Journal of
Public Health and Epidemiology

  • Abbreviation: J. Public Health Epidemiol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2316
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPHE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 653

JPHE Articles

Evaluation of health status of pre-menarcheal and post-menarcheal girls by Rohrer index in Purulia, West Bengal

January 2011

Undernutrition in children and adolescents is a major problem in India. Age at menarche is a significant indicator of growth in girls. The present study records age at menarche, prevalence of under nutrition measured by Rohrer Index in both pre-menarcheal (n=107) as well as post-menarcheal (n = 131) girls (n = 238) aged 6.01 to 14.63 years. In this cross-sectional study, mean age at menarche is estimated to be 12.60...

Author(s): Sudip Datta Banik

Male perspective(s) on condom use: Context of STI/HIV prevention in the University of Ghana community

January 2011

This study examined the influence of condom use on men’s sexual behaviour in the University of Ghana community. In all, 600 men were sampled for this study using stratified and simple random sampling techniques. The ages of respondents ranged from 17 to 74 years with a mean age of 24 years. The study found that while 80% men have ever used condom, a little over 50% of them used condom at their last sexual...

Author(s): Daniel Yaw Fiaveh

The impact of parental education on infant mortality in Gaza strip, Palestine

January 2011

A society's infant mortality rate is considered an important indicator of its health status. Maternal education has been accepted almost unanimously as a major socio-economic factor in infant mortality. In addition, it is one of the few measures of health status for which data are widely available in most countries. Many research studies have been done on this topic, but never in Palestine. This study was...

Author(s): Mazen Abuqamar, Danny Coomans and Fred Louckx

Contraceptive knowledge and usage amongst female secondary school students in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria

January 2011

The high maternal mortality and morbidity rate in Nigeria is a major concern for every stakeholder in the health sector and unsafe abortion is a major cause. As a remedy, it was suggested that active efforts to promote sexuality education and contraceptive use should be intensified among Nigerian adolescents. In this regard, we studied the level of contraceptive knowledge and use among adolescents in three secondary...

Author(s): Adetokunbo Tayo, Oluwarotimi Akinola, Abiola Babatunde, Adeniyi Adewunmi, Dele Osinusi and Lukeman Shittu

Disasters in Kenya: A major public health concern

January 2011

A disaster is defined as an event or series of events, which give rise to casualties and/or damage or loss of property, infrastructure, essential services or means of livelihoods on a scale which is beyond the normal capacity of the affected community to cope with unaided. This event or events disrupt the normal patterns of life (or ecosystem) and extraordinary emergency interventions are required to save and preserve...

Author(s): Marion W. Mutugi and Samuel G. Maingi

Preterm delivery and low birth weight among neonates born to HIV-positive and HIV-negative Ghanaian women

December 2010

In sub-Saharan Africa, several hundreds of pregnancies are exposed to both malaria and HIV infections annually. Adverse perinatal outcomes as a result of these infections include preterm delivery (PTD), and low birth weight (LBW). These are not well characterized in Ghana. We determined whether malaria and HIV infections during pregnancy increase the risk of delivering a preterm or a LBW neonate. We enrolled 1,154 women...

Author(s): Laar A. K., Ampofo W., Tuakli J. M., Norgbe G. K. and Quakyi I. A.

Application of Gis-Rs in bacteriological examination of rural community water supply and sustainability problems with UNICEF assisted borehole: A case study of Alabata community, South-western Nigeria

December 2010

Alabata is a community with no electricity and comprehensive topographic or administrative map. They also depend on a fuelled generating set to power the pumping machine for the UNICEF assisted borehole. The citizens often had to resort to an unsafe alternative water source for domestic purposes. In March 2006 an observational study trip through which data on sanitation, health and water sources were acquired was made...

Author(s): Shittu O. B., Akpan I., Popoola T. O. S., Oyedepo J. A. and Oluderu I. B.

Vaginal douching practice in Eskisehir in Turkey

December 2010

The objective of the study was to identify the vaginal douching habits and the factors that would have a connection with this practice in women from Eskisehir Province in Turkey. This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 May to 30 June, 2005. In present study, any sampling technique was not used. The subjects were women belonging to the 15 - 49 age groups who were admitted to No. 2 Family Planning...

Author(s): Didem Arslantas, Hatice Karabagli and Filiz Koc

Risk assessment of cardiovascular disease among staff of the University of Buea, South Western Cameroon

December 2010

Current changing lifestyles of Africans may impact on their risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed at identifying the pattern of the major risk factors of CVD and the total risk of CVD among workers of the University of Buea. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 313 teaching and support staff of the institution. Fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, Triglycerides and HDL cholesterol...

