Scientific Research and Essays

  • Abbreviation: Sci. Res. Essays
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-2248
  • DOI: 10.5897/SRE
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2753

SRE Articles

Application of Schmidt rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity techniques for structural health monitoring

June 2012

The concept of non-destructive testing (NDT) is to obtain material properties of "in place" specimens without the destruction of the specimens and to do the structural health monitoring. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) used together with Schmidt Rebound Hammer (SRH) tests give a combined test method for health assessment by a suitable correlation between these two tests along with test by compressive testing...

Author(s): Mohammadreza Hamidian, Ali Shariati, M. M. Arabnejad Khanouki, Hamid Sinaei, Ali Toghroli and Karim Nouri

Evaluation of reinforced concrete beam behaviour using finite element analysis by ABAQUS

June 2012

In this research, the ABAQUS program is used to model the behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. The finite element model uses the concrete damaged plasticity approach; this model can help to confirm the theoretical calculations as well as to provide a valuable supplement to the laboratory investigations of behaviour. For validation, a reinforced concrete beam was modelled that had been experimentally tested and...

Author(s): Hamid Sinaei, Mahdi Shariati, Amir Hosein Abna, Mohammad Aghaei and Ali Shariati

Research of significant anthropogenic changes in Ostrava city area (Czech Republic)

May 2012

  This study aimed to widen the knowledge on landscape element changes in areas exposed to the effects of mining and other industries, which represent one of the most affected types of landscape in terms of environmental changes. It provides results of analyses of landscape element changes in the selected area of Ostrava Basin (city of Ostrava) in the North-east of Czech Republic. The study was compiled for...


Wood identification in Yıldız Palace Harem structures (19th century) in Istanbul

May 2012

  Yıldız Palace was the last Ottoman Palace built. Harem Structures of this Palace are one of the important parts of the complex. These structures are composed of five parts: the apartments of the Sultan’s consort I and II, the apartments of the concubines, the apartments of the Harem’s chief treasurer, and the passages between apartments. In this research, the woods used in these parts of the...

Author(s): Nazire Papatya Seckin

An empirical approach for experimental assessments in urban freight

May 2012

  Increasing concerns about sustainable urban freight transport have appeared recently in developed countries. While some methods and indexes exist today to evaluate economic and development sustainability, this paper holds up the need to develop a standard tool to evaluate how an urban freight system is functioning. In this sense, this paper presents the concept, the methodology and the application of a model...

Author(s): Eduardo Betanzo-Quezada, José A. Romero-Navarrete and Saúl A. Obregón-Biosca

Diffusion mechanism of cesium, cobalt and cadmium ions in the particles of tin vanadate as a cation exchanger

May 2012

  The mechanism of diffusion of Cs+, Co2+, and Cd2+ ions in the H-form of tin-vanadate as cation exchanger was studied as a function of particle size, concentration of the exchanging ions, reaction temperature, and drying temperature. The exchange rate was controlled by a particle diffusion mechanism as a limited batch technique and is confirmed from straight lines of B versus 1/r2 plots. The values...

Author(s): S. A. Shady, A. B. El-Deeb and I. M. El-Naggar

Ion exchange kinetics of some heavy metals from aqueous solutions onto poly (acrylic acid-acrylonitrile) potassium titanate

May 2012

  Heavy metals released by a number of industrial processes are major pollutants. Ground, industrial and even treated wastewaters, heavy metals can be extremely toxic as they damage nerves, liver, kidney and bones. So, our work was concerned to prepare composite inorganic-organic absorbers which represent a group of inorganic ion exchangers modified using binding organic materials. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) has...

Author(s): M. M. El-Shorbagy and A. A. El-Sadek

Hybrid intelligent algorithm [improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) with ant colony optimization (ACO)] for multiprocessor job scheduling

May 2012

  Efficient multiprocessor scheduling is essentially the problem of allocating a set of computational jobs to a set of processors to minimize the overall execution time. The main issue is how jobs are partitioned in which total finishing time and waiting time is minimized. Minimization of these two criteria simultaneously, is a multi objective optimization problem. There are many variations of this problem,...

