International Journal of
Water Resources and Environmental Engineering

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Water Res. Environ. Eng.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6613
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJWREE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 314

IJWREE Articles

Evaluation of water quality in Abeokuta, Southwest Nigeria

December 2011

Groundwater is an economic resource and more than 85% of the public water for consumption in Nigeria is obtained from groundwater. This source of water is of great use for domestic, industrial, and agricultural purposes. Groundwater in Abeokuta is largely derived from the aquifers within coastal plain. The water in this formation is however not always suitable due to urban waste disposal and sea water intrusion. Water...

Author(s): Olukayode D. Akinyemi, R. Bello, Adebimpe T. Ayodeji, Damilola E. Akanbi, Mobolaji M. Ibine and Jamiu A. Popoola

Water management with wastewater treatment and reuse, desalination, and conveyance to counteract future water shortages in the Gaza Strip

November 2011

Groundwater is the only freshwater source available for the Gaza Strip of Palestine, but Gaza groundwater is heavily polluted from agricultural activities and seawater intrusion. Water resource planners therefore have to find innovative alternate sources of water to minimize existing and future deficits. Possible management options include the use of treated wastewater (TWW), desalination, and conveyance of water...

Author(s): Ahmed E. Al-Juaidi, David E. Rosenberg and Jagath J. Kaluarachchi

Identifying a cost effective method for thermo tolerant coli forms enumeration in raw water resources used for domestic consumption and irrigation

November 2011

The present study is descriptive and analytical in nature, aimed to determine the correlation and compatibility rates of the detection methods of multiple tube fermentation (both traditional and direct techniques) using Escherichia coli (EC) Broth and plate count in special fecal Coli form culture media. The objective was to identify the one method among these which is economical, effective, rapid and easy to use under...

Author(s): Almasi A. and Sadeghi E.

Selection of optimum option for sludge disposal in the Guilan province of Iran using rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM)

November 2011

All wastewater treatment processes produce a large amount of semisolid pollutants, especially wastewater sludge. Discharge of sludge without environmental considerations will have many serious effects on public health and environment. The main objective of this study is the selection of optimum option for sludge disposal in the Guilan province of Iran using rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) which is a tool to...

Author(s): Aghil Golipour Shoili, Mehrdad Farrokhi, Hadi Neizehbaz and Hoseyn Alizadeh

Minimising the deterioration of the properties of Moringa oleifera seed extract using Trona solution

November 2011

This study intends to investigate the feasibility of using a local preservative under ambient environmental conditions to minimise the deterioration of Moringa oleifera seed extract in terms of pH fluctuations and coagulation properties. The effect of Trona solution on the pH stability of M. oleifera seed extract was evaluated by observing varying concentrations (0.5 to 2%) of mixtures of seed extract and Trona solution...

Author(s): Saulawa S. B., Ajibike M. A., Igboro S. B., Lukman S., Ibrahim F. B. and Abubakar U. A.

Process design for decentralized sewage treatment system with total natural resource management

November 2011

In developing countries sewage disposal is still a major problem. Increase in population and less availability of natural resources makes sewage a major source of health hazard. With sprawling urban population sewage disposal has become a very serious problem. Under this circumstances, the decentralized sewage treatment system (DTS) for population varying from 1000 to 10,000 that is, 120 to 1200 Kl/day or more can play...

Author(s): Shubhra Singh, N. Janardhana Raju and Gyan Sagar

The use of natural system for the treatment of greywater: A case study of Kpeshie Lagoon, Accra, Ghana

November 2011

Handling of wastewater (greywater and blackwater) in urban areas is a big problem. The La Sub Metro in Ghana is no exception. Due to lack of wastewater treatment facilities, almost all the wastewater in the Sub Metro is discharged into the Kpeshie Lagoon without pre-treatment. The objective of this study was to characterise greywater and determine the potential of receiving environment (Kpeshie Lagoon and surrounding...