Author(s): Eric A. Achidi and Delphine A. Tangoh

Factors associated with disease outcome in children at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)

December 2010

Globally, 10.5 million children die annually. Approximately 6 million of Kenya’s population are under five years with a child mortality rate of 74 per 1000 live births. Children attending Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) have preventable and treatable illnesses. The aim of the study was to assess care taker factors associated with disease outcome among children at KNH. A cross sectional study was conducted;...

Author(s): Gichobi D., Wanzala P., Mutai J. and Kamweya A.

Childhood leprosy: A retrospective study

December 2010

Leprosy remains an important public health and social issue in South Asia, particularly in India. Its presence in childhood is an immense social burden on account of the associated disabilities and widely prevalent misconceptions regarding communicability and treatment potential. Besides, the prevalence of leprosy among children suggests possible lacunae in the operation of the national programmes aimed at elimination...

Author(s): Sandeep Sachdeva, S. Suhail Amin, Zulfia Khan Seema Alam and Pranav Kumar Sharma

Comparison of various immunoassay kits for rapid screening of pandemic influenza H1N1-2009 viruses

November 2010

The success of therapeutic measures is predicted on the basis of rapid and precise diagnosis of  infection. A comparison of three rapid influenza immunoassay (RIIA) kits, the Directigen Flu A+B test, QuickVue influenza A+B test and the Quick S-INFLU A.B, for detection of pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009) viruses, have been made on 105 patients with flu like syndrome. The sensitivity, specificity and ability to screen...

Author(s): Binod Kumar, Bhavna Sharma, Madhu Khanna, Varinder Singh, Mradul K Daga, V. K. Vijayan, A. C. Mishra, M. S. Chadha, Mamta Chawla-Sarkarand Harpreet Kaur

Contraception among persons living HIV with infection attending an HIV care and support centre in Kabale, Uganda

November 2010

The choice of contraception in people living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is constrained by the need to prevent both sexual transmission of HIV and unwanted pregnancies.  We assessed contraceptive use among 400 HIV- positive persons attending a care and support centre in Kabale, Uganda. Participants completed a structured questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, sexuality,...

Author(s): Othman Kakaire, Dan K. Kaye and  Michael O. Osinde

Community social capital and the use of health care services in Uganda

November 2010

Evidence mainly from high and middle income countries shows that community social capital is associated with positive health outcomes. The current policy interest in social capital stems from the anticipation that investing in it will enhance improvements in population health and some governments in high income countries have promoted initiatives to enhance its generation. However, there is a paucity of empirical...

Author(s): Bakeera S. K., Petzold M., Pariyo G. W., Galea S., Tomson G. and Wamala S.,

Influenza surveillance results during 2008 - 2009 season in Turkey

November 2010

National influenza surveillance was performed by two institutions in Turkey, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency (RSNPHA) and Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (IFM), which both are National Influenza Reference Laboratories. RSNPHA received samples from 9 sentinel Provinces and IFM received samples from 5 sentinel Provinces. We report the 2008 to 2009 surveillance results from October 2008 - May 2009. As many as 1,980...

Author(s): Nurhan Albayrak, Meral A. Ciblak, Ayse Basak Altas, Melis Kanturvardar, Yavuz Odabas, Bahadir Sucakli, Gulay Korukluoglu, Selim Badur and Mustafa Ertek

Adolescent suicidal behaviors, self rated health and multiple health risk behaviors: Exploring new perspectives in suicide prevention research

November 2010

We sought to evaluate the extent to which self-rating of health, gender, and the co-occurrence of other health risk behaviors were related to suicidal behaviors among adolescents. Cross-sectional survey data of Colorado middle and high school students aged 12 to 18 years were analyzed using logistic regression. Main outcome variables were suicide ideation, suicide planning, and suicide attempt. Predictors included...

Author(s): Stephen Nkansah-Amankra, Abdoulaye Diedhiou, Ashley Dawn Walker, Harry Agbanu and Alena Clark

Environmental risk factors and hospital-based cancers in two Nigerian cities

November 2010

This ecologic study assessed disparities between environmental risk factors and cancers in two Nigerian cities. Environmental data were obtained for Port Harcourt (highly industrialized) and Ibadan(less industrialized) cities respectively. Ten- year cancer records were also obtained from the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Port Harcourt and the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan. Data were...

