African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12451

Table of Content: 6 December 2010; 9(49)

December 2010

Medicinal plants with cholinesterase inhibitory activity: A Review

  Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a common neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by low levels in the brain of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh). Clinical treatment of this disease is palliative and relies mostly on enhancing cholinergic function by stimulation of cholinergic receptors or prolonging the availability of ACh released into the neuronal synaptic cleft by use of agents which restore or...

Author(s):   E. A. Adewusi, N. Moodley and V. Steenkamp  

December 2010

Genetic variation of durum wheat landraces using morphological and protein markers

  Genetic variations of cultivars are very interesting in reducing genetic vulnerability and lead to stable control of production. The aim of this research was to study genetic diversity among six durum wheat cultivars. For the first assay we evaluated seven morphological traits which are: spikelet per spike, spike length, spike width, beard length, plant height, width of truncation and barb length. The...

Author(s):   S.Ayed, C. Karmous, A. Slim and H. Slim Amara  

December 2010

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for 100-kernel weight of maize (Zea mays L.) under different nitrogen regimes

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for 100-kernel weight of maize (Zea mays L.) under different nitrogen regimes

Author(s): Xiao-Hong Liu, Zu-Ping Zheng, Zhen-Bo Tan, Zhong Li and Chuan He  

December 2010

Genetic diversity of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. based on inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses

  Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Apiaceae) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal herb with hemodynamic and analgesic effects. The species is known to undergo strict asexual reproduction via clonal propagation, and all known occurrences of the species are under cultivation practices. In this study, genetic diversity of L. chuanxiong throughout most of its cultivated range in China was...

Author(s):   Yaozhen Chen, Lan Wang, Yuying Ma, Haibo Xiao, Lin Tang and Qunxing An  

December 2010

Cloning and expression of pineapple sucrose-phosphate synthase gene during fruit development

  A 1132-base pairs (bp) polymerase-chain-reaction product of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) (EC from pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) fruit was cloned and nominated as Ac-SPS1. The sequence encodes a putative 377 amino acids protein containing two serine conserved features that had been found in other plant SPS genes: the presence of a 14-3-3 protein special binding...

Author(s):   Xiumei Zhang,, Liqing Du, Jianghui Xie, Mei’an Dou, , Wei wang, Yiwei Mo, and Guangming Sun,  

December 2010

Hypothesis testing in genetic linkage analysis via Gibbs sampling

  Genetic linkage analysis involves estimating parameters in a genetic model in which a genetic trait is regressed on some factors such as polygenic values and environmental effects. Since only phenotypes are observed, hypothesis testing in such cases needs calculation of likelihood function in which one needs to consider all compatible configurations of genotypes. The number of these configurations increases...

Author(s): Gholamreza Jandaghi

December 2010

Mycoherbicidal potential of Alternaria alternata for management of Chenopodium album under field condition

  A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the mycoherbicidal potential ofAlternaria alternata to control Chenopodium album L., a problematic weed of wheat. Two wheat cultivars viz. Inqalab 91 and Punjab 96 were co-cultivated with C. album in 1:1 crop-weed ratio. Mycoherbicidal formulation was prepared in 20% canola oil emulsion with 107 conidia mL-1 of A. alternata....

Author(s): Iffat Siddiqui, Rukhsana Bajwa and Arshad Javaid  

December 2010

Pollen fertility estimation of some sub-tropical flora of Pakistan

  A total of 46 species from 3 monocotyledon and 18 dicotyledonous families were investigated for percentage pollen fertility. The average fertility was 91.15% which showed the general stability of the flora in the study area. In the present research the highest 100% value was observed in Argyrolobium roseum (Camb.) Jaub. and Spach and the lowest 66.67% was observed in Spergularia...

Author(s):   Khalid Ahmad, Nighat Shaheen, Mushtaq Ahmad and Mir Ajab Khan  

December 2010

In vitro rapid and mass multiplication of highly valuable medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst.

  A protocol has been developed for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri (L) Wettst, a medicinal plant of high commercial potential with legendary reputation as a memory vitalizer. Nodal segments containing axillary buds were surface sterilized with 0.1% solution of mercuric chloride for 5 min and were inoculated aseptically on culture medium, axillary bud break was achieved in 100% of cultures in...

Author(s):   Sudhir Sharma, Barkha Kamal, Neelima Rathi, Sudhir Chauhan, Vikas Jadon, Neha Vats, Ashok Gehlot and Sarita Arya  

December 2010

Evaluation of genetic diversity in Pyrus germplasm native to Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Northern Pakistan) revealed by microsatellite markers

  Pyrus germplasm of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (56 accessions) and East Malling Research Station Kent, UK (8 reference cultivars) were characterized using 12 microsatellite markers assessing genetic diversity. In total, 9 primer pairs revealed 106 putative alleles that ranged from 7 to 19, averaging 11.8 alleles per locus. The size of amplified fragments ranged between 83 and 328 bp, while...

