Journal of
Microbiology and Antimicrobials

  • Abbreviation: J. Microbiol. Antimicrob.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2308
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMA
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 142

JMA Articles

July 2019

Antimicrobial resistance pattern in Salmonella enterica from clinical and poultry sources in Calabar, Nigeria

Limited treated options to Salmonellosis exist due to the emergence of extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs). This study determined the prevalence of common ESBL genes (blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaOXA) and profiled their antimicrobial resistance drug pattern. A descriptive cross-sectional study that involved 16 Salmonella enterica isolates from diarrhoeic children at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital and 39...

Author(s): Nchawa Yangkam Yhiler, Bassey Enya Bassey, Inyang-etoh Paul, Useh Monday Francis, Asuquo Anne and Angela Okocha-Ejeko

June 2019

Plasmid curing of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli isolates from urine and stool samples

The origin of bacteria resistance to antibiotics can either be chromosomal or extra-chromosomal (plasmid mediated) and one way of determining the origin of bacterial drug resistance is by plasmid elimination. In this study, the antibiotic susceptibility of seven Escherichia coli isolates (numbered 1-7) from urine and stool samples, were assessed using the disk diffusion method. The 10 antibiotics used were:...

Author(s): Oriomah Churchill and Akpe Azuka Romanus

June 2018

Phytochemical screening and antibacterial susceptibility of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates on Acacia ataxacantha leaves

Acacia ataxacanta leaves were screened for possible constituents, and the antimicrobial properties of the leaves were tested against 18 isolates of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The leaves were aseptically collected and crude extracts were prepared by cold maceration in 98% methanol. Phytochemical analysis for bioactive constituents revealed that it contained carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, steroids, saponins,...

Author(s): Madubuike S. A. , Mailafia S., Ode O. J. and Okpo N.  

August 2017

Antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from hatcheries and selected fish farms in the Ashanti region of Ghana

Antibiotic resistance has become an increasingly global health problem. This has resulted in a limited number of antibiotics being effective in the treatment of various infections. Antibiotic resistant organisms have been isolated from fish ponds in various studies in different parts of the world. This study was carried out to assess some fish farming practices among catfish and tilapia farmers which may contribute to...

Author(s): Esther Eyram Agoba, Francis Adu, Christian Agyare, Vivian Etsiapa Boamah and Yaw Duah Boakye

July 2017

Elevated temperature induced resistance markers’ reduction of some selected clinical bacterial pathogens

Axenic cultures of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus obtained from the Medical Microbiology Laboratory of the Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara, were inoculated into ten-fold serial dilutions of 10-1 to 10-7 in sterile Nutrient broth and incubated in water bath at 37°C for 18 h initially. The turbid broth cultures of 10-5, 10-6 and 10-7 dilutions were subcultured...

Author(s): Otajevwo F. D. and Otasowie O. F.

February 2017

Microbiological quality and safety of street vended meat sauce in Bahir Dar Town

Street vended foods are readily available sources of meals for many people across the world, the microbial quality and safety of such food is always uncertain. In developing countries, the major sources of food-borne illnesses are street vended foods because they provide a source of affordable nutrients to the majority of the low income groups. The aim of this study was thus to assess the microbiological quality and...

Author(s): Alemayehu Getahun Kassa and Mulugeta Kibret Azene

January 2017

Potential pharmacological applications of enzymes associated with bacterial metabolism of aromatic compounds

Many purple anoxygenic bacteria contribute significantly to the catabolic and anabolic processes in the oxic/anoxic zones of several ecosystems. However, these bacteria are incapable of degrading the benzenoid ring during the biotransformation of aromatic hydrocarbons. The key enzymes in the aromatic amin acids metabolism of purple bacteria include 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine minotransferase (EC,...

Author(s): Ranjith N. Kumavath, Debmalya Barh, Vasco Azevedo and Alan Prem Kumar ,,

December 2016

Antimicrobial analysis of copaiba oil extract from Passiflora cincinnata and endodontic substances

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of copaiba oil, extracts of Passiflora cincinnata and substances commonly used against endodontic infections of bacterial strains certified by the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and against clinical isolates (CI). The methodology involved the preparation of crude extracts of the plants, the selection of...