Author(s): K. Thanushkodi and K. Deeba

Effect of pre-sowing treatments on seed germination in Hedychium spicatum: An important vulnerable medicinal plant of Indian Himalayan region

May 2012

  The objective of Present study was to examine the effect of various pre-sowing treatments on seed germination of an important and vulnerable high value medicinal plant, Hedychium spicatum with different plant growth regulators (PGRs) and nitrogenous compounds under different conditions. Out of various used treatments, gibberellic acid (GA3) and potassium nitrate (KNO3) were significantly effective...

Author(s): Dinesh Giri and Sushma Tamta

Thyroid hormones levels in Jordanian athletes participating in aerobic and anaerobic activities

May 2012

  Acute and prolonged exercises have controversial effect on the circulatory levels of thyroid hormones. The aim of the present study was to assess changes in thyroid hormones levels in elite top Jordanian athletes participating in both aerobic and anaerobic activities. Moreover, this work aims at comparing the level of thyroid hormones in both groups and to sedentary healthy subjects. Eighty Jordanian top...

Author(s): Z. Hawamdeh, A. Baniata, K. Mansi, H. Nasr and T. Aburjai

Preliminary identification of genetic mechanism of shank color in game chicken

May 2012

  This study aimed to explore a simple way to identify the genetic mechanism of shank color in chicken and provide an on-the-spot evaluation method for the trait without genealogy records. The shank color of 202 parental mating combinations and 489 offsprings were observed in Zhongyuan Game chicken and Snyder genetic ratios were calculated. The results showed that the cyan shank was dominant compared to the...

Author(s): G. B. Chang, H. Chang, R. Chen, T. Ma, A. Q. Dai and G. H. Chen

Low and high ω-3 oils consequences rats’ serum lipid fractions

May 2012

  To study the consequences of some low and high ω-3 edibles oils on fatty acid profile, triacylglycerols and cholesterol levels of rats’ serum; males of albino rat were fed on diet containing 5 and 10% from each of linseed, safflower and olive oils individually for 4 weeks. The extracted oils and serum lipids were directed togas chromatography (GC) analysis. Serum triacylglycerols and...

Author(s): Mohammed A. T. Abdelreheem, Fawzy M. Lashin, Emad M. El-Kholieand Amal A. Fatani

Distributed multimedia presentation control – A system perspective

May 2012

  In many meeting scenarios, such as in a conference, delivering multimedia presentation is an important activity that is supported by different presentation systems. Most of the current presentation systems provide a tightly-coupled solution where the model (source presentation), the view (rendering), and the controller (mouse/keyboard) work as a single unit of interaction. Although this approach is easier to...

Author(s): Md. Anwar Hossain, Jorge Parra, Dewan T. Ahmed, Atif Alamri, Ahmed Ghoneim and M. Shamim Hossain

Simulation and analysis of innovative hand tool harvester

May 2012

  There is a real need to develop a hand tool harvester since harvesting tubers ofDioscorea hispida (ubi gadong) is time tedious and consuming. The tubers were surrounded by roots, which were well gripped to the soil which made harvesting process difficult. Therefore, a new tool equipped with cutting device to cut the roots of D. hispida is required. The information from the experiments is used...

Author(s): R. M. Hudzari, S. M. Sapuan, M. A. H. A. Ssomad, M. N. A. Noordin, M. Hasbullah and R. Syazili

Application of DEMATEL, ISM, and ANP for key success factor (KSF) complexity analysis in R&D alliance

May 2012

  SMEs did not have enough ability to invest in development of new products and entering of new markets. Therefore, they try to achieve something through R&D Alliances, such as unique technology, resources, power of synergy, and the ability to reduce the gap between market leaders. However, the scope and characteristics of R&D alliance result in management complexity and difficulty that are higher than...

Author(s): Shih-Hsi Yin, Ching-Cheng Wang, Liang-Yuan Teng, and Yulam Magnolla Hsing

Seasonality of non-timber forest products (NTPFs) in the Kupe mountain area of South West Cameroon

May 2012

  Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are economically-important commodities, especially in the humid and semi-humid regions of many sub-Saharan countries. However, in many of these countries, there is little information on the seasonality characterising their availability and collection, rendering difficult the development of meaningful packages for their sustainable use and valorisation. A study was therefore...

