Scientific Research and Essays

  • Abbreviation: Sci. Res. Essays
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-2248
  • DOI: 10.5897/SRE
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2750

SRE Articles

A novel filter compensation scheme for single phase-self-excited induction generator micro wind generation system

August 2012

    The paper presents a novel flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) based stabilization scheme developed by the second author for use in small scale residential/commercial micro grid (wind-induction generator) utilization schemes in the range 5 to 50 kVA, for stabilized efficient renewable wind utilization. The novel FACTS stabilization scheme is...

Author(s):     Mustafa E. Åžahin, Adel M. Sharaf and Halil Ä°. OkumuÅŸ

Effects of menstrual periods on postural stability in eumenorrheic female group

August 2012

    High rate of injuries detected during certain periods of menstrual cycle, raised the suggestion of hormonal impact on soft tissue and neuromuscular control with subsequent lost in joint stability, deterioration of postural balance and injury development. The aim of present study was to investigate possible differences in static postural balance during the preovulatory and...

Author(s):   Ahmedov Shahin, Yavuz Hasan Ulas and Erdag Deniz

Effects of alkaline and alkaline-earth ions on the rheological behavior and zetametric study of two cement pastes (artificial cement portland-CEMI and cement resistant to the sulfates-CRS) with the polynaphthalene sulfonate (PNS)

August 2012

    The use of admixtures which tends to be generalized in the formulation of self-compacting concrete (SCC), requires taking into account the chemical composition of cement, particularly its content of SO3, which can inhibit or restrain the effect of these admixtures (superplasticizers). For more information of the compatibility problem of cement-superplasticizer, the rheological...


Purification and characterization of novel truncated fragments of bioactive proteins from porcine intestine with effects on insulin secretion

August 2012

    During purification of porcine gut polypeptides with respect to glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells, two novel fragments of the known gastrointestinal peptides were isolated and chemically characterized. They are truncated forms of phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP93-124) and valosin (Valosin3-25). These novel fragments,...

Author(s):   Junhan Wang, Ying Zeng, Dongjing Yan, Jie Lu, Zhengwang Chen and Chenhong Li

Effect of different harvest time on yield and forage quality of three varieties of common millet (Panicum miliaceum)

August 2012

    Monitoring forage quality is one of the most important factors of essential and good management of a farm. The most important factor about plants and forage quality is growing stage which can help to identify the optimum time of harvest. As different varieties of plants have different harvest times and quality, in order to search the variety effect on forage yield and quality...

Author(s):   Sadegh Mohajer, Hooman Ghods, Rosna Mat Taha and Ali Talati

Analysis of energy as a precondition for improvement of living conditions and poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa

August 2012

    This paper examines the link between availability of energy and improvement of living condition and poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa. It argued that modern sources of energy are required for the improvement of living standards; may be by helping to create jobs and by boosting productivity. For energy exporters, particularly oil producers, they provide revenues that may...

Author(s):   Muawya Ahmed Hussein and Walter Leal Filho

Production and applications of microbial lipases: A review

August 2012

    Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases, EC are biotechnologically relevant enzymes that find immense applications in food, detergent and pharmaceutical industries. They catalyze the breakdown of fats and oils as well as various synthetic reactions such as esterification, transesterification and interesterification in organic solvents. Microbial lipases stand out as...

Author(s):   Aliyu Salihu and Md. Zahangir Alam

Frequency of lower respiratory tract infections in Karachi and comparison of different antibiotic agents used for the treatment

August 2012

    The objective of this study is to compare the use of different antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infections at Jinnah postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi, Pakistan. A non blind randomized study design was used to for this study which was carried out in JPMC, for a period of four months. A total of 137 patients infected with various infections were selected and...

Author(s):   Sumbul Shamim, Saima Mahmood Malhi, Muhammad Riaz Bhatti, Beena Khan and Tahir Yousuf

Structural patterns identified through a historical analysis of Anatolian stone constructions

August 2012

    This paper derives structural patterns through the analysis of ancient Anatolian structural configurations built up by stone. Related archaeological sources indicate that ancient Anatolian constructions incorporating only stone as the principal building material are infrequent. Almost all of the walls of the dwellings and monumental structures were composite. They were...