Author(s): Godson R. E. E. Ana, Mynepalli K. C. Sridhar and Michael C. Asuzu

Epidemiological features of a GIS-supported investigation of cholera outbreak in Abeokuta, Nigeria

October 2010

This study seeks to assess the epidemiological features of a GIS supported investigation of a cholera outbreak in Abeokuta. Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria with an area of 1256 km2 and a population of 605, 451 people had an outbreak of cholera from 20th November, 2005 to 1st of January, 2006. The outbreak affected the Abeokuta North Local Government area where the municipal...

Author(s): O. B. Shittu, I. Akpan, T. O. S. Popoola, J. A. Oyedepo and E. O. Ogunshola

Epidemiological characteristics of liver cancer in Niger (1992 - 2006)

October 2010

The present work aims to bring out the epidemiological characteristics of liver cancer in Niger, especially as no previous studies have worked on the national epidemiology of cancer in Niger. This is a retrospective study in the period 1992 to 2006. The data were collected from the Laboratory of Pathological Anatomy and Cytology of the Faculty of Health Sciences of Niamey, which receives all the swabs intended for the...

Author(s): Mamoudou Garba Salamatou, Arfaoui Amine, Mastere Mohamed, Soulaymani Abdelmajid, Nouhou Hassan and Quyou Ali

Prevalence and epidemiology of pandemic H1N1 strains in hospitals of Eastern India

October 2010

A novel Influenza A (pH1N1) virus which emerged in April, 2009, spread rapidly across the continents to become pandemic by June, 2009. In Eastern India, testing for influenza was initiated in June, 2009 and continued through July, 2010 to determine prevalence and epidemiological character of circulating pandemic H1N1 strain. Real time PCR was done on nasal and throat swab samples of patients with influenza like symptoms...

Author(s): Anupam Mukherjee, Tapasi Roy, Anurodh S Agrawal, Mehuli Sarkar, Renu Lal, Sekhar Chakrabarti and Mamta Chawla-Sarkar

Epidemiological characteristics of Bancroftian filariasis and the Nigerian environment

September 2010

Bancroftian filariasis, caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is widespread in Nigeria. It is a serious public health problem as well as a major cause of acute and chronic morbidity in Nigeria. Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus are the main vectors in the rural Nigeria while Culex quenquifasciatus is the vector in the urban and semi-urban areas. Although these mosquito...

Author(s): B. E. B. Nwoke, E. A. Nwoke, , C. N. Ukaga and M. I. Nwachukwu

Zoonotic tuberculosis: A review of epidemiology, clinical presentation, prevention and control

September 2010

The current increasing incidence of tuberculosis in humans, particularly in immunocompromised persons, has given a renewed interest in the zoonotic importance of Mycobacterium bovis, especially in developing countries. The roles of meat and milk, the commonest source of protein to man, in the transmission of the disease remain significant. Due to the grave consequences of M. bovisinfection on animal and human...

Author(s): Nwanta John Anaelom, Onunkwo Joseph Ikechukwu, Ezema Wilfred Sundayand Umeononigwe Chukwunonso Nnaemeka

Disease surveillance and reporting in two Southwestern states in Nigeria: Logistic challenges and prospects

September 2010

Disease surveillance has been recognized as an effective strategy in the control and prevention of diseases most especially communicable diseases. An effective surveillance system allows early intervention for the prevention and reduction of the mortality and morbidity that may result from epidemics of communicable diseases. This study assesses the adequacy of training of disease surveillance and notification officers...

Author(s): M. D. Dairo, J. O. Bamidele and W. O. Adebimpe

The impact of antenatal voluntary counseling and testing for HIV on future fertility intentions, desired family size and contraception in Uganda

September 2010

This study aimed is at assessing the impact of voluntary counseling and testing for HIV on family planning in a setting of high HIV prevalence and high TFR. An intervention study was conducted between January and March 2004 among women who had been counseled about HIV, STI and contraception during pregnancy followed with voluntary HIV testing. 121 HIV positive and 206 HIV negative attending antenatal clinic aged 24.6...

Author(s): B. C. Businge, , B. M. J. Nannozi, , C. Biryabarema, T. Mutyaba, J. Wandabwa, F. Mirembe, C. Kigundu and B. Longo-Mbenza

Priority families for health care according to family socio-demographic risks

September 2010

Socio-economic inequalities have been shown to be associated with disease burden in developing as well as developed countries. The aim of the study was (1) to test the association between family socio-demographic risks and health problems, and (2) to identify a “family sociodemographic risk line” above which families are at significant risk of developing health problems. A cross sectional community-based...

