African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12213

Table of Content: 5 July 2010; 9(27)

July 2010

Heterosis for flower and fruit traits in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

A study was conducted in tomato using an 8 × 8 diallel set excluding reciprocals to quantify the magnitude of heterosis for yield and its five yield components: number of flowers per cluster, number of fruits set per cluster, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight and fruit yield per plant. Seven accessions and one locally approved variety were crossed in half diallel fashion and the resulting F1 progeny...

Author(s): Rahmani Gul, Hidayat-Ur-Rahman, Iftikhar Hussain Khalil, Syed Mehar Ali Shah and Abdul Ghafoor

July 2010

Variety identification and genetic relationships of mungbean and blackgram in Thailand based on morphological characters and ISSR analysis

Genetic diversity and relatedness were measured in 17 mungbean (Vigna radiata[L.] Wilczek) and 5 blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) genotypes by means of inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis and morphological characters. Unweighted pair-group method arithmetic average (UPGMA) analysis of 19 morpho-agronomic characters showed clear separation of the genotypes into 3 major groups; cluster I containing...

Author(s): Piyada Tantasawat, Juthamas Trongchuen, Thongchai Prajongjai, Thanawit Thongpae, Chutamas Petkhum, Worapa Seehalak and Thitiporn Machikowa

July 2010

Comparative study of the sensitivities of onion and broad bean root tip meristematic cells to genotoxins

Chemicals which cause chromosomal aberration (CA) in plant cells frequently produce identical CA in cultured animal cells. Plant species however, differ in sensitivities. Onion and broad bean (BB) root meristem cells were compared for sensitivity to chlorpyrifos (CPF), mercury chloride (HgCl2), ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) and garden ripcord (GR). Seeds were germinated on moist filter paper until radicles appeared and...

Author(s): Asita Okorie Asita and R. M. Matobole

July 2010

Karyotype and C-banding analyses of haploid male chromosomes of Apis florea F.

Chromosomes, with detailed karyotype information (number, shape, total length, relative length, arm ratio and centromeric index) and C-banding patterns in the somatic division of haploid male of Apis florae in Iran are described. Samples were obtained from the colonies in south of Iran. Prior to the swarming season, drone-brood cells were added adjoining to the lower rows of the worker-brood cells. Testes from...

Author(s): N. Asadi, S. M. Ghafari, A. A. Gharahdaghi, G. H. H. Tahmasebi and S Khederzadeh

July 2010

Association between single nucleotide polymorphism of apoVLDL-II gene with growth and body composition traits in Iranian commercial broiler line

Very low density apolipoprotein-II (apoVLDL-II) is a major polypeptide component of avian VLDL. The function of apoVLDL-II is the transport of neutral lipids (triacylglycerol) in the form of VLDL in the plasma. The apoVLDLII gene is dormant in embryos, chicks and roosters but can be activated by estrogen. The current study was designed to investigate the association of an apoVLDL-II gene polymorphism on chicken growth...

Author(s): Hamid Reza Seyedabadi, Cyrus Amirinia, Nour Amirmozafari, Rasoul Vaez Torshizi and Mohammad Chamani

July 2010

The effect of plant growth regulators, explants and cultivars on spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) tissue culture

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is an important vegetable crop of which dioecy in nature has made cultivar improvement difficult using traditional breeding methods; therefore, production of high amount of disease free spinach is critical. To achieve the best explants and media for spinach tissue culture, the effects of two different plant growth regulators, two explants and cultivars on adventitious shoot...

Author(s): Taha Roodbar Shojaei, Vahid Salari, Darioush Ramazan, Mahdi Ehyaei, Javad Gharechahi and Roya Motallebi Chaleshtori

July 2010

Leaf vegetables for use in integrated hydroponics and aquaculture systems: Effects of root flooding on growth, mineral composition and nutrient uptake

In recirculating aquaculture and hydroponics systems, the waste products from fish production are used to produce vegetables or other crops of economic value, and the water is recirculated to the fish tanks. We studied growth, productivity and nutrient uptake of four leaf vegetable species (Lactuca sativa, Ipomoea aquatica,Brassica rapa var. chinensis and Brassica...

Author(s): Ngo Thuy Diem Trang, Hans-Henrik Schierup and Hans Brix

July 2010

Drought stress mitigation using supplemental irrigation in rainfed chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties in Kermanshah, Iran

An experiment was carried out in 2007 to investigate the effects of different irrigation regimes, and chickpea cultivars on chickpea production in the Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Iran. The experimental design was split-plot with three replications. Supplemental irrigation at three levels, that is, control treatment (without irrigation) (I0), one...

