International Journal of
Livestock Production

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Livest. Prod.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2448
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJLP
  • Start Year: 2009

IJLP Articles in press

Article in Press

Productive and reproductive performance of indigenous chickens in Gena Bossa district of Dawro zone, Ethiopia

This study was conducted in Gena Bossa district with the objective of assessing the productive and reproductive performance of indigenous chickens in the study area. Multistage stratified purposive and random sampling methods were used and a total of 138 households were participated for the interview. Fifteen, fifty four and sixty nine farmers selected for interview from highland, midland and lowland agro-ecologies,...

Author(s):Matawork Milkias

Article in Press

Determination of bee spacing and comb cell dimension for A. mellifera scutellata honeybee race across different agro-ecology in western Ethiopia

A study was conducted at Wombera and Pawe districts of Benishangul-gumuz regional state, western Ethiopia, aiming to determine the bee spacing and cell dimensions of honeybee race and recommended an appropriate bee spacing and cell dimension for Apis mellifera scutellata. Wombera and Pawe districts were purposively selected to represent highland and lowland agro-ecologies respectively. The measurement of bee space, cell...

Author(s):Habtie Arega

Article in Press

Assessment of Goat Health Management Practices and Mortality in Kraals of Matany Sub-County, Napak District

Poor animal health is reported as one of the major constraints of goat production leading to mortality in pastoral areas like Karamoja Sub-Region in Eastern Uganda. Based in Napak District, this study was aimed at gaining improved understanding of how to reduce goat mortality through improved health management practices (HMP) in kraals. Through convenience sampling, 312 pastoralists out of 388 who own animals in community...

Author(s):Ochan Godfrey

Article in Press

Effects of Snail Offal Meal on Performance of Broiler Chickens

The study investigated the effects of inclusion of various levels of snail offal meal (SOM) on the performance of broiler chickens. The study was carried out in the animal farm of the Department of Animal Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra State. The experiment was designed on a 4× 3 Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four dietary treatments having 0%, 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% inclusion of snail offal meal...

Author(s):Amobi Maduabuchi Inwele

Article in Press

Effect of urea molasses block supplementation on weight gain performance of grazing 50 % Boer x Woyto-Guji crossbred female goats

The feeding experiment was conducted at Key Afer goat research station with objective of evaluating the effect of urea molasses block supplementation on weight gain performance of the grazing 50 % Female Boer x Woyto-Guji crossbred goats. Total of 16 female goats with average initial body weight of 16.75±0.5 kg were used in a Randomized Complete Block Design. Goats were grouped into four blocks based on their initial body...

Author(s):Denbela Hidosa

Article in Press

Growth and Carcass Characteristics of Afar Lambs Finished at Two Concentrate Levels Supplementation and Slaughter Weights Fed Tef Straw Basal Diet

An experiment arranged in 2×2 factorial was carried out to evaluate the effect of concentrate levels, targeted live weights, and their interaction on live and carcass performance of Afar Lambs. Forty yearling lambs were divided in to 5 groups, then, one group was slaughtered at the beginning of experiment the other groups were randomly assigned to four treatments. Significantly (P≤0.05) higher dry matter intake DMI...

Author(s):Worknesh Seid Adem

Article in Press

Urban poultry production systems and constraints of local and exotic chickens reared in Yirgalem and Hawassa towns, Ethiopia

Rearing the chicken plays important roles in the both rural and urban economy of the country. This study was conducted to evaluate urban poultry production system and productive performance of local and exotic chickens reared at Yirgalem and Hawassa towns of Southern Ethiopia. Stepwise purposive sampling method followed by random sampling was used for selecting the respondents. The respondents were selected based on their...

Author(s):Kejela Yonas

Article in Press

Status of livestock resources of Kedarnath Valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

The Kedarnath Valley of Garhwal Himalaya is very rich in livestock resources. Livestock in the Kedarnath Valley has been reared basically for the production of milk and their related products that can supplement the family income and sustain agriculture. A total of 20 villages were surveyed during the study period to assess the potential use of livestock resources in the Kedarnath Valley. The information was collected...