Author(s): Lucinea Barbosa de Oliveira Santos,Caroline de Souza Leitao,Amaro de Mendonça Cavalcante,Marcos Aurelio Bomfim da Silva,Zenaldo Porfirio,Antonio Euzebio Goulart Santana

July 2016

Phytochemical and antibacterial investigations of moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf extract on selected bacterial pathogens

This study aimed at evaluating the health benefits of popular Moringa oleifera leaf. The aqueous and methanolic extracts of the leaf at two different concentrations (1:1 and 1:2) was used to determine the phytochemical screening and its antibacterial activity. Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumonia and Staphlococcus aureus were used in this study, applying agar diffusion methods. The phytochemical screening indicated...

Author(s): Abubakar Idris and Usman Abubakar

May 2016

Phytochemical screening and antifungal activities of crude ethanol extracts of red-flowered silk cotton tree (Bombax buonopozense) and Calabash nutmeg (Monodora myristica) on Candida albicans

The study was to determine the phytochemical compounds and antifungal activity of the extracts of the leaves, root, bark and seeds of Calabash nutmeg (Monodora myristica) and red-flowered silk cotton tree (Bombax buonopozense). The phytochemicals were extracted and analyzed using standard methods and the antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts determined with clinical isolates of Candida albicans using the well...

Author(s): C. K. Firempong, L. A. Andoh, W. G. Akanwariwiak, P. Addo-Fordjour and P. Adjakofi

April 2016

Antimicrobial compounds produced by Enterococcus spp. isolates from fecal samples of wild South American fur seals

The aims of this study were to identify bacteriocinogenic activity in 13 enterococci isolated from fecal samples of wild South American (Arctocephalus australis) and Subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis); to determine the physicochemical characteristics and antimicrobial spectrum of antimicrobial compounds against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; and to evaluate the presence of bacteriocin...

Author(s): Carolina Baldisserotto Comerlato⊃, Júlia Roberta Buboltz, Naiara Aguiar Santestevan⊃, Amanda de Souza da Motta⊃ and Ana Paula Guedes Frazzon,

February 2016

Antimicrobial activity of Bacillus cereus: Isolation, identification and the effect of carbon and nitrogen source on its antagonistic activity

The present study is concerned with the taxonomy and influences of some cultural conditions on growth and antimicrobial metabolite production of a strain of Bacillus cereus, isolated from Alba’qa, Jordan, and designated NBS1, which is a highly active against a variety of Gram positive bacteria, and less activity was noted against filamentous fungi and yeasts, whereas no activity was detected against tested Gram...

Author(s): Nasser El-Banna and Samar S. Qaddoumi

January 2016

Bacterial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates in operating rooms at Hawassa University Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia

Microbial contamination of air in the operating theatre (OT) is considered to be a risk factor for surgical site infections (SSI) and quality of air can be considered as a mirror of the hygienic condition of these rooms. This study intended to determine the bacterial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates in OT indoor air of Hawassa University Referral Hospital. A cross sectional study was conducted to...

Author(s): Mengistu Hailemariam, Misganaw Birhaneselase  and Elshaday Azerefege

November 2015

Probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented sap of palm tree (Elaeis guineensis)

The commonly used probiotics bacteria are lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from gastro intestinal tract. However, other LAB from exogenous origin having similar functional properties may also confer health benefit to the host. Palm wine has been described as a rich source of LAB. But very few studies have investigated their probiotic potential. Twenty LAB were isolated from palm wine collected in the South West Region of...

Author(s): Bertrand Tatsinkou Fossi, Natalia Bonjah Ekue, Gordon Takop Nchanji, BongsiysiGilake Ngah, Irene Ane Anyangweand Samuel Wanji,

August 2015

Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of the fruit pulp of Dialium guineense (Velvet Tamarind) on some microbial isolates

The antimicrobial activities of the aqueous, ethanol and n-hexane fruit pulp extracts of Dialium guineense were evaluated against clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans using the agar well diffusion technique. The results reveal that the crude aqueous and ethanol extracts possess antimicrobial activities on the...

