Journal of
Public Health and Epidemiology

  • Abbreviation: J. Public Health Epidemiol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2316
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPHE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 565

JPHE Articles

Knowledge and attitudes about induced abortions among female youths attending Naguru Teenage Information and Health Centre, Kampala, Uganda

April 2013

This study aims to investigate unsafe abortion, which is more prevalent in low resource countries, contributes significantly to maternal morbidity and mortality. In Uganda, majority of patients treated for complications of induced abortion are adolescents and young, yet their knowledge and attitudes are understudied. In this paper we described the knowledge and attitudes of female youths about medical complications of...

Author(s): Justin Lussy Paluku, Sam Kalisoke, Julius Wandabwa and Paul Kiondo

Impact of community health educators on the nutrition of children in Gaza province, Mozambique

April 2013

Twenty six percent of children with protein-energy malnutrition live in Africa. This studydetermines whether Care Groups (CG) in collaboration with Community-based HealthEducators (CHE) help reduce malnutrition in children between 0 and 23 months of age. A total of 299 caregivers at baseline (2004) and 380 at follow-up (2007) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Caregivers were between 12 and 49...

Author(s): Stabern D. Kapurura and Andy Beke

Knowledge and preventive practices related to Avian influenza among livestock farmers and poultry traders in Ikorodu, Lagos state, Nigeria

April 2013

The emergence of H5N1 led to increased global attention as the virus could potentially represent the source of the next human influenza pandemic. The disease has led to the loss of millions of birds which constitute a major source of animal protein. This study was therefore aimed at determining the knowledge and preventive practices related to Avian influenza among livestock keepers and poultry traders in Ikorodu, Lagos...

Author(s): M. D. Dairo and Nusirat Elelu

Assessment of water quality and its effects on the health of residents of Jhunjhunu district, Rajasthan: A cross sectional study

April 2013

Achieving efficient, effective and cost effective water purification methods for the community is the key to human survival and development, as water management is a current global concern. Water is the basic resource necessary for sustaining all human activities, so its provision in desired quantity and quality is of utmost importance. Water pollution affects drinking water, rivers, lakes and oceans all over the world,...

Author(s): Taruna Juneja and Alankrita Chaudhary

Knowledge of sexually transmitted Infections among patients attending outpatient clinics at University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

March 2013

The study was designed to assess the level of knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and possible factors associated with knowledge of patients attending outpatient clinic in University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. This is to enable appropriate advocacy targeted on at risk population so as to control sexually transmitted infections and prevent its complications in this environment. A cross sectional...

Author(s): Adegun, P. T., Solomon, O. A., Adegoke, S. A., Ade-Ojo, I. P. and Fape M. O.

Multiple outcome parameters: A 10 year follow-up study of first-episode schizophrenia

March 2013

Schizophrenia is a disease with multiple dimensions, thus its treatment also results in differential outcomes. A number of clinically recovered patients do not recover in several other parameters of social functions which are necessary to lead a socially integrated and functional life, for example, the ability to work or live independently. Until recently, the outcome of schizophrenia has been measured primarily in...

Author(s): Amresh Shrivastava, Nilesh Shah, Megan E. Johnston, Kristen Terpstra and Larry Stitt

A Bayesian Poisson specification with a conditionally autoregressive prior and a residual Moran’s coefficient minimization criterion for quantitating leptokurtic distributions in regression-based multi-drug resistant tuberculosis treatment protocols

March 2013

In this study, we employed an eigenfunction decomposition algorithm associated with a Moran’s coefficient to investigate district-level non-linearity in an empirical dataset of spatiotemporal-sampled MDR-TB parameter estimators sampled in San Juan de Lurigancho (SJL) Lima, Peru. The non-parametric technique attempted to remove the inherent autocorrelation in the model by introducing appropriate synthetic surrogate...

Author(s): Benjamin G. Jacob, Fiorella Krapp, Mario Ponce, Nanhua Zhang, Semiha Caliskan, Jose Hasemann, Daniel A. Griffith, Eduardo Gotuzzo and Robert J.  Novak

Prevalence of cockroaches (Periplanata americana) in households in Calabar: Public health implications

March 2013

The study was carried out in Anantigha area of Calabar, Nigeria and involved the trapping and examination of cockroaches from toilets, kitchens, living rooms and bedrooms of houses to determine the parasites in and on the cockroaches and also to assess the possible role of the cockroaches in the dissemination of medically important parasites. A total of 322 cockroaches were trapped from the different sites within the...