Author(s): Ngane B. K., Ngane E. B., Sumbele S. A., Njukeng J. N., Ngone M. A. and Ehabe E. E.

Adaptive message size routing strategy for delay tolerant network

May 2012

  Delay tolerant network (DTN) is a kind of computer network that suffer from the frequent disconnections, network partitioned and unstable network connectivity, therefore maintaining an uninterrupted route from source to destination is not possible. Therefore, the transmission of message is achieved via intermediate nodes by adopting a novel transmission mechanism called store-carry and forward where node...

Author(s): Qaisar Ayub, M. Soperi Mohd Zahid, Sulma Rashid and Abdul Hanan Abdullah

Available transfer capability and least square method

May 2012

  In deregulated power industries, accurate and fast calculation of Available Transfer Capability (ATC) for seller in the electricity market is required. In this paper, deterministic ATC will be calculated using algebraic equation and linear optimization by Least Square (LSQR). Probabilistic ATC is also calculated by considering time varying load and load margin. The proposed method will be tested on IEEE 30...

Author(s): Mojgan Hojabri, Mohammadsoroush Soheilirad and Mahdi Hedayati

Introducing slag powder as drag reduction agent in pipeline: An experimental approach

May 2012

  Main by product in ore smelting from tin production in Malaysia has become a trigger for this investigation. Slag waste can be categorized as suspended solid. Utilization of this waste in fluid transportation can reduce the pressure drop in pipelines. Experimental works had conducted in order to test slag waste in a closed loop of turbulence water flowing system with water and fuel as the transport liquid....

Author(s): Hayder A. Abdulbari, Siti Nuraffini Bt Kamarulizam, Rosli M. Y. and Arun Gupta

Gastroprotective effects of Dicranopteris linearis leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats

May 2012

  Dicranopteris linearis is a medicinal plant commonly used traditionaly in the treatment of many aliments. This study was performed to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of ethanolic extracts of D. linearis leaf extract (DLELE) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in experimental rats. The rats were divided into four groups respectively pre-treated orally with...

Author(s): Jamal Hussaini, Nurul Asyikin Othman, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Nazia Abdul Majid, Halabi Mohd Faroq and Salmah Ismail

Effective techniques in drilling to improve the recovery process of hydrocarbons in oil and gas sector

May 2012

  The purpose of this research is to use effective method of drilling to improve the recovery process of hydrocarbons in oil and gas sector. Hydrocarbons are present in large amount beneath the earth. By using exploration geo physics, the reservoir of hydrocarbons below the earth can be located with more precision and accuracy. The first step consists of the geological and the seismic survey to obtain the image...

Author(s): Shafqat Hameed and Muhammad Abbas Choudhary

Design and development of standalone DSP prototype for QT interval processing and monitoring

May 2012

  This paper describes the development of stand alone DSP hardware for QT interval monitoring and assessment. The QT interval has been known to be an important indicator prior to Myocardial Infarction (MI) and it is important to observe and monitor any changes in the period of the QT interval. The system consists of three units. The first unit includes floating point digital signal processor, TMS320VC33 which...

Author(s): Goh Chun Seng, Sh-Hussain Salleh, J. M. Najeb, I. Kamarulafizam, Mahyar Hamedi and Alias Md Noor

Length-weight relationships, relative condition factor and relative weight of three fish species from beach seine fishing grounds Iranian coastal waters of Caspian Sea

May 2012

  The aim of this study is to record the length-weight relationship, relative condition factor (Krel) and relative weight (Wr) for three fish species in Iranian coastal waters of the Caspian Sea. Fish sampling was carried out in the beach seine fishing grounds in autumn and winter seasons for two years (2007 and 2009). 14104 specimens were measured and weighed. The values of the exponent b in the length-weight...

Author(s): Moradinasab, GH., Raeisi, H, Paighambari, S.Y., Ghorbani, R and Bibak, Z.

Convergence impacts of two growing Asian countries on rice consumption: The case of India and China

May 2012

  In this study, shifting structure of world rice consumption is examined using various rice-consumption models associated with two Asian countries’ data: India and China. The models are tested in terms of statistical significance, economic theory and mathematical rules. The models containing a maximum point entails convergence analysis. The convergence analysis illustrates either how fast countries...