Author(s): Martha Ansah, Esi Awuah, Sampson Oduro-Kwarteng and Nana O.B. Ackerson

Culturing a rabbit fish (Siganus canalicullatus) in cages: A study from Palk Bay, South East Coast of India

November 2011

Preliminary investigation on the culture of Siganus canalicullatus in floating cages in Mandapam coastal water has revealed that the fish has high culture potential in the region. It is euryhaline, inhabiting areas where salinities range from 23’/,, to 35.8O/,, ,. The fish grows faster on pelletted diets than on ordinary seaweeds. It is estimated that the fish would reach a marketable size of 20 cm fork length in...

Author(s): M. Jaikumar, L. Kanagu, C.Stella and B. Gunalan

Determination of watershed’s hydrological parameters using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) techniques: Case study of Wadi Al-kangar, Sudan

November 2011

The need for information in user friendly formats and which is easy to update, query, manage and utilize, has popularized the use of geographical information system (GIS). Remote sensing and GIS techniques are increasingly becoming an important tool in hydrology and water resources development. This is due to the fact that most of the data required for hydrological analysis can easily be obtained from remotely sensed...

Author(s): M. Y. Mohamed, H. S. M. Hilmi and E. S. Ganawa

Assessment of safe reservoir yield by full optimization model by linear programming method

October 2011

This study determines a deterministic distribution of future water storage shortages, based on the known existing demands and the historical data. The data used for this study is the historical monthly flow data for 28 years of the Upper Penganga Project- Isapur reservoir in the Godavari river basin in Maharashtra, India. It is major irrigation reservoir with live capacity of 958.43 MCM and for this given capacity the...

Author(s): Kalpeshkumar M. Sharma, Deepak V. Pattewar and Dahe P. D

Morphometric analysis of Dwarakeswar watershed, Bankura district, West Bengal, India, using spatial information technology

October 2011

Spatial information technology that is, remote sensing (RS) coupled with geographical information system (GIS) has come out as an efficient tool in delineating drainage pattern and water resource management and its planning. GIS and Image Processing techniques have been adopted for the identification of morphological features and analyzing their properties in Dwarakeswar River Basin area in Purulia and Bankura districts...

Author(s): S. K. Nag and Anindita Lahiri

Integrated rainwater management strategies in the Blue Nile Basin of the Ethiopian highlands

October 2011

This paper describes one component of the research that International Water Management Institute (IWMI) and partners are undertaking as part of the challenge program on water and food (CPWF) Nile Basin Development Challenge (NBDC). The objective of the NBDC is to increase understanding of how to plan successful rainwater management strategies (RMS) and identify how these can be effectively implemented in the Ethiopian...

Author(s): Birhanu Zemadim, Matthew McCartney, Bharat Sharma and Abeyou Wale

Time series analysis of ground water table fluctuations due to temperature and rainfall change in Shiraz plain

October 2011

This research aims at forecasting ground water fluctuations due to temperature and rainfall effects using time series and cross-correlation analysis. Box Jenkins’s time series model was analyzed and the best one for Shiraz plain proved to be multiplicative seasonal. This model was used to forecast the future ground water fluctuations as affected by long term temperature and rainfall data. Results showed that...

Author(s): Mohamad Aflatooni and Mehdi Mardaneh

Removal of nitrogen from ammonium-rich synthetic wastewater in an upflow column type anammox reactor

October 2011

The aim of this study is to illustrate the efficiency of nitrogen removal from synthetic wastewater using a fixed-bed anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) reactor. A continuous fed flow reactor was inoculated with upflow anammox and fed with synthetic wastewater. The reactor was operated for 75 days without pH control. The maximum ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies achieved were 95 and 97.5%, respectively. The...

Author(s): M. G. Mostafa, Y. Kawakubo and K. Furukawa

Interference of organic waste pollution from municipality cattle market/slaughter on adjacent stream/ground water quality

October 2011

Chemical contaminants from animal droppings and other organic wastes, nonpoint source (NPS) runoff and abattoir waste water at the municipality cattle market/slaughter lot, Uyo, Nigeria, which increased detritus litter or are leached to ground water, were investigated on the facility borehole and adjacent stream water. Statistical analysis of samples’ physico-chemical composition using SPSS ver 17 package,...

Author(s): O. E. Essien

Impact of Rogun dam on downstream Uzbekistan agriculture

September 2011

Strains among the states of Central Asia over using the region’s scarce water resources are increasing. A major controversy is Rogun dam (RD) on the Vakhsh River, a tributary of the Amudarya River. The intent of RD is to supply energy revenue for Tajikistan, but a side effect may be the agricultural sector of Uzbekistan. Future water shortage may cost Uzbekistan over US $600 million annually in losses from...