Author(s):   Kemal Reha KAVAS

Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) point density analysis

August 2012

  The point density is a preeminent parameter on airborne laser scanner surveys. It is not only related to accuracy but costs and savings. The lack of uniformity of the point density across the survey is well-known in the scientific community. This paper analyzes the behaviour of the point density derived by an oscillating mirror laser scanner on different single strips on flat bare ground in order to estimate...

Author(s): José Balsa-Barreiro, Joan Pere Avariento and José Luis Lerma

Characterization of de novo assemblies of quasispecies from next-generation sequencing via complex network modeling

August 2012

  Several worldwide pandemics, such as influenza, human immunodeficiency virus, and coronavirus, are caused by viral quasispecies. Characterization of quasispecies harboring in a host is essential to unveil the mechanisms that are at the base of the pathogen evolution, infection and spread at the epidemic level. Next generation sequencing (NGS) produces many thousands of sequence fragments from a single sample,...

Author(s): Mattia C. F. Prosperi, Sandro Meloni, Iuri Fanti, Stefano Panzieri, Giovanni Ulivi and Marco Salemi

Expression of protein-gene peptide (PGP) 9.5 in myocardial sleeves around the pulmonary artery and aorta in pigs

August 2012

  A subgroup of outflow tract (OT) ventricular tachycardias (VT) originates from the aortic sinuses or the main stem of the pulmonary artery. Myocardial sleeves onto the pulmonary artery (PA) and aorta (Ao) have been recognized as a frequent site for the origin of arrhythmia. The aim of this study was to analyze PGP9.5 expression in pulmonary artery and aorta from 100 pigs hearts and relate it to the mechanism...

Author(s): Jingping Lu, Dongsheng Zhao, Gang Zhang, Jie Gen and Qijun Shan

Impaired N-cadherin-mediated adhesion increases the risk of inducible ventricular arrhythmias in isolated rat hearts

August 2012

  Recent studies suggest that cadherin-mediated adherens junctions may be impaired in diseases and pathologic processes related to ventricular arrhythmias, which are concomitant with decreased connexin 43 (Cx43). In this study, we evaluated the acute arrhythmogenic effects of adherens junction impairment in isolated rat hearts. A total of 56 hearts isolated from adult male rats were perfused with 0.2 mM AHAVD,...

Author(s): Hong-jun Zhu, Xiao-Mei Ding, Jian-gang Zou, Xiao-feng Hou and Ke-jiang Cao

Contractions on Hilbert space with the smallest local unitary spectra

August 2012

  Let T  be a contraction on a complex Hilbert space H, let  be the local spectrum of  at , and let  be the local unitary spectrum of T at ;. We show that if  is of Lebesgue measure zero, then, where  is the unitary part of  in the canonical decomposition of  H  with respect...

Author(s): Cesim Temel

Study on the impact of geotextiles on fatigue life of asphalt specimens

August 2012

  In this research, four types of geotextiles were selected and their impact on fatigue life and average flexural stiffness of hot mix asphalt (HMA) specimens was investigated. Fatigue tests were implemented by four-point bending beam test at strain control condition with haversine wave and 10 Hz frequency. The fatigue tests were carried out in four strain levels 250, 400, 650 and 1000 micro strain. Based on...

Author(s): Mahmoud Ameri, Jalil Shahi and Hamed Khani Sanij,

Laser raman and infrared spectrum analysis on low-density lipoproteins purified from hen egg yolk

August 2012

  Diversified proteins were separated from hen egg yolk by ammonium sulphate rapid fractionation, and pure low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was obtained after filtrating through Sephadex G-200 chromatography. After the qualitative detection ofSodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), we discovered that LDL consists of five major apoproteins. The results show...

