International Journal of
Water Resources and Environmental Engineering

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Water Res. Environ. Eng.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6613
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJWREE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 304

IJWREE Articles

August 2019

Enhancing the adsorption of Pb(II) and Fe(II) in the reactor by the thermally treated alluvial clay from Far North Cameroon

The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of the thermal treatment of alluvial clay on the ad-sorption capacity of Pb(II) and Fe(II) to reduce clogging during adsorption phenomenon. The chemical,  X- ray  diffraction  (XRD),  Fourier  transform  infrared  spectroscopy  (FTIR),  scanning  electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy...

Author(s): Adjia Zangué H., Nga B., Kamga R., Villiéras F. and Ebio Nko’o G.  

July 2019

Finite difference method to design sustainable infiltration based stormwater management system

Infiltration based stormwater best management practices bring considerable economic, social and ecological benefits. Controlling stormwater quantity and quality are primarily important to prevent urban flooding and minimizing loads of pollutants to the receiving waters. However, there have been growing concerns about how the traditional design approach contributes to the failure of infiltration based BMP’s that...

Author(s): Thewodros K. Geberemariam

July 2019

Evaluation of the current water quality of Lake Hawassa, Ethiopia

The research aimed to evaluate the current wáter quality of Lake Hawassa in order to identify potential pollution sources and suggest appropriate measures. Physico-chemical water quality parameters have been determined by taking duplicate samples from seven sampling sites and the results were compared with WHO and FAO standards. The findings of the study revealed that the concentration of metals such as manganese...

Author(s): Haile Melaku Zigde and Mohammed Endale Tsegaye  

June 2019

Evaluation of sand-dam water quality and its suitability for domestic use in arid and semi-arid environments: A case study of Kitui-West Sub-County, Kenya

Sand dams are one of the most successful rainwater harvesting methods, adopted in most of arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) of Kenya to secure domestic water supply and micro-irrigation. Their ability to maintain acceptable water quality, under extreme climatic conditions of recurrent drought and floods, is therefore of paramount public health concern as various pollutants find easily their way into them. This study...

Author(s): Ndekezi Moïse, James W. Kaluli and Patrick G. Home  

May 2019

Prototype of a control system for trickle irrigation systems considering distributors’ flow rate variation

A prototype of a real-time closed loop automatic control system has been successfully developed to suit trickle irrigation systems management. The control system was designed to manage the irrigation system based on collecting data through soil moisture sensors located at three different locations acting each third of the lateral to put the effect of emitters’ flow rate variation along laterals on soil moisture...

Author(s): Elnemr Moataz  

April 2019

Design, fabrication and evaluation of bio-digester for generating bio-gas and bio-fertiliser for Auchi polytechnic demonstration farm

A 4000 L bio-digester was designed and fabricated using 5 mm mild steel plate with the main purpose of generating biogas and bio-fertiliser for Auchi Polytechnic Demonstration Farm. To achieve this, a varying ratio of 1.155 m3: 2.310 m3 mixtures of cow dung and water were anaerobically digested in the batch digester. The experiment lasted for 33 days during which the quantity of gas generated were evaluated. The volume...

Author(s): Onuoha S. N., Unuigbe O. M., Suleiman I. A., Chukuwendu U. M. and Ogie-Aitsabokhai L.Y.  

April 2019

Efficiency of empirical methods for reference evapotranspiration estimation in the district of Vilankulo, Mozambique

Precise quantification of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is crucial for calculating crop water demand. Eight empirical methods based on temperature and six on solar radiation were evaluated against Penman-Monteith FAO 56 method based on: Mean Bias Error (MBE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Willmott coefficient (“d”), determination coefficient (R2) and the Student’s t-test. The meteorological data...

Author(s): Bartolomeu Félix Tangune and Catine António Chimene  

March 2019

Comparative study of physico-chemical parameters with national and international standard and the insect community of Erelu Reservoir in Oyo town, Oyo State, Nigeria

Assessment of water bodies is very crucial to determine its quality and proffer solution before it has an adverse impact on its biota and direct users of the water body. Insect communities and physico-chemical parameters in comparison with national and international criteria of Erelu Reservoir were investigated to determine their impacts on insect community of the reservoir. Water and insect macro-invertebrates sampling...

Author(s): Popoola K. O. K, Sowunmi A. A. and Amusat A.I.  