Author(s): Shokhrukh-Mirzo Jalilov, Thomas M. DeSutter and Jay A. Leitch

The effect of inclined groins on the flow

September 2011

Hydraulic structures, such as pile dikes, groins, splitting dikes, have been constructed in natural rivers to improve the channel stability to bank or bed erosions by reducing flow velocity or changing flow direction. In order to produce better river environments, river flow mechanisms with the hydraulic structures need to be intensively studied. In this paper, an experimental flow field with non-overflow groins in a...

Author(s): Neveen B. Abdelmageed

A multi-objective optimization approach to groundwater management using genetic algorithm

August 2011

Management of groundwater resources is very important for regions where freshwater supply is naturally limited. Long-term planning of groundwater usage requires method-based new decision support tools. These tools must be able to predict the change in the groundwater storage with sufficient accuracy, and must allow exploring management scenarios with respect to different criteria such as sustainability and cost. So,...

Author(s): T. A. Saafan, S. H. Moharram, M. I. Gad and S. KhalafAllah

Monitoring trends of nitrate, chloride and phosphate levels in an urban river

August 2011

Concerns for the river environment in Malaysia are highlighted. There had been occurrences of inadequate supply for water in big cities and unexpected floods over the last few years. This paper discussed the results of ‘clean-up’ efforts of Gombak River which passes through several industrial areas and the City of Kuala Lumpur. The trends in the levels of nitrates, chlorides and phosphates present in the...

Author(s): Z. Ismail

Mapping of lineaments for groundwater targeting in the basement complex region of Ondo State, Nigeria, using remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques

August 2011

Sustainable groundwater supplies in the terrain underlying by crystalline basement rocks require lineament analyses for proper sitting of boreholes. This study was carried out to illustrate the application and importance of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques for efficient groundwater resource exploration and management. The study demonstrates the use of LANDSAT 7 ETM+ imagery, ASTER...

Author(s): K. A. Mogaji, O. S. Aboyeji and G. O. Omosuyi

Modeling the transport of suspended particulate matter by Kwa Ibo River, Umudike, South-eastern Nigeria: Implications for pollutant dispersion

July 2011

Modeling the transport of suspended particulate matter by the Kwa Ibo River, Umudike, south-eastern Nigeria is the focus of this paper. The model solves the 3D hydrodynamic equations and the suspended matter equations including advection/diffusion of particles, settling and deposition. It is aimed at assessing the extent of the interaction between the Kwa Ibo River and the viable groundwater wells located within the...

Author(s): M. U. Igboekwe and I. E. Udoinyang

Rondon project: Addressing water issues in socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Brazil

July 2011

The northeastern region of Brazil has embattled a severe drought for centuries making it almost impossible to supply the local communities with adequate drinking water.  As part of their outreach program the university of Zumbi dos Palmares was contracted by the Ministry of Defense to provide the necessary technical expertise to build a water cistern in the town of Maranhao. One of the project requirements was that...

Author(s): Marcio de Cassio Juliano, Clifford Louime and Renita W. Marshall

Integration of very low-frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity methods in mapping subsurface geologic structures favourable to road failures

July 2011

An integrated geophysical survey involving very low-frequency electromagnetic (VLF–EM) and the dipole-dipole electrical resistivity methods was carried out along the Auchi-Ibillo road in Igarra, Nigeria with a view to examining factors responsible for road failures in the area. Analysis of very low frequency electromagnetic current density sections and dipole-dipole pseudo-sections were made along three traverses....

Author(s): Ozegin K. O., Oseghale A., Okolie E. C. and Ujuanbi O.

Salt weathering, bio-deterioration and rate of weathering of dimensional sandstone in ancient buildings of Aachen City, Germany

June 2011

  Over the last decade, the concept of stone decay being caused by one or two processes has been revised in favour of a more holistic notion that many operate together, cyclical or seasonal. Certain of these processes may become pre-dominant over others at a particular environment that enhances the impact of these process or processes. The rock's mineralogy is an effective factor in controlling rock's...