Author(s): Xue Hui-jun, Li Sheng, Wang Hua, Lu Guo-hua, Sun Run-guang# and Wang Jian-qi#

Laminar flow of couple stress fluids for Vogel's model

August 2012

  The coupled nonlinear equations for heat transfer flow of variable viscosity couple stress fluids between two parallel plates are derived for four different problems, namely plane Couette flow, plug flow, plane Poiseuille flow and generalized plane Couette flow. These equations are made dimensionless with the help of non-dimensional parameters and solved by using regular perturbation technique. The effect of...

Author(s): M. Farooq, S. Islam, M. T. Rahim and A. M. Siddiqui

An application of Delphi method for eliciting criteria in personnel selection problem

August 2012

  An important phase of human resource management is personnel selection, which is concerned with identifying an individual from a pool of candidates suitable for a vacant position. As with many decision problems, personnel selection problem is very complex in real life. Some of the techniques in decision making are multi criteria decision making (MCDM) which can be applied for personnel selection process....

Author(s): Ali Reza Afshari, Rosnah Mohd Yusuff and Amir Reza Derayatifar

Google analytics: Tips for micro-firms

August 2012

  The free web analytics tools launched by some search engines (for example, Google analytics and yahoo web analytics) have the potential to be turned into key marketing tools for small businesses and long tail websites. Web analytics, however, is not just about the number of people visiting a site, but is also about the quality of the traffic and what the visitors do when they access a site. The aim of this...

Author(s): Beatriz Plaza

Covering stack of layers consisting of a single layer: Local near-surface buckling instability

August 2012

  The local near-surface buckling of a material system consisting of a half-space, which is covered by the single layer and half-space materials is elastic within the framework of a three-dimensional linearized theory of stability (TLTS). The equations of TLTS are obtained from the three-dimensional geometrically nonlinear equations of the theory of viscoelasticity by using the boundary form perturbations...

Author(s): E. A. Hazar and O. Akkoyunlu

Molecular typing of Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) using multiprimer PCR

August 2012

  A total of 42 Escherichia coli strains isolated from broilers and the halls of growth were examined between the years 2010 and 2011, in order to assess the prevalence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains in the West of Romania, where the majority broiler is represented by the imported ones. Multiplex PCR technique was used in order to detect three genes governing the synthesis of...

Author(s): Fodor Ionica, Popa Virgilia, Groza Ioana and Catana N

Influence of vehicle headway irregularity in public transport on in-vehicle passenger comfort

August 2012

  This paper performs an analysis of the influence of headway irregularity in public transport on the quality of the transport service, in the domain of in-vehicle passenger comfort. The influence of vehicle headway irregularity along a route on the in-vehicle passenger comfort has been analysed on urban bus routes that operate in a mixed traffic flow. Based on the research conducted on 2,800 bus departures,...

Author(s): Milan Simeunovic, Milja Lekovic, Zoran Papic and Pitka Pavle

Community engagement in landslide risk assessment in Limbe, Southwest Cameroon

August 2012

  This paper presents preliminary findings on community engagement in landslide risk assessment and inventory mapping in Limbe, Southwest Cameroon. Emphasis was placed on collection of disaster experiences, training and skills development of the locals in identifying and characterising landslides and landslide contributory factors. Despite a number of challenges ranging from lack of incentives, proper...

Author(s): M. L. Diko

Efficiency analysis of an induction motor with field-oriented control at a hot rolling mill

August 2012

  In this paper, the efficiency analysis of an induction motor with field-oriented control (FOC) at a hot rolling mill in South Africa is presented. It is shown that the energy consumption of an induction motor at a hot rolling mill can be improved with the introduction of FOC with a variable input reference compared to direct torque and flux control (DTC) with a fixed input reference. An overview on the...

Author(s): Rupert Gouws

Peristalsis in a rotating fluid

August 2012

  This paper is devoted to the study of peristaltic flow of a viscous fluid in a rotating frame. The governing equations for the flow problem are derived under the long wavelength approximation. The closed form solutions for the stream function and the secondary velocity are obtained. The effects of Taylor number on physical quantities of interest such as the pressure rise per wavelength and the flow rate due...

