching (Shulman, 1986): The category of pedagogical content knowledge includes the most regularly taught topics in one’s subject area, the most useful forms of representation of those ideas, the most powerful analogies, illustrations, exam-ples, explanations, and demonstrations, in a word, ways of representing and formulating the subject that make it comprehensible to others. Pedagogical content know-ledge also contains an understanding of what makes the learning of specific topics easy or difficult; the concep-tions and preconceptions that students of different ages and backgrounds bring with them to the learning of those most frequently taught topics and lessons (p. 9).

Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK): Technological pedagogical knowledge understands how technology can shape the ways of teaching. PCK is described as the relationship between the teaching subject and associated pedagogy. For (Shulman, 1987), pedagogical content knowledge identifies the distinctive bodies of knowledge for teaching. It represents the blend-ing of content and pedagogy into an understanding of how particular topics, problems or issues are organized, represented, and adapted to the diverse interests and abilities of learners, and presented for instruction. Pedagogical content knowledge is the category most likely to distinguish the understanding of the content specialist from that of the pedagogue. (p. 4). In teacher education, Pedagogical Content Knowledge has been seen as an important support for teachers’ professional development. In order to acquire and update their skills, teachers must keep pace with increasing educational requirements that necessitates adaptable strategy and a long time commitment. An important factor that can help mathematics teachers keep their potentials is the use of technology in classrooms.

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK): The use of technological tools that helps in delivering PCK (Mishra and Koehler, 2006). TPACK– The new acronym for TPCK (Thompson and Mishra, 2007).

The TPACK theoretical framework has been adopted by different researchers in a multitude of educational areas, and is considered to have shown promising results in integrating technology in teachers’ practices. In education such as mathematics education, there have been several studies in using the TPACK framework. Researchers have acknowledged the lack of adequate theoretical and professional frameworks that provide help, guidance, and efficiency to teachers to integrate technology in classrooms (Koehler and Mishra, 2005; Mishra and  Koehler,  2006;  Niess,  2008;  Niess  et  al.,  2009; Valanides and Angeli, 2008a). Many different approaches have been attempted in order to help teachers overcome difficulties of integrating technology in mathematics classrooms (Hew and Brush, 2007)

Technology and ICT were integrated in teaching and learning for teachers, students, educators so on. Research results show evidence of technology being implemented widely in classrooms for teaching (Cuban, 2001; Guzman and Nussbaum, 2009; Hew and Brush, 2007; Kincaid and Feldner, 2002; Lawless and Pellegrino, 2007; McCormick and Scrimshaw, 2001, Banas 2010). Other research results have also asserted that a great number of teachers remain unprepared to use computers in teaching (Cuban, 2001; Hokanson and Hooper, 2004; Russell et al., 2003). Education-technology integration is called the Technology Pedagogical Content Knowledge (Yurdakul, Examining techno pedagogical knowledge competencies of preservice teachers based on ICT usage., 2011, p. 398). Firstly it focused on content know-ledge in these processes (Shulman, 1986; Koehler and Mishra, 2005; Mishra and Koehler, 2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), technology program content and pedagogical approaches to connec-ting content, pedagogy and technology information field describe the type of interaction (Shin 2010). This model represents teachers’ teaching-learning process on how to integrate the technology of technological, pedagogical and content knowledge of the structure. It consists of TPACK, the interaction and combines three information fields (Harris et al., 2009). How to use information technology in teaching pedagogy of various technologies, knowledge, and ability to express change the way teachers teach using technology (Shin 2010). To integrate technology in education, learners and teachers continue to struggle with issues of using educational technology in teaching and learning. Teachers and teacher trainees should adopt seven kinds of knowledge using pedagogical approaches.

 

Purpose

The purpose of this literature review was to examine the theoretical basis, practical use of TPACK and the development of the TPACK framework. The purpose of this paper is to understand what role, if any, the TPACK construct can provide in advancing the new agenda in teacher education. This study may guide teachers, researchers, teacher educators, educationalists, program makers and so on. ICT and TPACK literature might be analysed according to years.

 

Research questions

The present study is a qualitative study (Miles and Huberman, 2014). This study has used a descriptive method. A literature review was conducted to answer these research questions.

1. How is the distribution of the articles of TPACK of the year?

2. How is the distribution of the subject of article of ICT and TPACK?

3. What is the distribution according to the year of the subject of article of ICT and TPACK?

4. How can we integrate the TPACK to our teacher training program?


 LITERATURE REVIEW

Shulman (1986) asserted that teacher must be organized with content knowledge, curricular knowledge, pedago-gical strategies, and pedagogical content knowledge upon which to base professional judgment. Using instructional strategies and programs that have been empirically evaluated can validate the selection of pedagogy. One of the most important ways of providing technological support is to use a framework for integrating complex problems of knowledge from pedagogy, content, technology, and different forms of interactions among these elements in classrooms (Mishra and Koehler, 2008). Adapted from the Pedagogical Content Knowledge model (Shulman, 1986, 1987), the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) model is a framework that treats technological integration in education “as a way of thinking about the knowledge [that] teachers need to understand how to integrate technology effectively in their classrooms” (Mishra and Koehler, 2006 pp. 10-11). TPCK, later renamed as TPACK (Thompson and Mishra, 2007), is comprised knowledge of content, pedagogy, and technology, as well as skills to use the interactions among these components (Koehler and Mishra, 2008).