Author(s):   Maqsood Ahmed, Muhammad Akbar Anjum, Muhammad Qayyum Khan, Mohammad Jamil Ahmed and Stephen Pearce  

December 2010

Seed yields and biochemical compounds of common vetch (vicia sativa L.) lines grown in semi-arid regions of Turkey

  Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) is used for grain, hay or green manure in the semi-arid regions of Turkey. The objective of this study was to determine the seed yields and biochemical compounds of seeds for common vetch lines grown under rain-fed conditions in semi-arid regions of Turkey. Four common vetch lines (845, 2640, 1448 and 384) were obtained from the international center for agricultural...

Author(s):   Yasar Karadag and Musa Yavuz  

December 2010

Comparison of α, β and total ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-L-ά,β-diamino propionic acid) contents in winter- and spring-sown grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) genotypes

  There is a strong relationship between the consumption of grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) and “lathyrism” disease caused by a neurotoxin, β-N-oxalyl-L-a,β-diaminopropionoc acid called ODAP or BOAA. The objective of this study was to compare α, β and total ODAP found in grasspea genotypes sown in winter and spring seasons during 2007/08 and grown under...

Author(s):   Yasar Karadag, Omer Isıldak, Mahfuz Elmastas and Musa Yavuz  

December 2010

Seed yields and biochemical compounds of grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) lines grown in semi-arid regions of Turkey

  Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is adapted to a wide range of ecological conditions and grow under rainfed conditions. The objective of this study is to investigate the seed yields of grasspea lines and biochemical compounds of seeds grown under rainfed conditions in semi-arid regions of Turkey. Five grasspea lines were obtained from the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas...

Author(s):   Yasar Karadag and Musa Yavuz  

December 2010

Allelopathic inhibition of seedling emergence in dicotyledonous crops by Cucumis bio-nematicide

  Crop yield reduction is proportional to the initial nematode numbers at planting. Thus, nematicidal seed dressing is important in the management of plant-parasitic nematodes. When used as post-emergent bio-nematicide, crude extracts of groundCucumis myriocarpus fruits consistently suppress numbers of the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). This study was initiated to determine...

Author(s):   T. P. Mafeo and P. W.  Mashela  

December 2010

The impact of international codes of conduct on employment conditions and gender issues in Chinese flower companies

  The study examined how international codes of conduct address employment conditions and gender issues in the Chinese flower industry. A sample of 20 companies was purposively selected and 200 workers from these companies were interviewed. The adoption of international codes did not improve workers conditions and gender issues and codes were poorly enforced. There was evidence of discrimination based on...

Author(s): Abu Kargbo, Cai-yun-Wang, Mahmoud M. El-habbaq, Shi-mao Li, Ya-fei Li, Rong-zhang -Mai and Fu Qiang

December 2010

Development of a method for the mineralization of coffee husk (Coffea canephora P.) to obtain raw material for soap factories

  Every year, large quantities of husk resulting from the dry method of treatment of robusta coffee are dumped into nature. This generates multiple harmful ecological effects. The downward trend of coffee prices and the rise in the cost of manure has urged coffee farmers to better exploit the by-products of coffee transformation. Thus, a test for the mineralization of coffee husk to obtain soap factory raw...

Author(s):   Mounjouenpou Pauline,  Ntoupka Mama and Fallo Justin  

December 2010

Assessment and biological treatment of effluent from textile industry

  The assessment of effluent generated from international textile industry (Nig) Ltd. Odongunyan Industrial Estate Ikorodu Lagos was carried out. The effluent was analyzed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solid (TS), suspended solid (SS), dissolved solid (DS), odour and colour intensity prior to biological treatment with mixed culture of Aspergillus...

Author(s):   Adebayo, G. B, Otunola, G. A and Ajao, T. A  

December 2010

Biochemical alterations of certain health parameters in cotton growing farmers exposed to organophosphorous and pyrethroid insecticides

  A study was carried out on cotton growing farmers to assess the impact of organophosphorous pesticides on the biochemical parameters. Three hundred occupationally exposed farmers to pesticide application and equal number of unexposed subjects were selected from 24 randomly selected villages using stratified proportionate random sampling procedure. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to...