Author(s): Ajiboye, Adeyinka Elizabeth, Ameen, Muhammad Tukur and Adedayo, Majekodunmi Racheal

March 2015

Identification and genotypic analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from pharyngitis and tonsillitis infected children in IBB city in Yemen

Streptococcus pyogenes is beta-hemolytic bacterium that belongs to Lancefield serogroup A, also known as group A streptococci (GAS). GAS causes a wide variety of life threatening diseases including pharyngitis and tonsillitis disease. A total of 93 throat swab and 93 blood specimens were collected from pharyngitis and tonsillitis infected children in different schools in Almashana, IBB city in Yemen. All isolates were...

Author(s): Gamal A. AL-Ameri and Abdu M. AL-Kolaibe

March 2015

In vitro evaluation of virulence factors of Candida species isolated from oral cavity

The yeast Candida is a normal flora of the skin and the mucous membrane and it then becomes pathogen in immunocompromised people. Various virulence factors are contributing to establishment of the infection in the host. Adherence of the pathogen to host tissues, yeast-hyphal transition and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes secretion are important virulence factors of Candida species. These hydrolytic enzymes play...

Author(s): K. Deepa, T. Jeevitha and A. Michael

February 2015

Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated and identified from salt marsh plant in Vellar Estuary

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi isolated from leaves and stems of Suaeda maritima and Suaeda monoica. Many endophytes were isolated by using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. All the endophytic isolates were identified by using standard taxonomic keys and monographs. From a total of 16 isolates, nine potent strains were taken for further study. The fungal culture...

Author(s): Indira Kalyanasundaram, Jayaprabha Nagamuthu and Srinivasan Muthukumaraswamy

January 2015

Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolates from apparently healthy slaughtered goats at Dire Dawa municipal abattoir, Eastern Ethiopia

A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2014 on 249 apparently healthy slaughtered goats at the municipal abattoir of Dire Dawa to estimate the prevalence Salmonella spp. and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates. A total of 249 goat carcass swab samples were collected using a systematic random sampling technique and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. Out of the...

Author(s): Beshatu Ferede, Fanta Desissa, Aklilu Feleke, Getachew Tadesse and Nebyu Moje

January 2015

Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens in patients reporting to a tertiary care facility in Peshawar, Pakistan

This study was conducted to assess the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacteria in urinary isolates. The study was carried out in the clinical microbiology laboratory of a tertiary care hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan. The duration of study was 12 months, from July 2012 to June 2013. Mid-stream urine samples were collected in sterile containers. All samples for urine culture were examined. Samples...

Author(s): Nasrullah Malik, Mamoon Ahmed and Muneeb ur Rehman

December 2014

Role of integrons in multi drug resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae

The prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacterial pathogens has become a major public health concern. Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) production in the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae can confer resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins such as azetronam and penicillins. Integrons are genetic structures capable of capturing and excising gene cassettes, which usually encode...

Author(s): Soheir Abd El- Rahman, Yasser Ismail, Naglaa Fathy Alhusseini and Safaa Abbas

December 2014

Mathematical representation for effect of temperature on mycelial growth of Calocybe indicia

Mushroom is characterized by having white sporophore, large sized fruiting bodies and delicious flavor. The temperature tolerance has been found to be high, with moderate protein content and good biological efficiency with long shelf life. There is mathematical model to describe mycelia growth on effect of temperature. The maximum mycelial growth rate (1.12 cm/day) at 30°C was observed in the strain Cl-7 at 8.0 pH...

Author(s): Shubhra Shukla, Shiv Dayal and A. K. Jaitly

August 2014

Recent trend of aminoglycoside resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates in tertiary care hospital

Aminoglycosides still play an important role in antistaphylococcal therapies, although emerging resistance amongst staphylococci is widespread. The objective of the present study was to know the percentage of aminoglycoside resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates. A total of 250 isolates of S. aureus were studied from different clinical specimens like blood, pus, wound swabs, sputum, ear swabs and body fluids....