Author(s):Prasad Chandi

Article in Press

Suboptimum reproductive performance among dairy herds in Uganda

Suboptimum reproductive performance affects the overall profitability of dairy herds. In order to manage this condition, there is need to clearly understand the different forms in which it presents, as well as its possible risk factors under the Ugandan context. In this study, we aimed to highlight the different forms of suboptimum reproductive performances among Ugandan dairy herds through literatures from previous...

Author(s):Godfrey Bigirwa

Article in Press

TOXIN AND TOXIN-BINDERS AS AFFECT THE PERFORMANCE, ORGANS, HAEMATOLOGY AND HISTOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILERS FED INFECTED DIETS

The potency of four varieties of toxin binders (labeled Binders A, B, C and D) on physiological status of broiler birds fed with aflatoxin infected diets were investigated. Six experimental diets were formulated such that diet 1 was infected with aflatoxin without binders, Diet 2 to 5 were infected with the addition of binder labeled A, B, C or D respectively while Diet 6 (control diet without infection). 180 birds were...

Author(s):TIRIMISIYU ADEWALE RAFIU

Article in Press

The effect of physical feed restriction during the starter period on broiler performance

An experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design to study the effect of physical feed restriction on broiler performance during the starter period. Two hundred and forty, one-day-old (Hubbard) broiler chicks were randomly distributed in six treatments, five replicates with eight chicks per a replicate. Treatment A fed ad libitum (control). Restricted groups were restricted at selected percentages of the ad...

Author(s):Alkhair Somaia

Article in Press

Determination of body weight from morphometric characteristics of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) reared in southern Benin

In animal production, body weight is an important parameter for management, health and marketing decisions. This study is undertaken to determine the relationships between body weight and linear body measurements of guinea pigs. 120 guinea pigs (60 males and 60 females) were used. Body weight (BW), head-body length (HBL), chest circumference (CC), head circumference (HC), neck circumference (NC), left hind foot length...

Author(s):Murielle Faihun

Article in Press

Evaluation of Ackee Apple Arils Meal Based Diet on the Performance Characteristics of West Afrcan Dwarf Goat

Feeding livestock in the tropical environment is faced with serious shortage of proteinous feedstuffs hence; there is the urgent need to search for cheap, readily available, and non-competitive with human need for food. This study therefore was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Ackee Apple Arils meal (AAAM) in the diet of West African dwarf goats. Twelve (n=12) West African dwarf goats were randomised against four...

Author(s):Belewu M.A

Article in Press

Prevalence of bovine mastitis, risk factors, isolation and anti-bigram test of major pathogens in Mid Rift valley, Ethiopia

Cross-sectional study design was implemented in Alage dairy farm to determine the overall prevalence of mastitis, its causative agents, anti-bio gram susceptibility patterns and risk factors associated with it. A total of 111 milking dairy cows and 444 quarters were examined. Overall prevalence of mastitis at cow and quarter levels were 73% and 37%, respectively. Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (37.7%) followed by...

Author(s):Meranga Melesse Etifu

Article in Press

The prevalence of foot related problems in working donkeys and its implication on the livelihood of the donkey owners in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia

A cross sectional study was conducted from April 2014 to April 2015 with the aim of assessing the foot related problems in working donkeys and investigating its implication on the livelihood of their owners in Hawassa city. The hoof related problems in donkeys were assessed as hoof abnormality, apparent lameness or standing lameness. The implication of foot problems on the livelihood of the owners were assessed by...

Author(s):Bereket Molla

Article in Press

Genotype and sex effects on the performance characteristics of Pigs

Data from 240 pigs (90 Duroc, 100 Large white and 50 crosses of Duroc and Large white (Hybrid)) were used to quantify and mathematically describe the performance traits of pigs.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of genotype, sex and their interaction on the performance characteristics of three pig genotypes.The pigs were 30 kg of body weight and 70 days of age at the beginning of the study. Records for...