Author(s): Keyvan Shamsi, Soheil Kobraee and Reza Haghparast

July 2010

Genotoxicity evaluation of the insecticide ethion in root of Allium cepa L.

In this study, the genotoxic effects of ethion were investigated in the mitotic cell division of Allium cepa. Primary roots of A. cepa were treated with various concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100%) of ethion solutions for different duration of time. The result revealed that increase in the concentration and duration of treatment decreases the mitotic indices. 24 h treatment at 100% concentration of ethion induced...

Author(s): Kabir Lamsal#, Bimal Kumar Ghimire#, Pankaja Sharma , Amal Kumar Ghimiray, Sang Woo Kim,Chang Youn Yu, Ill Min Chung, Youn Su Lee, Ju-Sung Kim and Shyam Ratna Shakya

July 2010

Screening of some Zygomycetes for cellulase activity

This study was aimed to screen the cellulytic ability of some genera ofZygomycetes under laboratory conditions. Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) and Wheat straw (WS) were used as the only carbon source in a minimal culture medium. Four days after inoculation, released proteins and sugars were assayed with related reagents and repeated each, 3 days up to the 31th day. Statistical analysis showed significant...

Author(s): Abolfazl Lotfi, Mohammad Ali Tajick Ghanbary, Gholam Ali Ranjbar andAhmad Asgharzadeh

July 2010

The effects of different irrigation methods on root distribution, intensity and effective root depth of young dwarf apple trees

The aim of this study is to determine the effects of different irrigation methods (drip, subsurface drip, surface and under-tree micro sprinkler) on the root distribution, intensity and effective root depth of “Williams Pride” and “Jersey Mac” apple cultivars budded on M9, rapidly grown in Isparta Region. The rootstocks were shallow root system and their root distribution was placed near trunk...

Author(s): Abdullah Kadayifçı, Ulaş Şenyiğit, Necdet Dağdelen, Hasan Öz and Atılgan Atilgan

July 2010

Genotoxicity of hormoban and seven other pesticides to onion root tip meristematic cells

Plants are direct recipients of agro-toxics and therefore important materials for assessing environmental chemicals for genotoxicity. Three doses, representing ¼, ½ and EC50 of hormoban, storm killer, villa, fungi-nil, bexadust, aphicide, karbadust and basagran were assessed for cytotoxic and genotoxic effects to onion root tip cells in the root tip chromosome aberration assay after 24 h exposure....

Author(s): Asita Okorie Asita and Matebesi L. P.

July 2010

Biodiesel production from waste soybean oil biomass as renewable energy and environmental recycled process

Alternative fuel is currently an important issue all over the world due to the efforts on reducing global warming which is contributed by the combustion of petroleum or petrol diesel. Biodiesel is non-toxic, biodegradable, produced from renewable sources and contributes a minimal amount of net green house gases, such asCO2, SO2 and NO emissions to the atmosphere. The study was carried out to produce...

Author(s): Hossain A. B. M. S., Nasrulhaq Boyce A., Salleh A. and Chandran S.

July 2010

Microbiological and physico-chemical characteristic of Rwandese traditional beer “Ikigage”

Samples of traditional sorghum beer Ikigage was collected in the southern province of Rwanda and analyzed for microbiological and physico-chemical contents.Ikigage contained total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (33.55 x 106 cfu/ml), yeast (10.15 x 106 cfu/ml), lactic acid bacteria (35.35 x 104 cfu/ml), moulds (4.12 x 104cfu/ml), E. coli (21.90 x 103 cfu/ml), fecal streptococci...

Author(s): F. Lyumugabe, , G. Kamaliza, E. Bajyana and P. H. Thonart

July 2010

Biological control of Aspergillus flavus growth and subsequent aflatoxin B1 production in sorghum grains

Sorghum grains suffer from severe infection and colonization by several toxigenic fungi and subsequent production of mycotoxins, posing a threat to human and animal health. Among all the mycotoxins, aflatoxins represent one of the most important toxicants considered as important constraint of grain quality and sorghum production. Various physical and chemical methods of reducing mycotoxins have been recommended, but...

Author(s): K. R. N. Reddy, C. R. Raghavender, B. N. Reddy and B. Salleh

July 2010

Antibacterial activities of the crude ethanol extracts of medicinal plants against Listeria monocytogenes and some other pathogenic strains

Searches for substances with antimicrobial activity are frequent and medicinal plants have been considered interesting by some researchers since they are frequently used in popular medicine as remedies for many infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the antibacterial effect of ethanol extracts of 13 plants (Artemisia Herba Alba, Lavandula officinalis L., Matricaria Chamomilla, Eugenia caryophylata...