When introducing educational technology in class-rooms, researchers noticed that the PCK framework did not explicitly support technology. There were some attempts to adapt the old PCK framework. Some of them, such as TPACK, offer adequate support for technology and offer more opportunities to see how integration of the technology takes place. Since the end of the 1990s, there were several attempts to adapt Pedagogical Content Knowledge to the use of educational technology. From all, the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework developed by Mishra and Koehler (2006) is the most well-known.

TPACK is an extension of the PCK, defined as a systematic approach to joining technical expertise in teaching with pedagogical content knowledge. TPACK is an emergent model resulting from the intersection of technology, pedagogy and content. This model considers the context as an important aspect. Teaching practices are very important as a source of learning and not just as a consequence of applying a set of learning theories. The TPACK framework offers many insights into how technology should relate to other components of education   in   order  to  be  successful.  This  framework offers clear explanations of why technology should not be treated in isolation but related with required pedagogy and content (Mishra and Koehler, 2006).  


 METHODOLOGY

Identifying journal articles

The literatures were identified in September 2014 by first exploring ERIC database, EBSCOHOST, the Web of Science database and Scopus database. The ICT, TPACK, TPCK, “technological pedagogical content knowledge” entered as keywords. 116 articles has been reached. Only directly related articles were examined. All articles were read, analyzed and coded. All results were repre-sented as a the line graph, the bar graph and the spider graph.

 

Coding scheme

All articles, subject, content as sub-themes were grouped into themes and years. Themes and years were converted into categories. Basic data, themes of research are also taken into account. Two researchers coded each article. Reliability and validity were considered. The coders’ agreements were found as .96 (Bogdan and Biklen, 2007).

 

Limitation of the study

This review of literature was limited in technological pedagogical content knowledge. In focusing on the TPACK framework, addi-tional limitations are obvious in the types of manuscripts available and the venues in which these manuscripts are presented.


 FINDINGS

There is only two-document analysis that engaged the TPACK framework. The first one, Polly et al. (2010) analyze 26 articles. The second one is paper of Chai et al. (2013). Chai et al. examines 55 articles.  This present study analyzed 116 papers from 2001 to 2014. These studies point to the need of helping pre-service and in-service teachers to build deeper understanding about TPACK.  All articles were displayed according to the year in Table 1. 

 

 

As seen Table 1, Abrami et al. published articles in 2001; Kincaid and Feldner published articles in 2002; Lundeberg et 2003) al., Russell et al. published articles in 2003; Hokanson and Hooper published articles in 2004; Angeli et al. published articles in 2005; Niess et al. published articles in 2006; Hew et al. published articles in 2007; Akkoç et al. published articles in 2008. In 2009, Angeli and Valanides; Cox and Graham; Cuban; Doering et al.; Graham et al. Groth et al., 2009); Holmes; (Koehler et al., 2007).; Ozgun-Koca  et al.; So et al. published articles. In 2010, Allan et al.; An and Shin; Archambault and Crippen; Archambault and Barnett; Archambault et al.; (Jamieson-Proctor et al., 2010); (Jang, 2010); Jimoyiannis, 2010); (Kaya et al., 2010); (Kramarski and Michalsky 2010);  (Ku?kaya  and  Usluel,  2010);  Landry, 2010; Lee and Tsai; (Nicholas and Ng., 2010); Ozgun-Koca; Ozgun-Koca et al.; (Özmantar et al. 2010); Polly et al.;  Wilson and Wright 2010 . published articles. In 2011, Akkoç; Bowers and Stephens; Chai et al.; Chai et al.; Chueng and Ho (2011); Doukakis et al.; (Harris and Hofer, 20011); Kereluik et al., 2011).; Khan; (Koh and Divaharan, 2011); (Lyublinskaya and Tournaki, 2011); Öztürk and Horzum, 2011); (Pamuk, 2011); (Polly, 2011); (Sahin, 2011); Tee and Lee, 2011; (Timur and Tarsa, 2011). published articles. In 2012, Ad?güzel and Yüksel; (Koh et al., 2010; 2012.); (Mudzimiri, 2012); (Nicholas and Ng, 2012); (Pamuk et al., 2012). published articles. In 2013, Chai et al.; Gömleksiz and Fidan (2013); Karadeniz and Vatanart?ran; Kaya et al. published articles. In 2014, Sancar-Tokmak and Yigit published articles.