Author(s):   N. Ali, M. Sajid, T. Javed and Z. Abbas  

Certain morphological features in limb-girdle muscular dystrophies are not shared by polymyositis: Useful diagnostic clues

August 2012

  Some hereditary myopathies can mimic acquired polymyositis (PM) in particular when they first present in adulthood with a limb-girdle distribution of weakness. The diagnosis is made yet more complex when inflammatory infiltrates attend on muscle biopsy. This is common in certain dystrophies in particular limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD). For better distinction between the two diseases, histochemical...

Author(s): Omar A. Mahmood, Wen Hu Wang, Li Mei Tan, Yan Li Zhang and Xin Mei Jiang

Piezonuclear neutrons from earthquakes as a hypothesis for the image formation and the radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud

July 2012

  Some researchers have suggested that corona discharge phenomenon or proton radiation is responsible for the Shroud body image formation, while neutron radiation is liable to a wrong radiocarbon dating. On the other hand, no plausible physical reason has been proposed to explain the radiation source origin, and its possible effects on the linen fibres. However, some recent studies, carried...

Author(s): A. Carpinteri, G. Lacidogna, A. Manuello and O. Borla

Open issues regarding the Turin Shroud

July 2012

  The Turin Shroud is a linen cloth which shows the front and back images of a man who had been scourged, crowned with thorns and crucified, who died on a cross and who was stabbed in the side with a lance after his death. The Catholic Christian tradition identifies him as Jesus Christ who was resurrected from the dead, but not all researchers are unanimous in believing this tradition, partly because science...

Author(s): G. Fanti

An Object That Puzzles Scientists

July 2012

  The Turin Shroud (TS) has been religiously defined by the Pope (2010) as “… Mystery of Cross and of Light” evidencing the halo of mystery that surrounds what for many believers is the most important Relic of Christianity. But can the discussion on the TS be only circumscribed around the Religion? Certainly not because this Object has not yet been explained by Science and...

Author(s): G. Fanti

Digital image processing techniques demonstrating the anomalous nature of the radiocarbon dating sample area of the Shroud of Turin

July 2012

  This article reports on the use of digital image processing techniques to analyze an ultraviolet-fluorescence photograph of the area of the Shroud of Turin where the radiocarbon dating samples were taken. Results of this analysis demonstrate the anomalous nature of the radiocarbon data sample area. The techniques employed in this investigation are those used by the land remote sensing community for the...

Author(s): John M. Morgan, III

A possible hypothesis for correcting the radiocarbon age of the Shroud of Turin

July 2012

  Three methods of calculation in Chemical Physics are used to study how the isotopic exchange could affect the radiocarbon age of the Shroud of Turin. The basic hypothesis is that a fire in the year 1532 caused an isotopic exchange reaction between the air and the fabric of linen. According to this model, molecules of carbon dioxide from the air exchanged isotopes  by isotopes  with the...

Author(s): Francisco Alconchel-Pecino

Particle radiation from the body could explain the Shroud’s images and its carbon dating

July 2012

  This paper highlights some of the main reasons why radiation caused the body images on the Shroud of Turin; why the source of this radiation was the body wrapped within it; that the radiation appears to be particle radiation; and that if particle radiation came from the body of the man in the Shroud, it could account for or explain all of the primary and secondary body image features, the excellent condition...

Author(s): M. Antonacci

Image formation of the Turin Shroud: Hypothesis based on water vapor effects of light absorption

July 2012

  The Shroud of Turin displays a weak front and back body image which inter alia is very superficial and possesses three-dimensional properties. Up to now it has been impossible to reproduce all its characteristics at the same time albeit several attempts were made in many laboratories. But lately, coloration similar to that of the Shroud has been imprinted on dry linen cloths with a powerful VUV...

Author(s): Giuseppe Baldacchini and Francesco Baldacchini

A physicochemical interpretation of the Turin Shroud imaging

July 2012

  The image impressed on the inner side of the Turin Shroud (TS) could be interpreted as the signature of a natural event. The fundamental working hypothesis adopted in this paper is that an accelerated physicochemical aging occurred on the topmost fibers of the cellulosic texture. This extremely superficial degradation is assumed as being originated by electrostatic discharges (ESD, often also referred to as...