Author(s): Kaoutar Bayoub, Tarik Baibai, Driss Mountassif, Abdelaziz Retmane and Abdelaziz Soukri

July 2010

Nutrient composition, energy value and residual anti-nutritional factors in differently processed breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) meal

The proximate composition, carbohydrate fraction, minerals and residual anti-nutritional factors in peeled and unpeeled raw, cooked and soaked breadfruit meal were determined. Results indicated that breadfruit meals processed in various ways contained 4.31 - 4.85% crude protein, 5.00 - 5.38% crude fibre, 2.11 - 2.90% ether extract, 68.38 - 69.20% starch and 2.56 - 2.90 ash which can enhance its nutritional status....

Author(s): I. O. Oladunjoye, A. D. Ologhobo and C. O. Olaniyi

July 2010

Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil and methanol extracts of rhizoma Alpinia officinarum from China in vitro

This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (small galanga) from China. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and 46 constituents were identified. Methanol extract from rhizoma A. officinarum was fractionated by chromatography of silica gel using ethyl...

Author(s): Jinsong Zhang, Jianpeng Dou, Shouqin Zhang, Qing Liang and Qingwei Meng

July 2010

Assessment of in vitro antitumoral and antimicrobial activities of marine algae harvested from the eastern Mediterranean sea

Antitumoral activities of five algal extracts obtained from the marine algaeScytosiphon lomentaria, Padina pavonica, Cystoseira mediterranea (Phaeophyceae), Hypnea musciformis and Spyridia filamentosa (Rhodophyta) were assessed against the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF–7 and the human prostate carcinoma epithelium like cell lines DU 145, LNCaP, PC3 using the cytotoxic...

Author(s): E. Taskin, Z. Caki,  M. Ozturk and  E. Taskin

July 2010

Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats: effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol

The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Thirty five (35) adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g were divided into seven groups of five (5) rats each. Group I rats served as the control and received 2 ml/kg of normal saline while Group II rats were treated with chloroquine (20 mg/kg). Groups III, IV, V, VI and...

Author(s): Toyin M. Salman, Luqman A. Olayaki, Shehu-tijjani T. Shittu and Samson O. Bamgboye

July 2010

Pitfalls using tributyrin agar screening to detect lipolytic activity in metagenomic studies

The metagenomics approach is an efficient method for obtaining novel biocatalysts and useful genes from uncultured microorganisms within diverse environments. In this study, we constructed a metagenomic library using a South African deep mine biofilm sample. The library was screened for lipolytic activity using LB Tributyrin (TLB). Although we were able to identify 3 diverse esterase enzymes, we found that 70% of the...

Author(s): Derek Litthauer, Nathlee S. Abbai, Lizelle A. Piater and Esta van Heerden

July 2010

Analysis of HMWGS of historical set of Pakistani bread wheat varieties using SDS-PAGE

In the present study an attempt has been made to characterize thirty bread-wheat varieties of Pakistan for High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits (HMW- GS). Glutenin proteins form a continuous proteinaceous matrix in the cells and form a continuous viscoelastic network during the mixing process of dough development. Glutenin consists of High Molecular Weight (HMW) and Low Molecular Weight (LMW) subunits. The HMW...

Author(s): Muhammad Ali ,Muhammad Faisal Saddiqui, Ihsan Ullah ,and Jehan Bakht

July 2010

Genotyping isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana sensu lato by multi-locus polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis

Multi-locus denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was developed to investigate the genotypes of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato. Sensitive tests indicated all isolates with one or more nucleotide differences at EF-1α and Bloc could be distinguished by DGGE except for one pair of strains that differed at four nucleotide positions. Ten, twelve and five genotypes were identified at the...

Author(s): Shun-chang Pu, Ming-jun Chen, Zhong-you Ma, Ling Xie, Zeng-zhi Li and Bo Huang

July 2010

Carcass characteristics of Karadi lambs as affect by different levels of dietary supplement of rumen degradable nitrogen fed with Nigella sativa

The objective of the work described here was to investigate the effect of two levels of Nigella sativa (0 and 7.5 g NS / kg DM) supplementation to rations of Karadi lambs fed three levels of rumen degradable nitrogen (1, 1.3 and 1.6 g RDN / MJ of ME) on carcass characteristics, using 2 x 3 factorial experiment. Twenty four individual Karadi male lambs were used (four lambs for each treatment). They were...

Author(s): Shaker A. Hassan, Khasraw M. Hassan and Amera Al-Rubeii