Author(s):   Padmaja R. Jonnalagadda, A. Y. E. Prasad, Katla Ashok Reddy, Challa Suresh,M. Vishnu Vardhana Rao, Goparaju Ramya and D. Raghunatha Rao  

December 2010

Over expression of CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZn SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in transgenic sweet potato enhances tolerance and recovery from drought stress

  To understand the antioxidant stress of transgenic sweet potato containing elevated Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in chloroplasts, we analyzed plant growth, yield, water status, photosynthetic activity and several antioxidant enzyme activities under drought and post-drought re-watering conditions. Three water stress regimes - no, moderate and severe water stress - were...

Author(s):   Yan-Yuan Lu, Xi-Ping Deng and Sang-Soo Kwak  

December 2010

Screening of oleaginous yeast with xylose assimilating capacity for lipid and bio-ethanol production

  Microbial oil is a promising new biodiesel resource, which have great potential in industrial-scale production. In our preliminary study, 57 oleaginous yeast with xylose assimilating capacity were isolated from 13 soil samples, 16 strains were identified as potential lipid biomass producer. Four strains which showed higher lipid content were used for further ethanol fermentation at different conditions....

Author(s):   Ming-xiong He, Qichun Hu, Xinhua Gou, Xinying Liu, Qing Li,Ke Pan, Qili Zhu and Jin Wu  

December 2010

Characterization of protein-protein interactions between the nucleocapsid protein and membrane protein of the avian infectious bronchitis virus

Characterization of protein-protein interactions between the nucleocapsid protein and membrane protein of the avian infectious bronchitis virus

Author(s):   Pengju Zhang, Sujun Zhao, Hongning Wang, Zhiguang Zeng, Lang Feng, Yinglin Liu and Haipeng Cao  

December 2010

Factors impacting on the microbiological quality and safety of processed hake

  Problems with the safety and shelf life of export hake have been raised by the Namibian fishing industry. This prompted an investigation into the factors that may have an impact on the microbiological quality and safety of processed hake. Samples were collected along the processing line; the general microbiological quality (mesophylic and psychrotrophic aerobic plate counts), total Vibrio species...

Author(s):   Shikongo-Nambabi, M.N.N.N., Chimwamurombe, P.M. and Venter, S.N.  

December 2010

Unfavorable apoAI-containing lipoproteins profile in Tunisian obese women group

  ApoAI-containing lipoproteins, which have been reported in relation with the development of ischemic diseases, have never been studied in obese subjects that have any other factor affecting the lipoproteins metabolism. Control and obese women groups were constituted on the basis of the body weight: less than 110% and more than 125% of the ideal body weight, respectively. Different lipid and lipoprotein...

Author(s):   Ahmed Barkia, Kamel Mohamed, Moncef Nasri  

December 2010

Optimization of suitable auxin application in a recalcitrant woody forest plant of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) for callus induction

  A study was carried out to determine and optimize suitable auxin for callus induction in Eurycoma longifolia. The induction of callus cultures using leaf, petiole, rachis, stem, tap root, fibrous root, cotyledon and embryo segments were successfully achieved  by using various auxins such as 2,4-D, IAA, NAA, picloram and dicamba. The cultures were observed daily for one month. The overall results...

Author(s): Maziah Mahmood, Rosli Normi,  and Sreeramanan Subramaniam,

December 2010

Hepatoprotective activity of polyherbal formulation against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

  The ethanloic extracts of the polyherbal medicinal plants (Asteracantha longifolia, Cyperus rotundus and Bryophyllum pinnatum) were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. The ethanolic extract of polyherbal formulation at 250 mg/kg b.w. exhibited a significant protective effect by lowering serum and liver activities of aspartate transaminase...

Author(s):   K. Gurusamy, R. Kokilavani  and K. Arumuasamy  

December 2010

Neuropharmacological evaluation of Annona senegalensis leaves

    The neuropharmacological activities of methanol leaf extract (ME) of Annonasenegalensis Pers (Annonaceae) and its bioactive fractions (MF and F7) were studied in rodents using pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures, pentobarbitone-induced sleep, apomorphine-induced stereotypy, open field, elevated plus maze (EPM) and rotarod performance tests. The extract and fractions inhibited...

Author(s): Okoli, C. O., Onyeto, C. A., Akpa, B. P., Ezike, A. C., Akah, P. A. and Okoye, T. C.

December 2010

Microbial transformation of neomycin by a mutant of neomycin-producing Streptomyces fradiae

  Utilizing a mutant of neomycin-producing Streptomyces fradiae mutagenized with neutron radiation, biotransformation of neomycin into modified compounds was studied. The biotransformation products were isolated by ion exchange chromatography and monitored by thin layer chromatography bioautography (TLCB). Antibacterial activity of biotransformation products against ten species of bacteria including...