Author(s): Serkan GÜRLÜK

Open surgery in huge volume benign prostatic hyperplasia

May 2012

  The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of open surgical treatment for huge volume (> 150 ml) benign prostatic hyperplasia and summarize our clinical experiences. Between January 2001 and September 2010, surgeries for a total of 15 patients with huge volume benign prostatic hyperplasia were performed. Mean age of these patients was 71.8 ± 6.1 years. Mean prostate volume was...

Author(s): Long Zhi, He Le-Ye, Zhang Yi-Chuan, Huang Kai, Shi Xuan-Yan, Sun Xiao-Hui and Peng Dong-Yi

Using wavelet transform to improve generalization capability of feed forward neural networks in monthly runoff prediction

May 2012

  In the study presented, a hybrid model is proposed for monthly runoff prediction by using wavelet transform and feed forward neural networks. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm based feed forward neural networks (FFNN) are considered for the modeling study. The study region covers the basins of Medar River which is located at the Aegean region of Turkey....

Author(s): Umut Okkan

Contribution of the melioration canal to the water regime of forest areas

May 2012

  The paper analyzes the intensity of draining and recharging action of the melioration canal foreseen for the BiÄ‘-Bosut Field irrigation, with special reference to its potential impact on forest areas. The designed canal will enable a series of agro-amelioration interventions aimed at recharging or draining soils and thereby regulating their water regime. The paper describes the influence of infiltration and...

Author(s): Goran Gjetvaj, Dragutin Petošić and Ivan Mustać

Performance evaluation of simulated annealing and genetic algorithm in solving examination timetabling problem

May 2012

  This work details the performance evaluation of simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithm (GA) in terms of their software complexity measurement and simulation time in solving a typical University examination timetabling problem (ETP). Preparation of a timetable consists basically of allocating a number of events to a finite number of time periods (also called slots) in such a way that a certain set...

Author(s): Oyeleye, C. Akinwale, Olabiyisi, S. Olatunde, Omidiora, E. Olusayo and Oladosu, J. Babalola

Colour image segmentation using the second order statistics and a modified fuzzy C-means technique

May 2012

  This paper presents a new colour image segmentation method based on Fuzzy C-means technique and the second order statistics. The importance of combining statistical features extracted from the co-occurrence matrix and the standard Fuzzy C-Means clustering algorithm in the segmentation context is studied in this paper, to obtain a more reliable and accurate segmentation results. In the first phase of...

Author(s): Rafika Harrabi and Ezzeddine Ben Braiek

A methodology to evaluate both internal and external environments of applied-scientific educational system used in strategic planning

May 2012

  In the present work, we introduce a new model to evaluate an educational system, namely the applied-scientific system. This model provides us with a deep knowledge of different aspects of educational system including its organizational weakness and strength. Within our approach, making use of the production function and the calculated education area function, it is also possible to recognize different...

Author(s): Mohammad Reza Akbari, and Mahmad Yusuf Yunusi

Overview on the ecological and geographical appraisal of important medicinal and aromatic plants: An endangered component in the flora of Saudi Arabia

April 2012

  The geographical location of Saudi Arabia has provided an ideal environment for the growth and nourishment of various floristic elements including medicinal and aromatic plant (MAP) species. The country is gifted with diverse vegetation types occurring in the desert, semi-desert, and mountainous ecosystems. Furthermore, the country represents three phytogeographic regions: Saharo-Sindian, Somali-Masur and...

Author(s):   Hassan Sher and Ali Aldosari        

Effect of tea in the treatment of obesity

April 2012

  Obesity is a growing problem causing significant morbidity and mortality in the word. The efficacy of conventional therapies is limited. Numerous alternative therapies are advocated for weight loss, including dietary modifications, hypnotherapy, and acupuncture. Many herbal medications and dietary supplements have being used. Most have been tested in very limited trials. None have been evaluated to the extent...