Author(s): Kamh G. M. E.

Estimate of bed load transport in Kubanni Watershed in Northern Nigeria using grain size distribution data

June 2011

  Representative bed material samples were taken from the gauging sites located on two rivers, Samaru River and Goruba River, in the Kubanni Watershed for sieve analysis to obtain the grain size distribution of the bed materials. The analyses of the grain size distribution showed that the bed load accounted for 7% of the total suspended sediment load of 19,039,450 kg/annum in the Kubanni Watershed. Samaru River...

Author(s): Adeogun B. K., Igboro S. B. and Ibrahim F. B.

Economic advantage of rainwater harvesting over water borehole: A sustainable development at the Extension Site Federal Polytechnic, Oko

May 2011

  This paper analyses the economic advantage of rainwater harvesting over water borehole. The management of the polytechnic (Oko Poly) believed since the year 2000 that the provision of water supply and sanitation services is an important basic need. And they also wish to ensure long-term sustainability of the facility. Water is an essential ingredient for maintaining life in an environment as well as a...

Author(s): Otti Victor

Geophysical evaluation of rock type impact on aquifer characterization in the basement complex areas of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria: Geo-electric assessment and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach

May 2011

  Geoelectrical survey and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis were conducted in the hard-rock terrain areas of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria, with the view to determine impact of rock types on the variability of aquifer characteristics and their influence on the hydro geologic systems. The interpretation of the 414 sounding data indicates occurrence of 17 curve types which were used to...

Author(s): Mogaji K. A., Olayanju G. M. and Oladapo M. I

Hydrology, geomorphology and Rosgen classification of Doodhganga stream in Kashmir Himalaya, India

March 2011

  Hydrology and geomorphology of streams determine their physical state which in turn regulates the chemical and biological setup of these ecosystems. In the present study the hydrology and geomorphology of Doodhganga stream, which is one of the principle tributaries to the River Jhelum in the Valley of Kashmir (northern India), was worked out. Applicability of Rosgen stream classification, an important...

Author(s): Qazi Hussain A. and Ashok Pandit K.

Evaluation of mountain-front recharge estimation techniques for Southern New Mexico basins

March 2011

  Technically sound water management practices in arid to semi-arid regions require effective quantification of model input parameters. Mountain-front recharge is one of the most uncertain parameters in groundwater flow models due to the complexity of estimation. This paper evaluated three mountain-front recharge estimation techniques using a numerical model developed for the Southern Jornada Del Muerto Basin,...

Author(s): B. V. N. P. Kambhammettu,James P. King and Praveena Allena

Critical appraisal of an irrigation command and water productivity based on satellite remote sensing

February 2011

  Irrigation policy makers and managers need information on the irrigation performance and productivity of water at various scales to devise appropriate water management strategies, considering dwindling water availability, further threats due to continually rising population and food demand. It is often difficult to access sufficient water supply and use data to determine crop water consumption and irrigation...

Author(s): S. Shah and H. J. Dalwadi 

Radon and radium concentrations in 120 samples of drinking springs and rivers water sources of northwest regions of Mashhad

February 2011

  Radon makes up approximately half of the total dose of radiation were received naturally. The majority of it comes from the inhalation of progeny of 222Rn and is prominent in a closed atmosphere. The continuous measurement of the levels of 222Rn concentration in different geographical areas is of great importance, particularly in living places. In this study, the concentration of radium and...

Author(s): A. Binesh and H. Arabshahi

New technological root for regenerating demineralized water plants for safe environment

February 2011

  The experiments in this work were subjected to lab-scale ion exchangers unit, consists of two kinds of ion exchangers (strong acid cation exchanger and weak base anion exchangers). The experimental investigation was directed at studying a new method for regenerating the strongly acidic cation exchanger in the demineralized water unit using one concentration of sulfuric acid (5%) directly without any...

Author(s): Matheel D. Al-Sabti

Hydrogeochemical characterization of the coastal Paleocene aquifer of Togo (West Africa)

January 2011

  This paper presents a hydrogeochemical characterization of the Paleocene aquifer in the coastal basin of Togo. During the dry season (March, 2005), piezometric measurements were made on inventoried water wells. Fifty nine (59) water samples were taken for chemical analysis and the results subjected to statistical study. The quantitative variables considered for this purpose were temperature, pH, electrical...