February 2019

Preference for water boreholes to odor stream harnessing at Amaopkara

The paper focuses on provision of sustainable portable water to Amaokpara community in Orumba Local Government Area of Anambra State, using “Decision Tree Analysis” which involves two options of water boreholes and odor stream harnessing. This is to achieve one of the key targets of millennium development goals by 2015, which is aimed at the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking...

Author(s): Victor I. Otti and Ezenwaji E. E.  

February 2019

Assessment of water resources management and past works on water points development in Borana Rangelands, Southern Oromia, Ethiopia

Water is the principal resource for all living to prosper but a major limiting factor when mismanaged. The wide spread clearing of trees has caused soil erosion that is resulting silt accumulation in the reservoirs 40 to 50% /year. Purposive selection techniques have deployed for this study to gather information.  Borana community has been managing water and pasture using its customary institutions called...

Author(s): Demisachew Tadele and Abiyot Lelisa

February 2019

Detection of hydrological impacts of climate change in Benin by a multifractal approach

This study analyzed the hydrological impacts of climate change over Bénin synoptic stations from 1951 to 2010 using multifractal approach. This method is based on the study of temporal evolution of fractal dimension (D_f), multifractality index (α), co-dimension (C_1) and probable maximum singularity (γ_s). The comparison of the average values of yearly fractal dimension ((D_f)) ̅ obtained over the...

Author(s): Medard Agbazo, Gabin Koto N’Gobi, Eric Alamou, Basile Kounouhewa and Abel Afouda  

January 2019

Potential contaminant runoff from California’s dairy concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs): A geospatial analysis

Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) contain large quantities of dairy cows and therefore have the potential to contribute significant amounts of harmful waste products to the environment. Although previous studies have used geospatial tools to assess potential contaminant runoff, the results from these studies are dependent on the unique geographical characteristics of specific regions. This study...

Author(s): Sunghoon Baek and Charlotte D. Smith  

January 2019

Effect of first watering month on water requirement of sugarcane using CROPWAT Model in Finchaa Valley, Ethiopia

This study investigates the optimum water requirements of Sugarcane planted in different months under rainfall and irrigation management, using CROPWAT model at Finchaa Valley in view of the importance of efficient water use as a key to grow crops and satisfy water demand. Analysis of soil physical properties was performed following the standard field and laboratories procedures and methods. The result of investigation...

Author(s): Chala Daba Geleta

January 2019

Tannery wastewater treatment using two-stage anaerobic sequence batch reactor (ASBR) at mesophilic and thermophilic phase

Industrialization has resulted in the formation of huge amount of waste products, which are released into the environment in the form of wastewater leading to environmental pollution and deterioration. Tannery effluent is among one of the dangerous pollutants of the industry. Most of the leather industries in Ethiopia discharge their effluent partially or without any treatment to the nearby water bodies. This creates a...

Author(s): Messay Emana and Mekibib Dawita  

September 2018

Evaluation of canal water conveyance and on-farm water application for a small-scale irrigation scheme in Ethiopia

This study was conducted to identify and understand the current level of canal water conveyance and on-farm water application efficiency of Lemchek-Sewur small-scale irrigation scheme in Ethiopia. The water conveyance efficiency of canals was determined by estimating discharge at different segments. On-farm water application efficiency was evaluated from the amount of water actually applied and from soil moisture...

Author(s): Alebachew Shumye and Ing Pratap Singh  

September 2018

Performance evaluation and economic analysis of solar photo-voltaic water pumping systems: Case of Abakore borehole water supply system in Kenya

A solar photovoltaic (PV) water pumping system was investigated to determine performance and economic viability. An in-built data logger was used to collect real time data on key performance parameters. Performance indicators were defined and determined, while economic viability was analyzed using life-cycle cost (LCC) method and these costs were compared with a diesel generator pumping system. Solar irradiance varied...

Author(s): James Origa Otieno, Christian Thine Omuto and Antony Ayub Gitau  

August 2018

The effect of variation of dimensions of solar reflectors on solar enhanced model pond

Waste water stabilization pond is a simple way of treating waste water but one of its limitations is that it requires large area of land to be efficient. This study employed the use of solar reflectors to improve the efficiency of waste water stabilization pond by investigating the effect of variation of solar reflectors on the physical, chemical and biological properties of the pond. To achieve this, three model ponds...