Author(s): Doa’a Ahmed Saleh, Sahar Yassin, Hend Aly Sabry and Madiha Said Abdelrazik

Symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis and genital colonization by Candida species in Nigeria

September 2010

Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common clinical finding among women especially the sexually active group, even though there has been a sustained increase in both the variety and potency of antifungal drugs over the past three decades. The disease apparently appears not to have sufficiently yielded to these breakthroughs nevertheless. The study was therefore set up to ascertain the prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among...

Author(s): G. T. A. Jombo, S. O. Opajobi, D. Z. Egah, E. B. Banwat and P. Denen Akaa

Perspective: Filling in the gaps of the global research agenda for eliminating malaria

August 2010

Despite the scaling-up of existing control measures and the commitment to controlling malaria the global situation has worsened. Concurrently, the drug, which was hailed as the biggest hope for eradicating malaria, Artemisinin by having significant activity against developing gametocytes, is showing signs of resistance at the Thailand-Cambodia border. This article purports to draw on lessons learnt from this...

Author(s): Sonia Menon

Prevalence and constraints of typhoid fever and its control in an endemic area of Singida region in Tanzania: Lessons for effective control of the disease

August 2010

Typhoid fever (TF) is an important communicable disease that is endemic to Tanzania, quite often complicated with malaria co-infection leading to diagnostic complications and significant mortality. Despite considerable control efforts, the disease continues to persist in Singida urban leading to significant morbidity and mortality. This paper retrospectively examines morbidity and mortality trend of typhoid infection...

Author(s): Allen Malisa and Honest Nyaki

Factors influencing the sero-prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness in Juba District, Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan

August 2010

A surveillance of the Gambian type of Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT) conducted in Juba area using the Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomosis (CATT) showed that 257 (11.1%) out of 2322 individuals were sero-positive. The sero-positive rate in the pooled adults was higher but not significanty different from that of the pooled children. The adult females sero-prevalence rate was significantly higher than those of...

Author(s): Yassir Osman Mohammed, Khitma Hassan ElMalik, Mohammed Musa Mohammed-Ahmed and Intisar Elrayah

Socio-economic implications of Simulium damnosum complex infestation in some rural communities in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

August 2010

Simulium damnosum sensu lato constitutes serious public health hazard and socio-economic problem in many areas of West Africa. The present study was carried out to document the socio-economic implications of black fly infestation in some rural communities of Odeda Local Government. Structured questionnaires were administered to thirty randomly selected people aged 18 years and above in three selected...

Author(s): M. A. Adeleke, , I. K. Olaoye and A. S. Ayanwale

Professional analysis of medical staff in public hospitals in China

July 2010

To analyze the efficiency of public hospitals in Guangdong Province, China, and to compare the differences by region and levels of care. To carry out a survey of selected hospitals in different cities by the method of cluster sampling and to analyze the efficiency of these hospitals using data envelopment analysis (DEA). 254 public hospitals were surveyed with a 100% response rate. About 184 (72.4%) completed the survey...

Author(s): Abdul K. Mbawah, Peng Xiaoming and Chen Shaoxian

Hypertension-related knowledge, attitudes and life-style practices among hypertensive patients in a sub-urban Nigerian community

July 2010

Hypertension (htn) is an important public health challenge at Auchi, Nigeria. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological survey was to determine hypertensive patients’ knowledge, perceptions, attitudes and life-style practices so as to optimize their health and treatment needs. We examined a cohort of 108 randomly selected hypertensive by means of a self-structured questionnaire and a detailed interview....

Author(s): Godfrey B. S. Iyalomhe and Sarah I. Iyalomhe

The impact of health facility monitoring on cold chain management practices in Lagos, Nigeria

July 2010

About 1000 privately owned health facilities (HFs) were (re)-visited between September 2007 and September, 2009. A total of 2,100 health workers (HWs) were interviewed in these HFs to evaluate their knowledge on vaccine management and administration. Cold chain assessment form was completed for each HF revisited. Health Workers that were deficient in cold chain management knowledge were given on the spot training....