Author(s):   Gnazou M. D. T., Bawa L. M.,  Banton O. and Djanéyé-Boundjou G.  

Stream flow forecasting using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm approach

January 2011

  Many of the activities associated with the planning and operation of water resource systems require forecasts of future events. For the hydrologic component that forms the input for water resource systems, there is a need for both short and long term forecasts of stream flow events, in order to optimize the real-time operation of the system or to plan for future expansion. For this historical inflow series...

Author(s): Deepika Yadav, R. Naresh and V. Sharma

Determination of aquifer characteristics in Eket, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, using the vertical electrical sounding method

January 2011

    This work is about geoelectric investigation involving eight vertical electrical soundings carried out in Okon, Ofriyo, Idua, Ikot Udoma, Atabong, Mkpok, Afaha Eket and Ikot Eket in Eket local government area of Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria. The total current electrode spread varied from 300 m to 400 m and this depended on access roads, topography, human settlements and general infrastructure....

Author(s): Magnus Uzoma Igboekwe, Efurumibe Ezinna Lucky and Akaninyene Okon Akankpo

Socio-demographic differences in the evaluation of water resources planning in South West, Nigeria

January 2011

The study examined differences in public assessment of water resources planning in Oyo State (southwest, Nigeria) based on certain socio-demographic variables such as gender and socio-economic background. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the way public assessed the planning of water resources on the basis of the two socio-demographic variables. The implication of the findings were...

Author(s): A. A. Amori, A. O. Eruolaand A. A. Makinde  

Mapping groundwater potential in Kitui District, Kenya using geospatial technologies

January 2011

  Kitui district is a semi-arid region characterized by erratic and unreliable rainfall. Despite this, the main economic activity is rain-fed agriculture, with irrigation agriculture taking place on small parcels adjoining riparian reserves. During the dry season, local people travel long distances in search of water, necessitating groundwater potential mapping to support exploitation and complementing other...

Author(s):   David Ndegwa Kuria Moses Karoki Gachari, Mary Wandia Macharia and Esther Mungai  

Water resources management and sustainable development in Sudan

December 2010

  For the thirty-nine million who live in Sudan, environmental pollution is a major concern; therefore industry, communities, local authorities and central government, to deal with pollution issues, should adopt an integrated approach. Most polluters pay little or no attention to the control and proper management of polluting effluents. This may be due to a lack of enforceable legislation and/or the fear of...

Author(s):   Abdeen Mustafa Omer

Assessment of water quality and impact of effluents from fertilizer factories to the Lakhya River

December 2010

  A study was carried out in Polash and Ghorasal Urea fertilizer factories to assess the impact of effluent on water quality of the Lakhya River. Comprehensive waste water sampling by grab sampling method and flow measurement by float velocity method were carried out for five weeks (one sample per week) at five sampling stations at Polash and Ghorasal Urea fertilizer factories during June to July, 2007. Water...

Author(s): Mohammad Hafizul Islam, Md. Mafizur Rahman and Fahmidah Ummul Ashraf

Environmental flows in Bhadra River, Karnataka, India

November 2010

  Environmental water requirements, also referred as ‘environmental flows’, are a compromise between water resources development and the maintenance of a river in ecologically acceptable or agreed condition. Managing environmental water flow is a complex task because the change of quantity of water occurs as the flow moves downstream. In this work, an attempt has been made to evaluate the...

Author(s): B. K. Harish Kumara, S. Srikantaswamy and Shakuntala Bai

Evaluation of the radiation dose from radon ingestion and inhalation in drinking water

November 2010

  Radon and its radioactive progenies in indoor places are recognized as the main sources of public exposure from the natural radioactive sources. The tap water used for drinking and other household uses can increase the indoor radon level. In the present research, drinking water samples were collected from various places and supplies of public water used in Mashhad city which has about 4 million population....

Author(s):   A. Binesh , S. Mohammadi , A. A. Mowlavi  and P. Parvaresh       

Need of benchmarking for socially and environmentally sustainable development of a major irrigation scheme

November 2010

  It is a proven fact that the quantity and quality of available water resources have been recognized as limiting factors in development of most of the arid and semi arid regions. The function of the conveyance and distribution systems and services should be providing sufficient water in a timely manner so that it can be used efficiently for crop production. Reliability, flexibility and efficiency are the...