Author(s): Etim, S. E., Okon, O. E., Akpan, P. A., Ukpong G. I.  and Oku, E. E.

Perceived needs for school mental health among stakeholders in districts of South-west Nigeria

March 2013

Child and adolescent mental health problems could cause significant distress, and may limit the chance of a student to fully utilize his or her potentials.  School mental health services (SMHS) are standard practices in many parts of the world and serves as a useful preventive intervention against child/adolescent psychiatric disorders. The study is aimed at determining teachers, students and parents beliefs about...

Author(s): Oshodi O. Y., Aina O. F., Adeyemi J. D., Oduguwa T. O. and Ogundipe O. A.

Plasmodial infection and haematological parameters in febrile patients in a hospital in Oyo town, South-western Nigeria

March 2013

A cross-sectional study on Plasmodium infection was conducted among 158 febrile patients (65 males and 93 females) reporting to Oyo State Hospital, Oyo, South-western Nigeria. Parasitological and haematological examinations of the blood samples were conducted. An overall infection rate of 29.7% was observed with parasite densities ranging from 96 - 64680 asexual parasites/µL blood. The percentages of...

Author(s): Adedotun A. A., Salawu O. T., Morenikeji, O. A. and Odaibo A. B.

Uranium concentration in ground water samples belonging to some areas of Western Haryana, India using fission track registration technique

March 2013

Author(s): D.P.S. Rathore

How accurate is triaxial RT3TM (RT3) accelerometer for estimating energy expenditure?

February 2013

The participants are instructed to remove the RT3 only for sleeping, bathing and swimming activities but some studies have shown the participants remove the accelerometer for longer times. The activities performed while the accelerometer is not being worn and, or energy that was not recorded during this time has never been estimated. This study aimed to assess compliance in using the accelerometer and quantify the...

Author(s): Selma Liberato and Josefina Bressan

Equity of care: A comparison of National Health Insurance Scheme enrolees and fee-paying patients at a private health facility in Ibadan, Nigeria

February 2013

This study compared the cost and process of care for patients enrolled in the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to those who made out-of-pocket payments for health care. A cross-sectional analytical study design was used. Data were obtained from case files of patients. The study was conducted at a privately owned general hospital in the city of Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. A total of 200 NHIS enrollees and 200...

Author(s): Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen and Ige, Olusimbo Kehinde

Results of a peer navigation pilot program to link HIV positive clients of harm reduction services with Ryan White Clinical Service Providers

February 2013

Peer navigation programs may improve healthcare accessibility and adherence for hard-to-reach populations. We piloted a peer navigation program at 3 sites within the United States with the aim of linking HIV positive clients of harm reduction services with Ryan White Clinical Services. We compared navigator activity logs and client tracking forms to evaluate the efficacy of the peer navigation program and to determine...

Author(s): Rachel Hallum-Montes, Thekla Manoloudis, Rohan D’Souza, Cornell Wrisby, Barbara Cicatelli, Stefanie Cousins, Helen Rovito and Michael Anastario

Environmental audit of a refuse dump site in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

February 2013

The overall objective of this study was to perform an external compliance environmental audit of open refuse dumping at the Ugbor dump site by describing the physical and economic characteristics of the study area using a descriptive, cross sectional comparative study design. Data were collected via key informant interviews, focus group discussion,checklists and standardized measuring tapes. The major...

Author(s): Owoeye I. O. Gani and Okojie O. H.

Asymptomatic bacteriuria among secondary school students in Benin City, Nigeria

February 2013

Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is common, with varying prevalence by age and gender, amongst other factors. AB is more likely to develop to symptomatic urinary tract infection, thus, necessitating periodic review. This study aims to determine the prevalence of AB among secondary school students in Benin City. Etiologic agents and bacterial susceptibility will also be determined. Clean-catch mid-stream urine was obtained...

Author(s): Helen Oroboghae Ogefere and Sunday Ossai Oluka

Individual and area-based socioeconomic influences on HIV seroprevalence in Cameroon

February 2013

HIV infection prevalence shows strong regional variations in Cameroon, with the North West and the East as the most affected regions. Studies which have attempted to investigate the variation in HIV prevalence in Sub-Saharan countries found that the geographical heterogeneity in Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence between high and low prevalence areas still existed after considering the different distribution...