Author(s): Vitantonio Amoruso and Francesco Lattarulo

Optical and chemical characteristics of the mineral particles found on the face of the Turin Shroud

July 2012

  We have studied optical properties (in optic and petrographic microscopy) of mineral particles (diameter > 1 µm) deposited on the surface of a small (≈ 1.4 mm height, 610 µm wide) sticky tape triangle corresponding to the Face area of the Turin Shroud (TS). All these particles were studied by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and their elemental compositions were analysed by X-ray...

Author(s): Gérard Lucotte

The Shroud of Turin and its ancient copies

July 2012

  There are copies of the Shroud of Turin, which could be described as "Shroud” actually made by man's hand. We can share our experience in the analysis of some of them. By using the results from these examples and comparing them with the results of the analysis of the Shroud of Turin itself, we could assess the actual possibility that the true Shroud was made by an artist. The negativity, the...

Author(s): César Barta and Alfonso V. Carrascosa

Forensic aspects and blood chemistry of the Turin Shroud Man

July 2012

  On the Turin Shroud (TS) is depicted a faint double image of a naked man who has suffered a violent death. The image seems to be that of a real human body. Additionally, red stains of different size, form and density are spread all over the body image and in a few instances outside the body. Forensic examination by help of different analyzing tools reveals these stains as human blood. The distribution and...

Author(s): Niels Svensson and Thibault Heimburger

Corona discharge to explain the image of the Turin Shroud: Experimental results

July 2012

  Corona Discharge (CD) has been considered as a way to produce marks on a linen tissue and then as one possible explanation of the image observed in the Turin Shroud (TS). We used CD to produce images on linen from two silver figures. Their photograph negatives resemble that of the TS. Discussion of the CD produced images is presented. Also, breaking resistance of the linen threads was measured as function of...

Author(s): Jorge García-Macedo, Naxi Cansino and Guadalupe Valverde-Aguilar

Electrochemical investigation and capacitance properties of a novel electrodeposited ordered mesoporous cobalt hydroxide films

July 2012

  The present work explored a novel, simple and low cost electrochemical route for the investigation of ordered mesoporous cobalt hydroxide films electrodeposited onto gold substrate from cobalt acetate in pluronic lyotropic liquid crystal (P84). This method produces thin films of cobalt hyhdroxid mesostructures on gold substrate by combination of potentiostatic and voltammetric electrodeposition techniques....

Author(s): Y. Obaid, I. S. El-Hallag, E. H. El-Mossalamy, A. O. Al-Youbi and A.M. Asiri

Indigenous African agriculture and plant associated microbes: Current practice and future transgenic prospects

July 2012

  Reliance on non-sustainable inputs of fertilizers and pesticides does not hold the answer to obtaining higher yields from sustainable cash as well as food crops grown in Africa. Hence, the use of transgenic plants/crops and plant growth-promoting microbes with the aim of increasing productivity is attractive. In most parts of Africa, the farmers work at a subsistence level, the prevalent...

Author(s): Olubukola O. Babalola and Bernard R. Glick

Performance simulations of Rayleigh Doppler lidar system for measuring middle atmosphere winds

July 2012

  Measurement of atmospheric winds in troposphere and stratosphere regions is an essential component in understanding atmospheric processes. However, providing stratospheric winds is difficult as the instruments like radars and lidars are complex. An incoherent Doppler lidar system with large telescope aperture and operating in visible wavelength is being developed to meet the objective. Simulations have been...

Author(s): Karnam Raghunath and S. Narayana Reddy

An epidemiological study on effect of air pollutants on respiratory morbidity in adults of a critically polluted city of northern India

July 2012

  Research into the health effects of air pollution is ongoing all over the world. This study aimed to assess the impact of air pollution on the respiratory disease in a critically polluted city of northern India. Air pollution has become a hazardous problem in India with an increase in urbanization, vehicle density and industrial smoke emission. Cross-sectional household survey was conducted in...