Author(s):Morenikeji Olanrewaju

Article in Press

Major causes of Chicken Mortality in and Around Hawassa Town, Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia

A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2017 to March 2018 to assess major causes of chicken mortality and parasite types in and around Hawassa town, southern Ethiopia. One hundred sixty respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Questionnaire and laboratory data were analyzed using STATA version 14. Among the respondents 34% kept their chicken extensively while 52% and 14% used...

Author(s):Mishamo Sulayeman

Article in Press

Major hoof and musculoskeletal disorders of cart pulling mules with special reference to lameness in Bahir Dar town, northwestern Ethiopia

A cross sectional study was conducted at Bahir Dar town, northwestern Ethiopia, to quantify the major hoof and musculoskeletal disorders of cart mules and to identify their predisposing factors. Both physical examination of 250 cart mules and questionnaire survey on 174 volunteer cart owners or drivers were used. The overall prevalence of gait problem was 18.8%, of which 83 % was lameness, 6.3% staggering gait and 10.6%...

Author(s):Dagmawit Atalel

Article in Press

Nutritional evaluation of Moringa Oleifera seed hull as livestock feed

This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of underutilized hull of Moringa oleifera seed as raw material in livestock feed. Proximate composition, antinutrients, minerals and vitamin profile of the hull were determined using standard analytical methods. The hull contained crude protein 5.25±0.011%, fibre 19.5±0.038%, ash 5.0±0.026%, crude lipid 4.25±0.011%, carbohydrate 55.2±0.062 and moisture content of...

Author(s):Ibraheem Ademola Saheed

Article in Press

Feeds with anti-nutritional factors and productivity of non-ruminant animals

Recently animal-products are mainly coming from the non-ruminant animals, but commercial protein source feeds are becoming costly and inaccessible that affects from further productivity enhancements. Commercial soybean meal (SBM) can partially be replaced by raw full-fat soybean (RFSB), but concentration of anti-nutritional factors (ANF) might be more than the threshold levels for these animals, particularly for poultry....

Author(s):Erdaw Mammo Mengesha

Article in Press

Effect of Supplementing Different concentrate with wheat bran mixture on feed intake and digestibility of lactating crossbred

The objective of this study was to evaluate effect of noug seed cake, linseed cake and cottonseed cakemixed with wheat bran as a concentrate supplement to oat-vetch mixture hay on feed intake and nutrient utilization in lactating crossbred dairy cows. Four crossbred dairy cows with similar lactation stage (mid lactation) were used. Four feed types were considered for the study; namely, oat-vetch hay, noug cake, cotton seed...

Author(s):Marishet Teshome

Article in Press

Assessment of Veterinary Services in Selected Areas of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

This study was conducted from November, 2015 to April, 2016 for the aim of to identify the major veterinary service constraints, to assess livestock disease outbreak reporting system and livestock disease control and prevention strategies in the study area. The study was carried out in selected area of Wolaita zone namely: Sodo zuria, Boloso Sore and Damot Gale districts. For this purpose a semi-questionnaire survey was...

Author(s):Eyob Eshetu

Article in Press

Assessment on Milk Production and Reproductive Performances of Crossbred Dairy Cattle in Selected Urban and Peri-urban Areas of Central Highlands of Ethiopia

This study was conducted to assess milk production and reproductive performances of crossbred dairy cows in purposively selected urban and peri-urban dairy farms of Assela, Bishoftu, Holetta and Sululta areas of central highlands of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey using semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from 160 randomly selected dairy farmers. The average daily milk yield was 11.7 litres in...

Author(s):Abebe Kiros

Article in Press

Review of Common Causes of abortion in sheep and goat in Ethiopia

The economic and public health impact of cause of abortion remains of concern in developing countries. Abortion can generally cause significant loss of productivity through death and expulsion of foetus by the ewe/doe before the end of a normal term of pregnancy, affect the future fertility, lactation and flock is culled annually. Common infectious causes of abortion in small ruminant include Brucellosis, Leptospirosis,...