Author(s): Sanjay Sitaram Phadnis and Mukul Kulshrestha

Water quality of domestic wells in typical African communities: Case studies from Nigeria

September 2010

Several African communities obtain their domestic water supplies from dug wells and this study takes Ibogun, Pakoto and Ifo communities in Ogun State, Nigeria as being typical. The objective is to assess the quality of the water supply from these dug wells, ascertain the contamination problems that may confront the consumers, and provide appropriate remedies. Twenty  dug wells were randomly selected in each...

Author(s): B. A. Adelekan

The diurnal variation of the physico-chemical parameters of a lowland river flow in a semi-arid landscape with human interferences in Zimbabwe

September 2010

Using data from southeast Zimbabwe intensive agricultural zone we investigated diurnal changes in the Runde River to discover the variations that can occur in the control and test sites of agricultural development. This should predict how the aquatic ecosystem responds when ’stressed' by human activities, such as runoff from the land. Diurnal changes were studied at a resolution of 2 h intervals between 0500...

Author(s): Clifford Tafangenyasha, Brian E. Marshall  and Lawrence T. Dube      

A methodology of finding dispersion coefficient using computational fluid dynamics (CFDs)

July 2010

  The treatment efficiency of waste stabilization pond is directly related to its hydraulic regime. The hydraulic efficiency of the pond is dependent on parameters such as the pond geometry, the location of inlet and outlet and the inlet flow velocity. Poorly designed or specified hydraulic parameters may lead to short circuiting and dead regions within the pond. This in turn impacts the dispersion coefficient....

Author(s): Rouzbeh Abbassi, Faisal Khan and Kelly Hawboldt

Empirical correlations for the performance of belt skimmer operating under environmental dynamic conditions

July 2010

  The present study is predicting, by deducing empirical correlations, the effect of varying the operating and the environmental parameters on the performance of belt skimmer. The belt linear speed, belt inclination angle and oil film thickness are the operating parameters. The current speed and the wave height are the environmental parameters. The oil recovery rate, ORR and the oil recovery efficiency, ORE,...

Author(s): Sadek Z. Kassab

Prioritization of micro watersheds on the basis of soil erosion hazard using remote sensing and geographic information system

July 2010

  Degradation of agricultural land by soil erosion is world wide phenomenon leading to loss of nutrient-rich surface soil, increased run off from more impermeable subsoil and decreased water availability to plant. Thus estimation of soil loss and identification of critical area for implementation of best management practice is central to success of soil conservation programme. In this study universal soil loss...

Author(s): Vipul Shinde, K. N. Tiwari and Manjushree Singh

Making a case for systems thinking approach to integrated water resources management (IWRM)

July 2010

  While definite benefits could be gained from integrating the management of natural and human systems, taking into account the effects of human activities on the environment, the task of operationalising and implementing this approach in practice represents an enormous challenge. Some limitations highlighted include the definition of integrated water resources management (IWRM) itself, where it appears to be...

Author(s): Bloodless Dzwairo, Fred A.O. Otieno and George M. Ochieng

Comparison of pollutant levels in effluent from wastewater treatment plants in Blantyre, Malawi

June 2010

  In Malawi, the requirement to treat wastewater is underscored by the existing regulatory framework, institutional arrangements, and policy guidelines. In addition, formalized national effluent standards exist. This study was conducted to determine the pollutant levels in effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants in the city of Blantyre, Malawi, and to compare these with Government of Malawi...

Author(s): Victor Chipofya, Andrzej Kraslawski and Yury Avramenko

Modeling hydropower plant system to improve its reservoir operation

June 2010

  One way of improving water management is increasing the efficiency of utilization of dam reservoirs. Even small improvement in reservoir operation can lead to large benefits. But there is no universal solution for reservoir operation problems. Hence, it is necessary to study the system and determine optimal reservoir operation guides for each scheme. In the present study, Melka Wakana Hydropower Plant in...

Author(s): T. G. Bosona and G. Gebresenbet

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