Author(s): Manoj Kumar

Mechanical assessment of artificial turf football pitches: The consequences of no quality certification

July 2012

  The aim of the study is to assess a sample of twenty artificial football turf pitches (3rd Generation) of the Spanish football league. 7 regulatory tests were conducted ‘in situ’ as presented in EN 15330-1:2007 and Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) rules. None of the pitches examined passed the 7 field tests of the certification...

Author(s): Pablo Burillo, Leonor Gallardo, José L. Felipe and Ana M. Gallardo

An analytical approach to domain concept in Iranian traditional cities

July 2012

  Human need for comfort, tranquility, a sense of security and meaning in his life as well as respect for his domain by others and desirable settlement shall be made possible by way of obtaining proper trends in specifying private and public areas of his life and establishing accurate hierarchy in functional, and physical aspects. Analysis of this structure that we can find in Iranian traditional cities...

Author(s): Farah Habib

Skeletal bone age assessment from epiphysis/metaphysis of phalanges using Hausdorff distance

July 2012

  The work explains an efficient method for skeletal bone age assessment (BAA) from the epiphysis/metaphysis of phalanges using Hausdorff distance as the measure for classification. The method was based on the Tanner and Whitehouse (TW2) method of BAA. The system guaranteed accurate BAA for the age range 0-10 years for both male and female. The input image was initially preprocessed and 8 EMROI joints were...

Author(s): P. Thangam and K. Thanushkodi

Estimating the size of Arabic indexed web content

July 2012

  Various initiatives designed to increase Arabic Web content have been undertaken in recent years, and now search engines are reporting that the Arabic portion of Web content has grown relative to the overall Web content. An accurate estimate of Arabic Web content is crucial for those interested in studying it and enriching it. In this paper, we propose a statistics-based system to estimate the size of Arabic...

Author(s): Abdulrahman Alarifi, Mansour Alghamdi, Mohammad Zarour, Batoul Aloqail, Heelah Alraqibah, Kholood Alsadhan and Lamia Alkwai

Nonlinear analysis of frames composed of flexibly connected members with rigid end sections accounting for shear deformations

July 2012

  The behaviour of lintel beam-to-shear wall connections plays an important role in the analysis of shear walls with openings. A computer-based method was prepared for nonlinear frames comprised of lintel beams having fully rigid end sections flexibly connected to wide column members accounting for shear deformations. The analytical procedure employed stability functions to model the effect of axial force on...

Author(s): Halil Gorgun, Senem Yilmaz and Seval Sevgi Karacan

Remote laboratory development as an action research: A case study

July 2012

  This work presents a case study about how action research (AR) has been conducted in developing a real-life educational system. An explanation is given of the modified implementation of the classical AR methodology, based on the requirements of a remote laboratory system developed for the vocational training of students in higher education. This study reports a successful implementation of AR stages which...

Author(s): Nergiz Ercil Cagiltay, Gul Tokdemir, Elif Aydin and Ali Kara,

On the efficiency of some semi- and nonparametric kernel estimators in the modeling of binary response data

July 2012

  The semiparametric estimation procedure of binary response data is composed of two steps. In the first step, various semiparametric estimators are used for estimating the model parameters, whereas nonparametric regression type estimators are required in the second step to obtain the probability estimates dependent on the estimated model parameters in the first step. In this study, we have investigated the...

Author(s): Özge AkkuÅŸ, Serdar Demir and Hüseyin Tatlıdil

Jacobi doubly periodic wave solutions for three versions of Benjamin-Bona- Mahony equation

July 2012

  A variety of exact solutions for the Kadomtsov-Petviashvili- Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (KP-BBM) equation, nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov- Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (ZK-BBM) equation and the generalized ZK-BBM equation are developed by means of the extended Jacobi elliptic function expansion method. Soliton and triangular periodic solutions can be established as the limits of Jacobi doubly periodic wave...

Author(s): M. A. Abdelkawy, M. A. Alghamdi and A. H. Bhrawy,

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