Author(s): Gade Neeta D. and Qazi Mohiuddin S.

August 2014

Control of Fusarium wilt using biological agent Streptomyces sp.CPP-53 isolated from compost with plant growth promoting effect on tomato under greenhouse condition

In the present investigation, four different composts were obtained from Supa Biotech (P) Ltd., Muketshwar and LRC, GBPUAT, Pantnagar, India. The highest actinomycetes community was obtained from CPP compost (67.18%), LRC (15.62%), CM (12.5 %) and VE (4.6%). A total of 48 actinomycetes isolated and examined, exhibited ability to degrade starch, solubilize phosphate, produce catalase and siderophores. Isolated...

Author(s): Ranveer Kamal and A. K. Sharma

July 2014

Purification and characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis PD6.9

In this study, a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis PD6.9 was purified, characterized and identified. The bacteriocin was purified to homogeneity from culture supernatant by cation exchange and reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and its molecular weight was determined by mass spectrometry. The presence of the nisin gene was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The...

Author(s): Margarete Alice Fontes Saraiva, Ingolf Figved Nes, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira, Marisa Vieira de Queiroz, Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani and Célia Alencar de Moraes

July 2014

Evaluation of antibacterial effects and phytochemical screening of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Hibiscus diversifolius

Hibiscus diversifolius which is widely distributed in Kenya was investigated for its antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The leaves stem and root of the plant was extracted using aqueous and methanol as solvents. Phytochemical screening was also carried out to determine the phytochemical constituents present in the various parts of the...

Author(s): Oduor M. Aduol, Kenneth O. Ogila and Kamau John

June 2014

Yeasts in the mammary environment of the cattle in the region of Sidi M’hammed Ben Ali, Wilaya of Relizane, Algeria

Mastitis is one of the principal pathologies in the dairy bovine exploitation. Most of the cases are caused by bacteria, but some are caused by fungi. The objective of our study was to evaluate the occurrence of these fungi in mammary glands of 39 cows (mastitic and clinically healthy cows) belonging to two farms (four exploitations using manual milking and three exploitations using milking...

Author(s): Akdouche L., Aissi M., Zenia S. and Saadi A.

June 2014

Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mobile phone and hands of Health care workers in the Hawassa referral Hospital, South Ethiopia

A swab of mobile phone and hands of health care workers (HCWs) were examined to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), different antibiotic resistant pattern were determined in a cross-sectional study design. The objective of this study was to isolate S. aureus from samples of mobile phone and hands of HCWs from Hawassa Referral Hospital and to determine their antibiotic resistant patterns. A...

Author(s): Deresse Daka

March 2014

Antibacterial activity of honey: A review of honey around the world

Nectar is a natural product collected by bees from which honey is produced. Honey possesses antibacterial activity and is classified as peroxide and non-peroxide components. The contribution of these components is discussed briefly to ascertain their contribution to the antibacterial activity. Data of origin and floral sources of honey and antimicrobial activity against different bacteria species are summarized. It was...

Author(s): Carina Libonatti, Varela Soledad and Basualdo Marina

March 2014

Characterization of antifungal compounds produced by Pseudomonas stutzeri (EGB3) isolated from gut of earthworm (Eisenia foetida)

Strain EGB3 was isolated from the gut of earthworm fed with sterile soil and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri on the basis of biochemical tests and by comparison of 16S rDNA sequences. This bacterium exhibits a broad-spectrum antifungal activity towards soil borne phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium moniliformae, Fusarium udum, Macrophomena phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani,...

Author(s): N. D. Prasanna, K. Vijayalakshmi, K. Seshagirirao and S. K. Shaheen

February 2014

Antimicrobial activities of blinding tree, Excoecaria agallocha against selected bacterial pathogens

In aquaculture, the occurrence of bacterial resistance to synthetic antibiotics has become a serious problem. Therefore, research has been focused on finding new antimicrobial antibiotics from natural products to replace synthetic antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of mangrove plant blinding tree Excoecaria agallocha against selected fish pathogens namely Flavobacterium...