Author(s):   Mohammad Sharrif Moghaddasi and Hamed Haddad Kashani        

Antigenotoxic effects of Indian mustard Brassica juncea (L.) Czern aqueous seeds extract against mercury (Hg) induced genotoxicity

April 2012

  The present study evaluates the antigenotoxic effects of B. juncea (L.) Czern.(Indian mustard) aqueous seed extract on the Allium cepa L. (common onion) root tip cells. The experiment was carried at three stages: (1) onion bulbs were treated with 0.75 ppm mercury for 3 h, and then treated with different concentrations (0.1, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0%) of aqueous extract for another 3...

Author(s):   Sonia Sharma and Adarsh Pal Vig        

Prediction of rotary machinery degradation status based on vibration data using back propagation (BP) neural network

April 2012

  Rotary machinery has to be maintained and repaired exactly once or several times before they totally failed to keep their good working status. In order to determine the maintenance interval of rotary machinery, machine condition should be predicted by some diagnostic methods and predictive methods. This study was conducted to establish the relationship between machine performance and machine vibration and to...

Author(s):   Bin Wang, Nawal Aswan Abdul Jalil and Wong Shaw Voon        

ARL performance of residual control charts for trend AR(1) process: A case study on peroxide values of stored vegetable oil

April 2012

  For the purpose of process control, quality assurance engineers in a vegetable oil factory wonder the performance of the Shewhart, CUSUM, and EWMA residual control charts for peroxide values that show both serial autocorrelation between adjacent observations (autocorrelation) and upward linear trend. To deal with autocorrelated process data, a primary method is to apply these charts to the uncorrelated...

Author(s):   Aslan Deniz KARAOGLAN and Gunhan Mirac BAYHAN        

Nonlinear system identification using clustering algorithm and particle swarm optimization

April 2012

  The identification of nonlinear systems operating in a stochastic environment is an important problem in various discipline science and engineering. Fuzzy modeling and especially the T-S fuzzy model draw the attention of several researchers in recent decades this is due to their potential to approximate highly nonlinear behavior. An algorithm allowing the identification of the premise and consequent...

Author(s):   TROUDI Ahmed, HOUCINE Lassad and CHAARI Abdelkader        

Development and Implementation of E-Education Model in a Higher Education Institution

April 2012

  This paper considers the problem of realization of e-learning infrastructure based on cloud computing at a university level. The primary goal is to develop a model of scalable and reliable infrastructure and services for e-learning. The proposed model is based on a private cloud realized within the existing infrastructure of a higher education institution. The model has been implemented at the Faculty of...

Author(s):   Vladimir Vujin, Aleksandar Milić, Marijana Despotović-Zrakić, Branislav Jovanić and Zorica Bogdanović        

Seasonal performance evaluation of solar stills connected to passive external condensers

April 2012

  In recent years, investigations and research has focused on exploring methods and finding ways to enhance solar stills efficiency and increase the production rates. In this study, experiments were carried out for 24 h during summer, autumn, and winter in order to investigate the affect of incorporating passive external condensers to a single-slope, single basin type solar still. Therefore, three identical...

Author(s):   Husham M. Ahmed    

Sintering characteristics of ceramsite manufactured from blast furnace slag and sewage sludge

April 2012

  To develop a method of recycling solid wastes, blast furnace slag (BFS) and sewage sludge (SS) were added as components for making ceramsite. This study examined the sintering characteristics of ceramsite at different sintering temperatures and duration and different mass ratios of materials (BFS:SS:clay). The results show that as the sintering temperature and duration increased, the pore -size diameter...

Author(s):   Zhulai Wang    

Toxicological studies on the leaf extract of Aloe ferox Mill. (Aloaceae)

April 2012

  Aloe ferox is renowned for, amongst others, its antihelminthic properties in livestock. However, there is dearth of information on toxicity of A. ferox in livestock. Therefore, toxicity effects of A. ferox were evaluated through acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity tests. For each test, twenty-five rats were randomly grouped into five groups of five rats. Group 1 (control) was orally...

Author(s):   Marizvikuru Mwale and Patrick J. Masika        

Biosorption of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions onto mango stone and cocoa pod waste: Kinetic and equilibrium studies

April 2012

Mango stone (DMS) and cocoa pod (CPC), two agricultural waste materials evaluated for the removal of toxic cadmium ion Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions from aqueous media in batch adsorption mode. Adsorption variables such as the nature and composition of electrolyte, pH, adsorbent dose and equilibration time were optimized for the maximum accumulation of the metals to the biosorbents. The optimum contact time of 15 min for...