Author(s): Onuchukwu O. J. C., Agunwamba J. C. and Shimbayev M. A.  

August 2018

Quantifying the impact of integrated watershed management on groundwater availability in Gerduba watershed, Yabello district, Ethiopia

Integrated watershed management has a positive impact on groundwater balance. However, most parts of the study area particularly, Borana is the one which is suffering from severe rangeland degradation. Among others, heavy grazing, bush encroachment, gully expansion, topsoil fertility loss, sedimentation and less adequate water availability account for the greatest noticeable rangeland degradation phenomena. Due to...

Author(s): Demisachew Tadele and Mihret Dananto  

July 2018

Towards equity in water pricing in small water systems: An Alberta case study

Small water systems have water technology that has a higher cost structure than those of large cities. Consequently they cannot enjoy “comparable” consumption patterns. It is shown that full cost pricing is not compatible with achieving equity for small system residents and marginal cost pricing would not cover the capital costs. Therefore, provinces could seek legal recourse for higher federal transfers,...

Author(s): Gopal Achari , Mohammed H. I. Dore and Aaron Janzen    

June 2018

Effect of climate variability on the yield of crops in Ondo State, Nigeria

Climate change influences crop yield vis-à-vis crop production to a greater extent in countries like Nigeria where agriculture depends largely on natural circumstances. This study assesses the effect of observed climatic variables (rainfall, temperature and relative humidity) on yield of major crops which are divided into two groups, tuber crops (cassava and yam) and fruits (pepper and tomatoes) in Ondo State...

Author(s): Obafemi O. Olubanjo and Adebolu E. Alade

May 2018

Reference evapotranspiration in São Paulo State: Empirical methods and machine learning techniques

Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is a key factor for water management and irrigation scheduling. In this paper, eight empirical methods, including four temperature-based (Benevides-Lopez, Hamon, Blaney-Criddle Original and Hargreaves-Samani: HS), four radiation-based (Abtew: AB, Jensen and Haise, Makkink and Irmak) and machine learning techniques (MLT) were tested against Penman Monteith FAO 56 method. The MLT...

Author(s): Bartolomeu Félix Tangune and João Francisco Escobedo

May 2018

Wastewater treatment strategies of selected Zimbabwean food industries

This survey aimed at identifying the current practices and experiences of industrial wastewater treatment in Zimbabwe. In this study, questionnaires were used to assess various companies located in Gweru Kwekwe, Bulawayo and Harare. The information collected identified a gap in the treatment of wastewater from food processing industries in Zimbabwe. Current results indicate that about 86% of the food processing...

Author(s): Manhokwe, S., Zvidzai, C., Mareesa, W. and Marume, P.

April 2018

Quantification of water balance using a lysimeter in Mexico

Under conditions of high pressure on water resources, it is essential to quantify the water balance. There are tools to perform the water balance, but unfortunately, they are expensive and  hardly accessible in developing countries. The objective of this study was to quantify the water balance using a low-cost lysimeter (LCL). Rainfall was measured using rain gauge. Soil water content (SWC) and infiltration were...

Author(s): Hipólito Muñoz-Nava, José Adrián René Grada-Yautentzi, Jorge Batlle-Sales, Elizabeth García-Gallegos and Rafael Valencia-Quintana.  

February 2018

Quality of groundwater in Valikamam area, Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka

The Jaffna Peninsula depends largely on groundwater resources for domestic as well as agricultural purposes. On several instances, it was pointed out that the groundwater is deteriorating due to overuse and is polluted by excessive usage of agrochemical, fertilizers, waste oil and improper sewage disposal. Hence, an experimental study was undertaken to assess the analysis of groundwater quality. To achieve this, water...

Author(s): V. Jeevaratnam, S. Balakumar, T. Mikunthan and M. Prabaharan  

February 2018

Evaluation of bacteriological and physicochemical quality of water supply systems in Welkite Town, Southwest-Ethiopia

Water supply systems provide consumers with drinking water that is adequately free of microbial pathogens to prevent waterborne diseases. The key to produce water of such desired quality is to implement multiple barriers, which control microbiological pathogens and chemical contaminants that may enter the water supply system. The objective of this study was to evaluate bacteriological and physicochemical quality of...