Author(s): Vescio, F., Cappelli, G., Foudà, P. J., Busani, L., Tchidjou, H., Colizzi, V. and Rezza, G.

Plants associated with aquatic stages of Onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato in AbuHamed and Galabat Foci in Sudan

February 2013

Onchocerciasis vector, Simulium (Edwardsellum) damnsoum sensu lato (Diptera: Simuliidae), breeds near rapids and cataracts in running water rich in oxygen and are usually found attached to water plants, trailing roots and branches, stones and rocks. This study was conducted to identify the plant species associated with the aquatic stages of S. damnosum s. l. vectors in two foci: AbuHamed in...

Author(s): Isam M. A. Zarroug, Arwa H. Elaagip, Hanan A. Mohamed, Wigdan A. Mubarak, Kamal H. Osman, Tong Chor M. Deran, Nabil Aziz and A. D. Nugud

Distribution of cancers in Zambia: Evidence from the Zambia National Cancer Registry (1990–2009)

February 2013

The Zambia National Cancer Registry (ZNCR) data of 1990 to 2009 was analyzed with the aim of determining the distribution of cancers in Zambia in the 1990/2000 decades. A total number of 12891 cases of cancers were notified to ZNCR of which 4586 (36.6%) were for males. Most cases of cancers that were notified were for patients in the 25 years or older age group (21.9% among males in the 64 years or older age group, and...

Author(s): Cosmas Zyaambo, Selestine H. Nzala, Olusegun Babaniyi, Peter Songolo, Ellen Funkhouser and Seter Siziya

Prevalence of dermatomycoses in tertiary health institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria

February 2013

Studies on dermatophytes isolated from patients in tertiary health institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria were carried out between August, 2009 and January, 2011. Collection, isolation, characterization and identification of the isolated fungi were achieved using both conventional laboratory methods (in vitro culture and microscopy) and molecular techniques (Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction, Polymerase chain...

Author(s): Samuel, T. O., Adekunle, A. A. and Ogundipe, O.T.

Improving surveillance for non-communicable diseases in the Eastern Region of Ghana - 2011

February 2013

The incidence of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) is on the rise worldwide and Ghana continues to show an increasing trend especially for hypertension and diabetes. The NCDs surveillance system in Ghana was established through the District Health Information Management System in 2008 to detect and monitor morbidity, mortality and risk-factor trend for evidence-based public health decision making. However, it is not...

Author(s): Joseph Opare, C. Ohuabunwo, E. Agongo, E. Afari, S. Sackey and F. Wurapa

Social implications of hematuria on women for schistosomiasis control

January 2013

Hematuria associated with urinary schistosomiasis has been misconstrued for certain superstitious beliefs in some local communities in Nigeria and elsewhere. Hematuria and its social implications, especially on women, may have a negative impact on schistosomiasis control measures. Some of the limitations of the national programme on Schistosomiasis control are highlighted. This paper also reviews the effect of stigma...

Author(s): Nwabueze Agatha A.

Social determinants of health: Conceptual and operational predicaments

January 2013

Health is determined by many factors ranging from one’s immediate physical-psycho-socio environment to the political milieu of the society that an individual lives in. When we look through the biomedical paradigm of health, disease could be explained through a set of micro-level physiological, bio-chemical and pathological changes in the body which are triggered by internal or external environment. When we broaden...

Author(s): Rajan R. Patil

Sero-epidemiological survey of hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in children and adolescents in Ekiti State, Nigeria

January 2013

This study was carried out between October, 2010 and February, 2011 to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among 1,000 children and adolescents in Ado-Ekiti and Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Serum samples were collected from the subjects and screened for antibodies to HBsAg, using hepatitis B kits with double sandwich antibody principles. Also, standardized questionnaire was used to...

Author(s): David, O. M., Oluduro, A. O., Ariyo, A. B., Ayeni, D. and Famurewa, O.

Validation of percent body fat using skinfold-thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis and standard hydrostatic method in male wrestlers

January 2013

The aim of this present study was to determine and validate the percent body fat through skinfold-thickness and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) using hydrostatic (standardmethod) among male wrestlers in Ahvaz...