Author(s): A. Munir Bankole, Kola-Korolo Olusegun, N. Bankole Marian, Iboma Godswill, O. Adeluola Adebowale, A. J. Shittu Lukeman, Olonire Olufemi, Tayo Adetokunbo and A. Mariam Odunaiye

Refuse disposal practices in three major motor parks in Ibadan municipality, Nigeria

July 2010

Transportation and human mobility have become a part of development in many developing countries. In Nigerian cities, this vital activity has also led to problems associated with large quantities of waste generation and became a management issue for Local and State Governments. This work was carried out at three major motor parks, viz. Akinyele, Iwo Road, and New Garage, in Ibadan, the capital of Oyo State in...

Author(s): S. Ibekwe Titus, E. Dongo Andrew  and K. C. Sridhar Mynepalli

Staphylococcal enterotoxins: Molecular aspects and detection methods

June 2010

Members of the Staphylococcus genus, especially Staphylococcus aureus, are the most common pathogens found in hospitals and in community-acquired infections. Some of their pathogenicity is associated with enzyme and toxin production. Until recently, S. aureus was the most studied species in the genus; however, in last few years, the rise of infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci...

Author(s): Nathalie Gaebler Vasconcelos and Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha

Bovine trypanosomosis and its impact on cattle in derived savanna areas of Ogun State, Nigeria

June 2010

Parasitological evaluation of bovine trypanosomosis to assess its impact in 113 cattle from Ogunola, Olodo, and Imeko in derived savanna areas of Ogun State were carried out. Blood samples were collected aseptically and screened using Standard Trypanosome Detection Methods in addition to packed cell volume (PCV) determination. Results showed that mean prevalence rate of bovine trypanosomosis was 31.62% with varying...

Author(s): S. O. Sam-Wobo, A. J. Igenezoa, O. A. Idowu, E. B. Otesile, U. F. Ekpoand O. O. Kehinde

Parasitic infections and anaemia during pregnancy in the Kassena-Nankana district of Northern Ghana

June 2010

Anaemia is often an adverse outcome of severe parasitic infections during pregnancy in developing countries. This study examined the association between anaemia and Plasmodium and or intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy. A hospital based survey was conducted on 300 pregnant women on their first consultation to antenatal services in the Kassena-Nankana district of Northern Ghana from...

Author(s): Godwin Fuseini⊃, Dominic Edoh⊃, Bugre Gumah Kalifa⊃, Abdul-Wahab Hamid⊃ and Dave Knight 

The effect of intermittent preventive treatment using sulphadoxine pyrimethamine in the control of malaria in pregnancy: A cross-sectional study in the Offinso district of Ghana

June 2010

Malaria infection during pregnancy causes maternal anaemia and placental parasitaemia both of which pose substantial risks to the mother, the foetus and the newborn. This study assessed the effects of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to control malaria in pregnancy in the Offinso district, Ghana. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) between October 2005 and June...

Author(s): Emmanuel Osei Tutu, , Easmon Otupiri, John Larbi, Charles Brown,Edmund Browne and Bernard Lawson

Pleomorphic appearance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

April 2010

Mycobacterium tuberculosis still remains a substantial global threat due to ill defined mechanisms that enable this organism to persist and replicate. Although molecular methods have revolutionized the diagnostic techniques in tuberculosis, yet a conventional simple microscopy remains the most cheap, easy and simple method for its diagnosis. The only requirement for the same is a trained eye to identify different...

Author(s): S. Malhotra, N K. Bhatia, M. Kaushal, N. Kaur and A. Chauhan

Emerging health threats among a primitive tribal group of Central India

April 2010

A cross-sectional study was conducted among adult Saharia, a primitive tribal group (PTG) of Madhya Pradesh. A total of 364 subjects (168 males and 196 females) ranging in age group 18 - 60 years were divided into two groups based on their random blood sugar level. Stature, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, skin fold thicknesses, fat percent, blood pressure and blood sugar level were measured for all the...

Author(s): Satwanti Kapoor Renu Tyagi, Kiran Saluja, Anumeha Chaturvedi, A. K. Kapoor

Beta thalassemia major: The Moroccan experience

April 2010

Thalassemia has been described originally around the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of this study is to find out how Morocco deals with it. It is a retrospective study which has been done in the hemato-oncology service that treats patients with beta thalassemia major who are registered for receiving blood transfusions. With sample size of 78, demographics, clinical and family data were collected and descriptive...

Author(s): Agouzal , A. Arfaoui, A. Quyou and M. Khattab

The European union micro-projects program in water and sanitation and reduction in the incidence of some diseases in the rural communities of Imo State

February 2010

Many studies in the rural communities in Imo State have revealed that the levels of water and sanitation services are generally unsatisfactory. This has led to high prevalence of many diseases associated with water scarcity and poor hygiene. This study examined the role of the European Union Micro-Projects Program in water and sanitation in the reduction of the incidence of some of these diseases in the rural areas of...