Author(s): Olu-owolabi, B. I., Oputu, O. U., Adebowale, K. O., Ogunsolu, O. and Olujimi, O. O.        

Plenary Speakers

April 2012


Cancer and Immunology Session

April 2012


Automatic detection of urban areas using the Hierarchical Temporal Memory of Numenta®

April 2012

  The aim of the study is to develop a new methodology for the identification of urbanized and not urbanized areas using high spatial resolution remote sensing data and adapting a new digital classification algorithm based on the functionality of the human Neocortex. We used multispectral Quickbird images for the classification of different urban areas in the Province of Cordoba (Spain). The...

Author(s):   Alberto J. Perea, José E. Meroño, Ricardo Crespo and María J. Aguilera      

Community perceptions on the impact of the recession of Lake Victoria waters on Nyando Wetlands

April 2012

  Lake Victoria experienced drastic water level changes from October 2005 raising concerns about impact to the livelihood of the communities around the lake. The study investigated impacts of the water level decline on land use changes, wetland resource utilization, household food production, income generation, fish catches, water supply, quality and quantity and biodiversity changes within the Nyando...

Author(s):   Kevin O. Obiero, Philip O. Raburu, J. B. Okeyo-Owuor and Elizabeth A. Raburu        

Digital image watermarking using Learning Vector Quantization and hyperanalytic wavelet packet transform

April 2012

  Digital watermarking techniques have been been largely applied into copyright protection and authentication of multimedia data. This paper proposes a novel digital watermarking algorithm for digital images by combining the hyperanalytic wavelet packet transform (HWPT) decomposition and Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) neural network. For inserting watermark, the non-overlapping blocked original images are...

Author(s):   Hai Tao, Jasni Mohamad Zain, Mohammad Masroor Ahmed and  AhmedN. Abdalla        

Fuzzy-rough feature selection and a fuzzy 2-level complementary approach for classification of gene expression data

April 2012

  Classification of gene expression data is an important issue in medical diagnosis of disease such as cancer. In this paper first Fuzzy-Rough Set theory is established to select relevant features for classification. This will be followed by proposing a new fuzzy 2-level complementary learning method. The Fuzzy-Rough Set is a mathematical tool which encapsulates the relevant but distinct concepts of fuzziness...

Author(s):   Zahra Shaeiri, Reza Ghaderi and Ali Hojjatoleslami        

Recent trends on artificial neural networks for prediction of wind energy

April 2012

  A variety of Artificial Neural Network models for prediction of hourly wind speed (which a few hours in advance is required to ensure efficient utilization of wind energy systems) is studied and the results are compared. Results in terms of simulation and prediction are obtained with Feed Forward Back Propagation Neural Networks (FFBPNN) which shows its performance better than other neural networks. Empirical...

Author(s):   Yasmin Zahra Jafri, Amir Waseem, Lalarukh Kamal, S. Masood Razaand Muhammad Sami        

Administration of Hydrocotyl bonariensis aqueous leaves extract regulates cardiovascular disease risk factors in galactose model of experimental cataractogenesis

April 2012

  Reports had indicated that Hydrocotyl bonariensis contains phytochemicals that can be exploited for the development of anticataractogenic agent. In the present study we investigated the effects of administration of the plant’s leaves extract on some cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in galactose model of experimental cataract. Twenty five (25) weanling rats randomly assigned to five...

Author(s):   Ajani, Emmanuel O., Salau, Bamidele A., Adebayo, Olusegun L., Adegbesan, Bukola O. and Odufuwa, Kuburat T.        

Microbial contamination of currency counting machines and counting room environment in selected commercial banks

April 2012

  A study was carried out to isolate and identify microorganisms associated with currency counting machines and counting room environment in four commercial banks operating in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria. Samples were collected from currency counting machines and counting room environment in four commercial banks operating in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria. The samples were processed by using standard methods...

Author(s):   S. C. Enemuor, P. I. Victor and O. O. Oguntibeju        

Page 18 of 56, showing 50 records out of 2753 total, starting on record 851, ending on 900