Author(s): Saeid Shakeryan, Masood Nikbakht and Hosein Bayat Kashkoli

Factors associated with female genital mutilation in Burkina Faso

January 2013

While the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) has been abandoned in western countries, it remains common in many African countries from Senegal to Somalia, in the Middle East, in some parts of South-East Asia and even among immigrant communities in Europe, North America and Australia. Previous studies in Burkina Faso reported a high prevalence (77%) of FGM among 15 to 49 years old women and described the...

Author(s): Joseph Inungu and Yacouba Tou

Epidemiology of astrovirus infection in young children hospitalized with gastroenteritis in Iran, over a period of seven years, using reverse Transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

January 2013

Human astroviruses have been increasingly identified as important agents of diarrheal disease in children. Outbreaks of diarrhea due to astrovirus have frequently been reported and astroviruses have also been associated with nosocomial infections in hospitals. A 7-year study involving 2,490 gastroenteritis samples was conducted to determine the prevalence and age distribution of human astrovirus infection as well as the...

Author(s): Saied Maham, Neda Marhamati, Fatemeh Fallah, Raheleh Sadat Sajadi Nia and Fatemeh Atashrazm

Blood group and anemia: Exploring a new relationship

January 2013

Anemia is a huge public health and nutrition problem with serious consequences. Though oral supplementation of iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid are most commonly used as a therapeutic measure to correct anemia; it is suggested that the oral supplementation of iron is not the best way to correct anemia especially due to its adverse effect on some other body functions and other complications. Under this situation it is...

Author(s): Basak Asim Kumar and Maji Kaushik

Knowledge, attitude and practice of university students towards smoking in Irbid, Jordan

January 2013

The purpose of this cross sectional study was to explore university students' knowledge, attitude and practice towards smoking and to compare these factors between smokers and non-smokers. A sample of 2793 students was randomly selected to complete a self-administered questionnaire about knowledge, attitude and practice of smoking at three universities in Irbid, Jordan. The Majority of the smoking students (75.2%)...

Author(s): Labib Sharif, Abeer Qandil and Ahmed Alkafajei

The dilemma of diagnosis in bipolar patients with psychiatric disability in the Caribbean setting

December 2012

Although there has been a surge in research relating to psychiatric disorders, diagnosing bipolar disorder still proves to be an immense feat. This dilemma can seriously impact on the quality of life of bipolar patients with psychiatric disability. These case studies sought to highlight several factors which may fuel this diagnostic uncertainty. Two in-patients at the Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex were...

Author(s): Asha Bissessar and Harrinath D. Maharajh

Psychosocial profile of students from public schools of the city of Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brazil with positive indicators for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

December 2012

The objective of this study was to verify the prevalence of positive indicators for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children of public schools throughout the urban perimeter of Tubarão, Santa Catarina (SC). The study population composed of students enrolled in the first grades of 10 schools from the city of Tubarão. First, the teachers filled a standard questionnaire defined by...

Author(s): Francisco Rosa Neto, Patrícia Mello Garcia and Jaqueline Lourdes Rios

Awareness and attitude of health care workers in a teaching hospital in southwestern Nigeria towards nosocomial infections

December 2012

Despite advances in health care system, Nosocomial infections (NIs) still remain a preventable disease threatening public health. This study assessed awareness and attitude of health care workers in LAUTECH teaching Hospital Osogbo towards Nosocomial infections. Descriptive cross sectional study among hospital workers using multistage sampling method was used. Research instruments were semi structured self administered...

Author(s): Adebimpe Wasiu Olalekan, Bamidele James Olusegun, Asekun-Olarinmoye Esther Olufunmilayo and Abodunrin Olugbenga Lanre

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence and pregnancy outcome among obstetric population in Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria

December 2012

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a pandemic worldwide especially among the obstetric population where prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of the infection is still a major challenge. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of HIV seropositivity and pregnancy outcome among obstetric patients in Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria. A retrospective review of all deliveries...

Author(s): C. Ibekwe Perpetus, A. Onu Fidelis, Agboeze Joseph and O. Ezeonu Paul

Epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of pigs in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria

December 2012

A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites in pigs from the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Faecal samples were collected randomly from 271 pigs between April and October 2010, processed by modified Kato-katz technique and then examined for the presence of helminth ova and protozoan oocysts and cysts....

Author(s): Sowemimo O. A., Asaolu S. O., Adegoke F. O. and Ayanniyi O. O.