Author(s): Dessalew Berihun and Yonas Solomon  

January 2018

Evaluating the use of hot spring for agricultural process in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines

This is an exploratory research aimed at examining the use of hot spring as a renewable energy source to replace conventional electrical energy for suitable agricultural process in the Los Baňos area, Laguna, Philippines. Here, a potential site was selected by analyzing data of the temperature, relative humidity and hot spring temperature. Preliminary results revealed that average air temperature, relative humidity and...

Author(s): Anthony J. Taplah Jr, Jose Mari C. Cabahug, Luther John R. Manuel, Erwin P. Quilloy and Pepito M. Bato

December 2017

Assessment of irrigation water quality of lowlands in the Bale Zone, South Eastern Oromia, Ethiopia

Water quality concerns have been very crucial because good quality water supplies in abundance and readily available for production and productivity is of great importance. Therefore, the study was conducted to assess irrigation water quality of the lowlands of Delo Menna and Berbere districts. The samples were collected from the upstream and downstream of the canals along the farms of the districts during the medium...

Author(s): Abdurahman Husien, Shure Seboka and Wakshum Shifarra

December 2017

Water supply and demand scenario of Dilla Town, Southern Ethiopia

Access to and use of safe drinking water can contribute enormously to health, productivity and social development. This study was conducted to assess the existing water supply and demand scenario of Dilla Town, Southern Ethiopia. To achieve the objective of the study, a total of 187 households were randomly selected and interviewed by using semi structured questionnaire. To collect the required data, interview schedule,...

Author(s): Mandefro Chala Debela and Habtamu Kassa Muhye

November 2017

Application of density-dependant finite element model for studying seawater intrusion in coastal aquifer of Ras El-Hekma, Northwestern Coast, Egypt

A numerical model of variable-density groundwater flow and miscible salt transport is applied to investigate the extent of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifer of Ras El-Hekma, northwestern coast, Egypt. The SEAWAT 2000 code is used to solve the density-dependent groundwater flow and solute transport governing equations. Seventeen groundwater samples were collected in 2015 for routine chemical analysis and water level...

Author(s): R. A. Hussien

November 2017

Evaluating water quality of Awash River using water quality index

Awash river has been impaired by various types of pollution owing to waste released from different socio-economic activities in its basin. This research was aimed at evaluating its quality status with respect to drinking and irrigation water uses. Based on accessibility and land use severity, 23 sample sites were chosen along the river and sampling was done twice in each of the dry and wet seasons. Thereafter, both...

Author(s): Amare Shiberu Keraga, Zebene Kiflie and Agizew Nigussie Engida

November 2017

Hydraulic performance assessment of Tahtay Tsalit small scale irrigation scheme, Tigray, Ethiopia

Assessment of irrigation performances is very essential while planning and chalking out management strategies for various irrigation. However, in Ethiopia, especially Tigray, performance evaluation of irrigation schemes is rarely conducted. The performance of Tahtay Tsalit irrigation scheme was not assessed yet and hence, this research was undertaken to assess the hydraulic performance of the irrigation scheme. The...

Author(s): Efriem Tariku Kassa and Mekonen Ayana

October 2017

Seasonal rainfall and crop productivity in South West Ethiopia: Preliminary analysis for recent climate

Rainfall is the most important element that limits the productivity of crops. Proper analysis of rainfall trend and understanding of its relationship with land productivity may help in planning purposes. Accordingly, a study was conducted to assess the statistical behavior of monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall in south west Ethiopia (Arba Minch). Furthermore, correlation statistics was employed to explain the...

Author(s): Molla Mekonnen Alemu and Fitsume Yemenu Desta

October 2017

Contribution to knowledge of the Lakes of Ounianga by bathymetry and physicochemistry

This work aimed to contribute to knowledge improvement of the great Lake ecosystems of Chad, precisely that of the Lakes of Ounianga using bathymetric statements on water levels and the in situ analysis of physicochemical parameters of the lake’s waters. Bathymetric surveys facilitated characterization of the morphology of the bottom of the lakes with depths that vary from 0 to -27 m and 0 to -5.7 m for Yoan and...