Author(s):Dereje Tulu Robi

Article in Press

Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Four Breeds of Rams in Nigeria under Fattening Condition

The constraints to large scale production in the developing countries are non-identification of fast growing breeds and unavailability of adequate feed. It is therefore necessary to explore all possible avenues to adequately increase small ruminants’ meat production for human consumption through assessing the performance of the local breeds of rams. Four breeds of rams: Balami (BM), Uda (UD), Yankasa (YKS) and West African...

Author(s):Akinleye Sule Bamidele

Article in Press

Effects of dietary replacement of soya bean meal with marula (Sclerocarya birrea caffra) seed cake with or without DL-methionine or phytase on productive performance and carcass characteristics in broiler chickens

High feed costs arising from the use of expensive imported protein sources limits intensive broiler production by smallholder farmers in developing countries. This necessitates the search for cheaper locally available alternative protein-rich feedstuffs. However, these are invariably laden with anti-nutritional factors (ANFs), investigation of strategies to counter the deleterious effects of which is of necessity. The aim...

Author(s):Mthiyane Doctor Mziwenkosi Nhlanhla

Article in Press

Skills Required by Agricultural Education Graduates in Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) Farming for Self-Employment in Kaduna State, Nigeria

The acquisition of skills in grasscutter farming will give rise to graduates who are self-reliant as unemployment will be reduced and there will be increase in the production of bush meat to meet the consumption demand in Kaduna state, hence this identified skills required by agricultural education graduates in grasscutter farming for self employment in Kaduna State. The study was guided by three objectives. Three research...

Author(s):Amonjenu Anthony

Article in Press

Phenotypic Characterization of Dorper, Local sheep and their Crossbred Sheep Population in Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia

The study was conducted at Sirinka Agriculture Research Center to phenotypically characterize local, pure Dorper and their F1 crossbred sheep populations. The animals were grouped into three age groups based on 0 pair of permanent incisor (0PPI), 1 pair of permanent incisors (1PPI) and 2 and above pairs of permanent incisors (≥2PPI). A total of 17 linear measurements, body weight and scrotal circumference for males were...

Author(s):Jemal Mohammed

Article in Press

Effects of dietary supplementation with high levels of marula (Sclerocarya birrea) seed cake with or without graded levels of DL-methionine and phytase enzyme on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens at finisher phase

This study investigated effects of dietary supplementation with graded levels of DL-methionine and phytase enzyme on performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed diets containing high levels of marula (Sclerocarya birrea A. Rich.) seed cake (MSC), an alternative locally available feedstuff. Two hundred and seventy 28-day-old broilers were ad libitum fed treatment diets in a 3 x 3 factorial design involving 2...

Author(s):Mziwenkosi Nhlanhla MTHIYANE

Article in Press

Assessment Study on Livestock Feed Resources, Feed Availability and Production Constraints in Maale Woreda in South Omo, South Western, Ethiopia.

The study was carried out in Maale Woreda aimed to assess feed resource, feed resource availability and feed production constraints. Six kebeles from Woreda were selected and focus group discussions and key informants had employed to enrich the primary data on feed resources, feed resource availability, feed conservation practices and feed resources utilization and major livestock feed production constraints. The study...

Author(s):Denbela Hidosa

Article in Press

CAMEL MILK PRODUCTION, PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS OF CAMEL MASTITIS IN AYSAITA WOREDA AFAR REGIONAL STATE, NORTH EAST ETHIOPIA

The study was conducted with the objectives of assessing the current camel milk production, determining the prevalence, major bacterial pathogens and associated risk factor of camel mastitis. for this study 100 households and 384 camels were selected randomly. questionnaire survey was administered to camel holder households to collect data on management practices, knowledge of camel mastitis, treatment attempts and...

Author(s):Gebreyohanes Muler

Article in Press

Analysis of Factors influencing Profitability of Rabbit Farming in Kenya

The study aimed at assessing factors influencing the profitability of rabbit farming in Nakuru, Kiambu and Nyeri Counties of Kenya. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain information from 459 farmers from the three counties. Two-stage least squares (2SLS) regression model and descriptives were used to analyze data. Comparison of means showed that the mean difference between rabbit and non-rabbit keepers for age,...