Author(s): Lin Ma, Lingyun Yang, Yun Liu, Guanying Shi, Congjun Yang, Chunyu Zhou, Weichang Xu, Ke Tao, Taiping Hou  

December 2010

Investigation of the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae)

  Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae) locally called Orupa, is traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, including arthritis, rheumatic pain and toothache.  The potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the aqueous leaf extract of this plant were evaluated in animal models. The extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) and dose -...

Author(s):   M. O. Sofidiya, O. A. Odukoya, A. A. Adedapo, H. O. C. Mbagwu, A. J. Afolayan and O. B. Familoni  

December 2010

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of ethanolic extracts of Asparagus officinalis cv. Mary Washington: Comparison of in vivo and in vitro grown plant bioactivities

  The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of ethanolic extracts of in vivo grownAsparagus officinalis cv. Mary Washington were investigated using superoxide dismutase, erythrocyte haemolysis and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil free radical scavenging methods. The measured antioxidant and antimicrobial potential were then compared to the activities offered by the ethanolic extracts...

Author(s):   Arash Khorasani, Wirakarnain Sani, Koshy Philip, Rosna Mat Taha and Arash Rafat  

December 2010

Active principle from Moringa oleifera Lam leaves effective against two leukemias and a hepatocarcinoma

  Medicinal plants are important elements of indigenous medical system that have persisted in developing countries. Many of the pharmacological principles currently used as anticancer agents were first isolated from plants. However, some important anticancer agents are still extracted from plants because they cannot be synthesized chemically on a commercial scale due to their complex structures that often...

Author(s): Mutasim M. Khalafalla, Eltayb Abdellatef, Hussain Mohammed Dafalla, Amr A. Nassrallah, Khalid M. Aboul-Enein, David A. Lightfoot, Fadl E. El-Deeband Hany A. El-Shemy

December 2010

Pharmacokinetics of mequindox after intravenous and intramuscular administration to goat

  Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of mequindox were determined after single intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) administrations of 7 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) to 10 healthy adult goats. Plasma mequindox concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetics were best described by a two-compartment open model and an one-compartment open model for i.v. and i.m. groups,...

Author(s):   Yinqian Li, Wenyan Xie, Xiaoying Zhang, Zehua Tian and Caiju Hao  

December 2010

Comparative analysis of two acetylcholinesterase genes of Bombyx mandarina and Bombyx mori

  Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which contains two subfamilies, ace1 and ace2 in insects, was identified to be the target of organophosphorous and carbamate insecticides. Resistance to insecticides is apparently different between Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina. To compare the sequences and tissue expressions of the two aces between the two species, cDNAs encoding...

Author(s):   Bing Li, Dong Wang, Huaqiang Zhao and Weide Shen  

December 2010

Production of two intermediate taxoids, 2-hydroxy-5α,10β-diacetoxytaxadiene and 2-hydroxy-5α,10β,14β-triacetoxytaxadiene, from Taxus chinensis cell culture

  The production of taxuyunnanine C (Tc) (2α,5α,10β,14β-tetraacetoxytaxa-4(20),11(12)-diene) was significantly enhanced when Taxus chinensis cell cultures were treated with methyl jasmonate (MJA) or 2,3-dihydroxypropyl jasmonate (DHPJA), a newly synthesized jasmonate analog, in combination with in situabsorption. Along with the production of Tc, two intermediate taxoids were...

Author(s):   Ming-Bo Gao,, Wei Zhang, Xiang-GuoYue, and Hong-Bin Xiao  

December 2010

Studies of “emaciation ailment” in the Bactrian camel

  The clinical signs of disorder known locally as “emaciation ailment” in Bactrian camels in Haizi, Qinhai, China were defined. They included pica, emaciation, dyskinesia, deprived appetites and anemia. We found that concentrations of copper (Cu) in soil and forage from affected and unaffected areas were similar, but the concentrations of sulfur (S) in soil and forage were significantly higher...

Author(s):   Xiaoyun Shen and Xia Li  

December 2010

Study on candidate gene for fecundity traits in Xingjiang Cele black sheep

  The aim of the present study is to find a potential candidate gene for high fecundity in Cele black sheep. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology was used to detect single nuclear polymorphism (SNP) of four candidate genes (BMPR-IB, BMP15, GDF9, andESRα) in Cele black sheep. The results showed that (i) A-G mutation was found at 746 bp...

Author(s): Hongcai Shi, Jie Bai, Zhigang Niu, Muniresha, Lijun Fen, and Bin Jia