Author(s): Arrakhais Abakar Bourma, Abderamane Hamit, Moussa Abderamane, Beatrice Ketchemen-Tandia and Mahamat NourAbdalah

September 2017

Application of stochastic models in predicting Lake Malawi water levels

Stochastic models have proven to be practically fundamental in fields such as science, economics, and business, among others. In Malawi, stochastic models have been used in fisheries to forecast fish catches. Nevertheless, forecasting water levels in major lakes and rivers in Malawi has been given little attention despite the availability of ample historical data. Although previous multichannel seismic surveys revealed...

Author(s): Rodgers Makwinja, Titus Phiri, Ishmael B. M. Kosamu and Chikumbusko C. Kaonga

September 2017

Assessment of groundwater suitability for irrigation in three sub catchments in Upper Athi River Basin, Kenya

Over the years, erratic rainfall pattern coupled with increasing population has led to the reliance on groundwater as an alternative and sustainable source for crop irrigation to meet increasing food demand. Irrigation of crops though essential, if not done with care through good practices and use of quality water can lead to soil salinization and ecological unsustainability. This study was carried out to assess the...

Author(s): Philip Kwabla Attibu, Ebenezer Ashun and George Lartey Young

August 2017

Evaluation of empirical models for estimating reference-evapotranspiration (RET-ET) in humid semi-hot equatorial coastal climate

The performances of five empirical models, namely: Hargreaves-Samani, Makkink1 (1957), Makkink2 (1984), Priestley-Taylor and FAO 56-PM in estimating reference evapotranspiration (REF-ET) were separately compared with Epan data and FAO 56-PM, respectively. Based on statistical analysis, Hargreaves-Samani method compared best with daily and monthly Epan data, while Makkik2 (1984) ranked first with FAO 56-PM. In terms of...

Author(s): Itolima Ologhadien and Ify L. Nwaogazie

August 2017

Analysis of spatial and temporal drought variability in a tropical river basin using Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI)

Analysis of spatial and temporal drought variability in the upper Tana River basin using Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) was conducted. The drought is critical for formulation of mitigation measures in the river basin. A monthly temporal and 90-m spatial resolution was applied. This was achieved within ArcGIS environment. Climatic data for 1970 to 2010 was used for computation of the PDSI while the missing data...

Author(s): Raphael M. Wambua, Benedict M. Mutua and James M. Raude

July 2017

Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater in Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti Southwestern Nigeria

Groundwater composition can be altered significantly due to geogenic and anthropogenic inputs from bedrocks and human activities respectively. Such impacted water may be injurious to health if consumed. Water quality depends on the physical, chemical and bacteriological composition of water. Hydrochemical assessment of groundwater within Afe Babalola University (ABUAD) and its adjoining environments was undertaken with...

Author(s): Afolabi O. O., Olatunji S. O. and Wategire E. D.

July 2017

Assessment of Assela Town municipality waste water discharge effect on the chemical and bacteriological water pollution load of Anko River

Assela, one of the developing towns in the south eastern central zone of Ethiopia, is located 175 km away from the Capital City of Addis Ababa. Anko River divides the town into two separate parts. In rural areas, water from Anko River is used for drinking and sanitation purposes. However, sewage from residential areas and Assela Hospital directly enters the river, affecting its quality. The objective was to determine...

Author(s): Amde Eshete Gebre

July 2017

Applications of soft tools to solve hydrological problems for an integrated Indian catchment

Emergence of a hydrological forecasting model based on past records is crucial in solution of problem. In water resource and hydrology, to build the estimation model based upon the hydrological records, generally requires traditional time series analysis and modelling. Estimation can be done either by using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques, or by some traditional methods. The present work uses two data driven...

Author(s): Vidyanand Sayagavi and Shrikant Charhate

June 2017

Risk assessment of cyanobacteria-toxins for small drinking water treatment plants with lake water intakes

Recent increases in the frequency and severity of toxic algae blooms in freshwater lakes has been a major concern for small communities that rely on them for drinking water supply. A hazard quotient approach to risk characterization is employed to analyze the effectiveness of five conventional treatment methods for removal of cyanotoxins. The application of the method for risk assessment and mitigation is demonstrated...

Author(s): Uche A. Uduma, Edward A. McBean and Bahram Gharabaghi

June 2017

Irrigation water quality of River Kulfo and its implication in irrigated agriculture, South West Ethiopia

Irrigation is a common agricultural practice for farmers in the periphery of flowing rivers in Ethiopia. In the south west Ethiopia, fruits and vegetables are majorly produced under irrigation where the mode of irrigation is by pumping water from flowing rivers. Irrigated agriculture has only been linked to the availability of water in physical terms, while the quality of water is significantly important for sustainable...