Author(s):Chrispinus Mutsami, John Irungu Mburu and Margaret M. Wanyoike

Article in Press

Evaluating Effects of Sources of Dietary Protein Supplemented to oat-vetch hay mixture on milk yield and milk composition

The experiment was conducted in Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center with the objective of evaluating the effects of sources of dietary protein supplemented to oat-vetch mixture hay on milk yield, milk composition and profitability in lactating crossbred dairy cows. Four high grade cross bred (holstein friesian * boran) dairy cows with similar lactation stage (mid lactation) and parity were used. The experimental diets...

Author(s):TESHOME MARISHET

Article in Press

Marketing of major milk products in and around Debre Berhan Town, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

The study was conducted to study marketing system in urban and peri urban area of Debre Berhan town. Formal survey was used to collect data from six kebeles, which were selected from urban and peri urban area of Debre Berhan. A total of 180 households (60 from urban and 120 from peri urban) were selected based on ownership of dairy cow and willingness to participate in the study. The major milk customers reportedly...

Author(s):Abebe Bereda

Article in Press

Effect of Supplementing Tsara (Pterocarpus lucens), Pigeon pea (Cajanes Cajan) Leaves and Concentrate Mixture on Carcass Characteristics of Begait Sheep Fed Hay as a Basal Diet

The study was conducted with the objective of determining the carcass characteristics of Begait sheep fed hay basal diet and supplemented with different levels of Tsara (Pterocarpus lucens) leaves, Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) leaves and concentrate mixture on iso-nitrogenous basis to supply 66.60 g/day crude protein (CP) on dry matter (DM) basis. Twenty five yearling male Begait sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 24.2±...

Author(s):Abraham Teklehaymanot Haftu

Article in Press

Linear Body Measurements and Growth Performance Characteristics of Female Rabbits fed Cocoa Bean Shell Meal - based Diets

The Linear Body Measurements (LBMs) and Growth Performance Characteristics of Fourty (40) cross bred (New Zealand White X Chinchilla X Californian breeds) female rabbits weighing between 800.00 and 847.00g were determined in this study, which lasted Sixty (60) days. After weight equalization, eight (8) rabbits per treatment were randomly divided into five dietary treatments designated as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 containing...

Author(s):PASCAL OGAR OZUNG, MAGNUS IZAH ANYA, OLUWATOSIN O. KENNEDY OKO

Article in Press

Characterization of pork marketing and challenges in Ethiopia

This study was conducted to characterize pork and pork products marketing and challenges in Ethiopia. Multi-stage random sampling procedure was applied to select a total of 40 pork retailers from six towns. Structured questionnaire was used for face to face interview to collect information. Pork retailers were clustered into three categories as small, medium and large scale based on quantities of pork they sell per day....

Author(s):ZEMELAK SAHLE GORAGA, Ermias Tsadik, Tewodros Fikadu, Gustavo Lima

Article in Press

Establishing for the first time high-density protein banks for livestock feeding in Burkina Baso (West Africa): overall agronomic performance under contrasting edaphoclimatic conditions

This study aimed to evaluate, for the first time, the establishment of high-density protein banks (PBs) for livestock feeding in West Africa (Burkina Faso). During seven consecutive months of the first year of establishment (from June to January), we monitored the agronomic performance of two widely recognised woody fodder species (i.e. one leguminous: leucaena, Leucaena leucocephala; and one non-leguminous: mulberry,...

Author(s):González-García Eliel

Article in Press

ASSESSING PREVALENCE, ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS AND ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF LUNG WORM INFECTION IN SHEEP IN DESSIE AND KOMBOLCHA DISTRICTS, NORTH EAST ETHIOPIA

A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to March 2014 with the purpose of determining the prevalence, identification species of lung worm circulating in the area and assessing the economic importance of lungworm infection in sheep originated from Dessie and Kombolcha districts. Coproscopic examination was conducted on 477 sheep kept under extensive and semi- intensive management systems. Of these examined...