The first research questions was analysed in Figure 1. According to the Figure 1, TPACK studies rapidly increased between 2009 to 2011. According to Figure 2, TPACK studies rapidly declined in 2002 to 2007 and 2014. 

 

 

 

According to Figure 3, The biggest improvement of TPACK studies were 2009 to 2011. 

 

 

The second research question is how is the subject of article of ICT and TPACK distributed?

The present study also analyzed the articles based on the two  dimensions  ICT and TPACK. Based on these criteria, all 136 studies were analyzed and the outcomes are provided below (some of studies both related to the ict and tpack). 51 articles were related to ICT and 82 articles were related to the TPACK. Table 2 provides a summary of the content analysis of ICT and TPACK.

 

 

 

The third research question is the distribution according to the year of the subject of article of ICT and TPACK

Researchers have acknowledged the lack of adequate theoretical and professional frameworks that provide help, guidance, and efficiency to teachers to integrate technology in classrooms (Koehler and Mishra, 2006; Niess, 2008; Niess et al. 2009; Valanides and Angeli, 2008). Many different approaches have been attempted in order to help teachers overcome difficulties of inte-grating technology in mathematics classrooms (Hew and Brush, 2007). Figures 4 and 5 give emphasis on ICT and TPACK studies. After 2009, Tpack studies have been increased. ICT studies have been increased up to 2009. This is to show that ICT is not only enough for teaching and learning.

 

 

 

Finally, we would like to point out the possibility of cross fertilizing some  older  framework  for  the  study  of ICT integration with the TPACK framework (Figure 6). Established framework such as the technology acceptance model, concern based adoption model and the three models of knowledge creation as reviewed by Paavola et al., (2004) could be brought to bear on TPACK. For example, researchers can possibly envision the acceptance of certain emerging technology by analyzing its TPACK properties and the possible stages of concern that would follow when the technology is implemented.  Angeli and Valanides (2009) asserted that the growth or proficiency of each TPACK knowledge construct does not automatically increase the educator's overall TPACK knowledge (Figure 7).  

 

 

 

Present research found significant relationships between teachers’ TPACK level (Lee and Tsai, 2010; Niess et al., 2006) and their self-confidence in techno-logy, pedagogy, and content (Lee and Tsai). The future studies might focus on teacher characteristics in relation to TPACK and the development of TPACK. Their general conclusion support the foregoing section in that they also found that most intervention produced positive outcomes, especially for TK and pre-service teachers’ willingness to use ICT. As illustrated by their work, the TPACK frame-work can be a common conceptual framework for many more review studies (Figure 7). We would argue that more surveys that compare pre-service teachers TPACK could be helpful in identifying the gaps in their TPACK and teacher educators can then plan how to support the continuous development of TPACK. This is especially so for the faculties in higher education as they are likely to be the most important people to help form the pre-service teachers’ TPACK.

The fourth research question is how do we integrate the TPACK to our teacher training program?

In the teacher training faculty mostly cover three area of knowledge that teacher trainees have to be known. In this study asserted that the components of the TPACK models are enlightened (Table 3). The TPACK framework is a generative framework with many more possible future applications. In this paper, we have reviewed a sizable and representative set of studies and pointed out many possible directions for future research. Based on our review, we would propose a revised representation of the TPACK framework to guide future research as depicted. We can ask how we can integrate TPACK in teacher education program. For these, instructional planning process was given as an example.

 

 

The problems with teacher education made a lot of countries re-question its teacher education systems and hence start restructuring them to support social cohe-rence, teaching performance and national enlargement.

For this an application of TPACK was recommended in Table 3.


 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

This information has to answer the question of how technology will change the teaching-learning process when used in certain ways (Kuskaya and Usluel, 2010). Yurdakul (2011) in terms of competencies in general education teacher candidates’ techno pedagojik study concluded   they   see   themselves   advanced.  As  seen literature reviewed, we identified four interdependent contextual factors that are to a certain extent charac-teristic.  To sum up, Angeli and Valanides (2009) argued that the growth or proficiency of each TPACK knowledge construct does not automatically increase the educator's overall TPACK knowledge. We would like to point out the possibility of cross fertilizing some older framework for the study of ICT integration with the TPACK framework. For instance, researchers can possibly imagine the acceptance of certain emerging technology by analyzing its TPACK properties and the possible stages of apprehension that would follow when the technology is implemented. All literature review showed that ICT not only enough, also we need the tpack for teaching and learning. While illustrated, the TPACK framework can be a general conceptual framework for many more review studies. In addition, we suggest that TPACK could also be used to analyze policy documents to examine whether there is a shift towards the use of overlapping constructs namely TPACK to formulate policies or standards, which could reflect a deeper understanding among policy makers.


 CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

The author(s) have not declared any conflict of interests.


 ACKNOWLEDGMENT

*This project is supported by BAP project No:30, 2014.



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