Author(s): Molla Mekonnen Alemu and Fitsume Yemenu Desta

May 2017

Evaluation of water supply and demand: The case of Shambu town, Western Oromia, Ethiopia

Shambu town has faced a problem of potable water supply, still large number of people did not have access to adequate amount of potable water and frequent water interruption is a common problem.  The objective of this research was to evaluate the existing water pressure map and water demand. To achieve this goal, the following input data were collected, base population, growth rate, and pressure map of the area,...

Author(s): Mulatu Kassa

May 2017

Rainfall-runoff relation and runoff estimation for Holetta River, Awash subbasin, Ethiopia using SWAT model

The hydrology of Holetta River and its seasonal variability is not fully studied. In addition to this, due to scarcity of the available surface water and increase in water demand for irrigation, the major users of the river are facing a problem of allocating the available water. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate the water availability of Holetta River using Geographical Information Systems (GIS)...

Author(s): Mahtsente Tibebe, Assefa M. Melesse and Dereje Hailu

May 2017

Characterization of Beles River Basin of Blue Nile sub-Basin in North-Western Ethiopia using Arc-Hydro tools in Arc-GIS

Ethiopia is constantly affected by shortage of water for rain-fed agriculture, mainly because of lack of proper water resources utilization and management practices. For the efficient use of available surface water resources with balanced attention to maximize economic, social, and environmental benefits, it is necessary to have effective integrated water resources assessments and planning. Beles River Basin is one of...

Author(s): Ashebir Haile Tefera

April 2017

Geostatistical study of the spatial variability of groundwater parameters in Afikpo and Ohaozara, Southeastern Nigeria

Abortive boreholes and parched wells, ascribed to the difficulty in understanding the hydrogeology of the aquifer by water borehole drillers, pose great concern to the people of the region. Mapping the spatial variability of water table depth (WTD) (m) and aquifer thickness H (m) is a vital step in optimal utilization of groundwater resources. Thus, the aim of this paper is to investigate the spatial variability of the...

Author(s): Robert Egwu Otu Iduma, Tamunoene Kingdom Simeon Abam and Etim Daniel Uko

April 2017

Impact of climate change on Lake Chamo Water Balance, Ethiopia

One of the most significant potential concerns of climate change is to understand changes in hydrological components and subsequent change in lakes water balance. In view of this study, the water balance components such as surface water inflow from gauged and ungauged sub-watersheds, precipitation and evaporation pattern of the natural reservoir and their associated impacts vis-à-vis altering the water balance of...

Author(s): Elias Gebeyehu

March 2017

Review on participatory small-scale irrigation schemes and small-scale rainwater harvesting technology development and its contribution to household food security in Ethiopia

This review aims to compile the past, present and future trends of participatory small-scale irrigation schemes (PSSIS) and small-scale rainwater harvesting technology (SSRWHT) development to ensure household food security in Ethiopia. It discusses the Ethiopian PSSIS and SSRWHT development based on the historical backgrounds, current conditions of development and its contributions to the national economy, challenges...

Author(s): Tadesse Mosissa and Baihilu Bezabih

March 2017

Review on distribution, importance, threats and consequences of wetland degradation in Ethiopia

Wetlands are the ecosystems that are found on the interface between land and water. It is also areas of marsh, ponds and swamps, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water, that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salty, including areas of marine water, the depth of which at low tide, does not exceed six meters. Although, wetlands by nature are dynamic ecosystems, anthropogenic activities...

Author(s): Bahilu Bezabih and Tadesse Mosissa

February 2017

Assessing the groundwater vulnerability in the upper aquifers of Zarqa River Basin, Jordan using DRASTIC, SINTACS and GOD methods

Groundwater vulnerability is an overlay method that is used to determine the ability of pollutants to penetrate the aquifer and harming it. This method helps decision makers by highlighting expected areas to be polluted. In Jordan, groundwater is the main water resource the country uses to match its demand. The groundwater basins in Jordan are divided into 12 major basins; some are rechargeable and others are fossil....

Author(s): Alsharifa Hind Mohammad

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