Trends in body mass index values of Brazilian enlisted men, 1980 to 2005

December 2012

This study was to investigate the temporal evolution of body mass index (BMI) in young enlisted men of 18 years in Brazil between 1980 and 2005, to identify specific points of greatest variance in time series and compare specific points in time, and the temporal evolution of BMI with socioeconomic changes in Brazil. The present study explores a temporal series of twenty-six national surveys of Brazilian men enlisted...

Author(s): César Marra, Flávia dos Santos Barbosa and Rosely Sichieri

Nurses’ uniforms: How many bacteria do they carry after one shift?

December 2012

This pilot study investigated the pathogens that nurses are potentially bringing into the public and their home when they wear work uniforms outside of the work environment. To achieve this, sterilized uniforms were distributed to 10 nurses at a local hospital in Washington State at the beginning of their shift. Worn uniforms were collected at the end of the shifts and sent to a laboratory for analysis. Four tests were...

Author(s): Marie-Anne Sanon and Sally Watkins

Determination of the pollution loads of Brewery X and the impacts of the pollutant on the Sisai River

December 2012

Determining pollution load is not a common practice in most Ghanaian industries. This paper is aimed at providing a comprehensive picture of the environmental impacts on the Sisai River as a result of the pollutant loads from a brewery X located in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The effluent flow rate, effluent parameters concentrations and pollutant loads were determined using standard procedures. The effluent...

Author(s): Kenneth Bedu-Addo and William Gariba Akanwarewiak

The sense of coherence and its relation to health factors among patients with diastrophic dysplasia

December 2012

Author(s): Tage Orenius, Liisamari Krüger, Hannu Kautiainen,, Heikki Hurri and Timo Pohjolainen Not Available 

A prospective study of three blood-borne viral pathogens among pregnant women attending ante-natal care in Owerri, Nigeria

November 2012

A study was conducted between the months of March and August, 2010 to ascertain the rate of mono- and co-infection of three blood-borne viral pathogens namely Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Hepatitis B virus (HCV) among 500 pregnant women aged between 21 and 40, attending antenatal clinic at a tertiary health centre in Owerri. The screening of blood samples from the sample population...

Author(s): Obi R. K., Nwanebu F. C., Ohalete C. N. and Onyemekara N. N.

Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus, coliforms and antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli in rural water supplies in Calabar South Local Government Area

November 2012

An investigation on the incidence of Staphylococcus aureus, coliforms and antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli strains in both treated and untreated rural water supplies was carried out in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Analysis revealed significant differences between the different water sources, locations and the months of sampling, with the stream and well...

Author(s): Manji, P. L., Antai, S. P. and Jacob, I. O.

Breast cancer knowledge and screening practices among women in selected rural communities of Nigeria

November 2012

Globally, the devastation that befalls women diagnosed of breast cancer remains inestimable. Early detection remains a major effective approach that should be employed to combat the disease. The issue of concern, however, is whether women in the rural underserved areas are aware of these early detection methods. This study was designed to assess rural women’s awareness and knowledge of breast cancer and their...

Author(s): Adekemi E. Olowokere, Adenike C. Onibokun and Abimbola O. Oluwatosin

A pilot study of iodine and anthropometric status of primary school children in Obukpa, a rural Nigerian community

November 2012

This study was designed to assess the iodine and the anthropometric status of primary school children in a rural Nigerian community (Obukpa). Stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting the respondents for the study. The sample size was 330 children aged 6 to 12+ years. The anthropometric measurements of the children comprising 170 boys and 160 girls were obtained using standard procedures. The urine...

Author(s): Nwamarah, Joy Ugo and Okeke, Elizabeth Chinwe

Prevalence of malaria and soil-transmitted helminth infections and their association with undernutrition in schoolchildren residing in Mfou health district in Cameroon

November 2012

Malaria and soil-transmitted helminths are common parasitic diseases found in schoolchildren in sub-Saharan Africa. We determined the prevalence and intensities of these infections in apparently healthy schoolchildren living in Mfou health district, where malaria and intestinal infections are among the first causes of morbidity. In a cross-sectional study involving 503 schoolchildren, anthropometric parameters were...