Author(s): Edmund E. Nkwocha and Ralph O. Egejuru

Laparoscopic repair of ventral hernia an early experience at Khyber teaching hospital Peshawar

February 2010

To analyze the results and outcome of laparoscopic ventral hernia repair as a relatively new technique in our setup. Prospective study from June 2007 to June 2008. Surgical-D Unit, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. All the patients undergoing laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. The patients were evaluated clinically and by investigations. After appropriate preparation, laparoscopic mesh repair was performed. Intra and...

Author(s): Rooh-Ul-Muqim, Qutb-E-Alam Jan, Mohammad Zarin, Faryal Gul, Jawad Ahmed, Javeria Iqbal and Aziz Wazir

Prevalence of Campylobacter in poultry meat in Sokoto, North-western Nigeria

December 2009

The study was conducted in Sokoto, Nigeria from November 2007 to October 2008 to investigate the presence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat, by standard culture techniques. Campylobacter was detected in 558 (81.9%) of the 681 meat samples, the isolates were characterized by conventional phenotypic tests.Campylobacter jejuni was the most commonly identified species accounting for 340 (60.9%)...

Author(s): M. D. Salihu, A. U. Junaidu, A. A. Magaji, M. B. Abubakar, A. Y.  Adamu and A. S. Yakubu

Chromium and copper in toenails of some Kano inhabitants

December 2009

Toenail chromium and copper concentrations in toenails of some inhabitants resident in Kano for at least six months were assessed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Average toenail chromium and copper concentrations were 1.33 ± 0.68 and 27.62 ± 13.29 µg/g respectively. Both chromium and copper concentrations in nails decreased with age indicating that these metals may be playing some physiological...

Author(s): J. T. Ayodele and I. C. Ajala

Desire for pain relief in labour in Northeastern Nigeria

December 2009

Labour pain is a distressing and psychologically traumatizing experience to the parturient but little data exist in the Northeastern part of Nigeria regarding pain relief in labour, despite its many advantages. To determine the knowledge, desire and access to pain relief in labour as well as perception of labour pain. This is a cross sectional study of two hundred and fifty five women in two tertiary institutions in...

Author(s): Bala Audu, Usman Yahaya, Mohammed Bukar, Aliyu El-Nafaty, Hadiza Abdullahi and Othman Kyari

The use of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in pregnancy in Ibadan, Nigeria: Implications for policy

October 2009

Malaria in pregnancy (MIP) remains a major public health concern, inspite of the adoption of WHO recommended intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for its control in Nigeria. Using interviewer administered questionnaires, information on knowledge of the burden, consequences and the use of SP for malaria control in pregnancy was obtained from 800 mothers within 24 h after delivery...

Author(s): Tongo O. Olukemi, Orimadegun Adebola Emmanuel and Akinyinka Olusegun Olusina

Cyanobacteria and absence of cyanotoxins in a public water supply source

October 2009

Current analysis, involving measurements of biotic and abiotic factors, determined which factor favored cyanobacteria with subsequent concentrations of microcystins in water collected from a public water supply source during the dry and rainy periods and which received residual water from agricultural production systems. Since no microcystins were detected, waters fitted within the maximum limits of...

Author(s): Ludmilla Santana Soares e Barros, Fagner Correia de Souza, Lúcia Helena Sipaúba Tavares and Luiz Augusto do Amaral

Determinants of knowledge and awareness about AIDS: Urban-rural differentials in Bangladesh

October 2009

This study utilized data from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004 to identify the determinants of knowledge about AIDS for women of urban and rural areas of Bangladesh, bi-variate and multivariate logistic regression methods were employed in analyzing data. This study found that a wider gap exists between urban and rural areas regarding knowledge about AIDS, where every 8 out of 10 urban women know about AIDS...

Author(s): Mosiur Rahman

Simplifying mathematical modelling to test intervention strategies for Chlamydia

October 2009

In recent years, there has been a rise in applications of mathematical modelling in sexually transmitted infections. This paper outlines a new approach to ma-thematical modelling that tests intervention efforts on Chlamydia. The aim was to produce a simple model that can be used when new data comes to hand without the need to re-run the simulation. A simple model was developed to study the effects of interventions...

Author(s): Catherine Heffernan and Jacob A. Dunningham

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