Author(s):Dubie Teshager

Article in Press

High prevalence of ectoparasite of poultry in Nsukka Municipality, Enugu State, Nigeria

Diseases in poultry remain a major source of concern to farmers and the general public. Ectoparasites infestations in birds compromise their health, growth and productivity. In addition to serving as vectors of viral and bacterial infection, high intensity of infestation may cause mortality in birds. This study which was carried out from July to September 2014 and examined a total of 93 domestic birds (52 fowls, Gallus...

Author(s):Ekeh F. N., Odo G. E., Ekechukwu N. E., Agwu E. J., Ezea O. C.

Article in Press

Digestibility and growth performance of Dorper×Afar F1 sheep fed Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay supplemented with alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Lablab (Lablab purpures), Leucaena leucocephala and concentrate mixture

A study was conducted to determine effect of supplementation with isonitrogenous level of concentrate mixture (CM; 33% noug seed cake (NSC) and 67% wheat bran (WB)), alfalfa, lablab, and Leucaena leucocephala (LL) on feed intake, digestibility, daily body weight gain (ADG) and net return of sheep kept on Rhodes grass hay (RGH) basal diet. Twenty four yearling male Dorper×Afar F1 crossbred sheep were used in completely...

Author(s):Worknesh Seid, Getachew Animut

Article in Press

Review on milk and milk product safety, quality assurance and control

Food safety and quality are critical issues that should be given more attention all over the world mainly from nutritional quality and human health point of view. Food safety is a scientific field of study which deals with handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness. Food safety system is often categorized into two, namely traditional and science-based systems. Food can be used as a...

Author(s):Merwan Ahmedsham, Nezif Amza, Metekia Tamiru

Article in Press

Challenges of supplying turkey meat to consumer market in Osun State, Nigeria

Rearing of turkeys in Nigeria is of immense economic importance in many respects. Turkey production in Nigeria has largely remained at the smallholder level and the supply of the meat has tended to be seasonal due to high cost of production and inadequate skill of the producers. However, in recent times, there has been a steady increase in the demand for turkey meat throughout the year as a result of increasing population,...

Author(s):Adeyemo A. A., Yusuf A., Iyanda A. A.

Article in Press

Geographic information system based land suitability modeling for camel production in Dubti and Mile District, Afar National Regional State, Northeast Ethiopia

Technical evaluation of land suitability by using geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies play an indispensable role to reduce the difficulties of livestock production. The general objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of land for camel production with the help of GIS and remote sensing techniques in Dubti and Mile District of Afar National Regional State; and producing land...

Author(s):Bewketu Mamaru Mengstie, Gebrie Tsegaye Mersha

Article in Press

Role of dairy goat keeping towards improvement of rural livelihoods in Kitui central sub county of Kitui County, Kenya

A survey was carried out in Kitui Central Sub County to assess the role played by dairy goat keeping towards improvement of rural livelihoods. Household interviews were conducted on 90 households selected from two AEZ within the survey area. The data collected was on household characteristics, social and economic activities of the household keeping dairy goats. Sixty two percent of the households had less than five family...

Author(s):Stephen M. Musyoka, Titus I. Kanui, Simon Nguluu

Article in Press

Growth performance and haematological indices of broiler starter chicken fed diets containing graded level of Tithonia diversifolia leaf protein concentrate

Growth performance of 150 broiler chicks Arbor Acre breed were evaluated for four weeks of their starter phase when fed diets, in which Tithonia diversifolia leaf protein concentrate (TDLPC) replaced soybean meal at graded levels of 0% (T1), 5% (T2), 10% (T3), 15% (T4) and 20% (T5). The average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily weight gain (ADWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were...

Author(s):Oluwasola T. A., Dairo F. A. S.

Article in Press

Poultry litter supplementation for effective cattle fattening in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Feed shortage in the dry season and even in the wet season is a major constraint to animal production in Ethiopia. Feed resources that mainly contribute to the animals are crop residues and natural pastures. Crop residues are noted for their poor feeding value in terms of protein and energy contents besides their low digestibility. Broiler litter has been used as a fertilizer in the region, even if it has greatest...

Author(s):Embaye Kidanu Kindeya, Mehari Kebede, Gebreslassie Gebru

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