Author(s): Viviane Hélène Matong Tchinda, Roger Ponka, Edward Sahfe Ndzi, Arlette Kamdem Madocgne, Motsebo Amédée, Tchinda Mouafo Grâce and Roger Somo Moyou

Mosquito biting and malaria situation in an urban setting in Zambia

November 2012

Unprecedented increased mosquito bites were observed in urban and peri-urban areas of Lusaka District and there was a perceived increase in malaria which necessitated a study in 2009 to determine the mosquito biting and malaria situation within urban and peri-urban settings. We analysed water bodies as sources of mosquito larvae (vegetable gardens, sewerage maturation ponds and foot paths) and, weather factors for...

Author(s): Freddie Masaninga⊃, Daniel C. W. Nkhuwa, Fastone M. Goma, Cecilia Shinondo, Emmanuel Chanda, Mulakwa Kamuliwo, Elizabeth Chizema Kawesha, Seter Siziya and Olusegun Babaniyi

Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes among dogs and owners perception about zoonotic dog parasites in Hawassa Town, Ethiopia

October 2012

A cross sectional study was carried out between November, 2009 and March, 2010 in Hawassa town, Ethiopia with the aims of determining the prevalence of intestinal helminthes of dogs and evaluating owner’s awareness about zoonotic dog parasites. A total of 455 dogs were sampled randomly and 58% (n=264) were positive for Strongyloides stercorslis, 49.2% (n=224), 40% (n=182), 25% (n=114), 6% (n=28) and 3.3%...

Author(s): Dagmawi Paulos, Mekonnen Addis, Abebe Fromsa and Berhanu Mekibib

Premature introduction of foods and beverages in Guatemalan infants: A comparative perspective across geographic zones

October 2012

The objective of the current analysis was to compare the pattern of age-of-introduction of commonly consumed complementary foods in the western highlands with what has been reported from the central highlands of Guatemala. Age-of-introduction of 10 sentinel foods was queried by means of structured face-to-face interviews in mothers of 6 to 11 months old infants living in Quetzaltenango (n = 114). The mean...

Author(s): Noel W. Solomons, María José Soto-Méndez, Elena Diaz Ruíz and Marieke Vossenaar

Long term mortality after community and facility based treatment of severe acute malnutrition: Analysis of data from Bangladesh, Kenya, Malawi and Niger

October 2012

The effectiveness of the community based therapeutic care (CTC) in treating severe acute malnutrition (SAM) has been demonstrated. However, there is still resistance from some policy makers and donors to invest into this cost-effective intervention. The mortality rate ratio (MRR) calculated by dividing the observed deaths after discharge by expected deaths was used to compare survival of 1,670 children discharged from...

Author(s): Paluku Bahwere, Angella Mtimuni, Kate Sadler, Theresa Banda and Steve Collins

Impact of entomological interventions on malaria vector bionomics in low transmission settings in Zambia

July 2012

Entomological interventions for malaria control are being scaled up in the context of the integrated vector management strategy in Zambia. This paper reports the continuous entomological monitoring of the operational impact of indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS) and distribution of about 6 million insecticide-impregnated bed-nets (ITN) over two peak malaria transmission seasons. Mosquitoes were captured daily...

Author(s): Emmanuel Chanda, Faustina N. Phiri, Javan Chanda, Varsha Ramdeen, Mulakwa Kamuliwo and Kumar S. Baboo

Progress towards eradication of poliomyelitis in Ghana: A review of the Eastern Region of Ghana from 1997 to 2010

July 2012

Poliomyelitis is a highly-infectious viral disease affecting children under 15 years. One in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis and in 5 to 10% of such case, patients die from paralyzed breathing muscles. Ghana is at the verge of polio certification and the only reported case of wild polio virus in the Eastern Region was in 2003. We reviewed AFP data in the Eastern-Region to assess the progress towards...

Author(s): Joseph Opare, Chima Ohuabunwo, Edwin Afari, Fred Wurapa, Samuel Sackey, George Bonsu, Erasmus Agongo, Justice Yevugah, John Odoom and Alex Anderson

An analysis of tuberculosis in developing and developed world: Nigeria and UK as a case study

June 2012

Tuberculosis (TB) is a re-emerging infectious disease of international health priority. It is particularly worrisome in Africa, which informed the declaration of public health emergency by the World Health Organisation in 2005. In this study, inferences were drawn from the literature, secondary data and empirical observations. The results indicated that TB still remains a major public health challenge, particularly in...

Author(s): Semeeh A. Omoleke

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