Author(s): Laith, A. A. and Najiah, M.

February 2014

Assessment of bacteriological contaminants of some vegetables irrigated with Awash River water in selected farms around Adama town, Ethiopia

Food safety issues are of growing concern to consumers globally because of the risk associated with consumption of foods contaminated with pathogens in irrigated vegetables. The study was conducted to assess the extent of bacterial contamination of vegetables due to irrigation with polluted Awash River water. Three leafy vegetable samples, namely, cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L....

Author(s): Girmaye Benti, Ameha Kebede and Sissay Menkir

February 2014

Antimicrobial susceptibility and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) typing of Gram negative bacteria isolated from urinary tract infections in Mansoura, Egypt

The aim of the study was to determine the resistance patterns of Gram negative bacterial isolates recovered from patients suffering from urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Mansoura university hospitals, Egypt and also to investigate their epidemiological relatedness using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique. The most prevalent etiological agents of UTIs were the Gram-negative...

Author(s): Abdelaziz Elgaml, Ramadan Hassan, Rasha Barwa, Shadi Shokralla, and Wael El-Naggar

January 2014

The use of Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. leaves extract against the survival of fungi

In this study, the antifungal fraction of Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. leaves extract was evaluated for its effect against biomass and cell viability of three strains of Aspergillus (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus nidulans). The results obtained show a reduction of the RNA concentration representing the biomass with the increase of the antifungal fraction content in the medium. Indeed, the...

Author(s): Irene Ahou Kouadio, Mathias Kouame Koffi, Olivier Kouame Chatigre and Mireille Bretin Dosso

January 2014

AmpC beta-lactamase production among Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis isolates at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana

Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are frequently reported in Ghana, but AmpC bacteria reports are scanty. This study determines the prevalence of AmpC Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, where ESBL and AmpC are not routinely tested. Non-duplicate 245 isolates comprising 187 (76.3%) P. aeruginosa and 58 (23.7%) P. mirabilis were...

Author(s): Feglo, P. and Opoku, S.

January 2014

Investigation of the antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of venom of some Egyptian scorpion

Leuirus quinquestriatus, Androctonus amoreuxi and Androctonus australis are venomous scorpion in Egypt. Their venom is complex mixture of salts, neurotoxins, peptides and proteins which has therapeutic applications, and can rapidly kill a broad range of microbes. Estimations of total proteins of the venom indicated that L. quinquestriatus had the highest value than the others (10.64 ± 0.04). Hemolytic activity of...

Author(s): Wesam Salama and Naglaa Geasa

November 2013

Detection of anti-salmonella antibodies by Immunochromatographic assay at Rajshahi Medical College, Bangladesh

The public health burden of typhoid fever can be substantially reduced by early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy. This study was conducted in an attempt to assess the reliability of immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the early diagnosis of typhoid fever. Immunochromatographic test to detect IgM, IgG or combined IgM/IgG in serum in 1st week of fever was done for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Blood samples...

Author(s): Bulbul Hasan, Sabera Gul Nahar, A. K. M. Shamsuzzaman, Sharmina Aftab and Abdullah Yusuf

November 2013

The effect of chloroquine phosphate on the pharmacodyanmic activity of ampicillin trihydrate against Staphylococcus aureus

The effect of chloroquine phosphate on the pharmacodyanmic activity of ampicillin trihydrate against Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 6571 was investigated using physicochemical and microbiological assay techniques. The physicochemical method was thin layer chromatography and ultraviolet spectrophotometry in a condition simulating normal body temperature and pH. The microbiological assay compared the zones of inhibition of S....

Author(s): Awofisayo Oladoja Abosede and Igbeneghu Oluwatoyin Abimbola

October 2013

Vernodalinol isolated from Struchium sparganophora (Linn) Asteraceae

Chemical investigation of anti-microbial and anti-fungal components of the leaves of Struchium sparganophora through the application of vacuum liquid chromatogtaphy (VLC), column liquid chromatography (CLC) and preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) resulted in isolation of a sesquiterpene lactone, vernodalinol. This compound was subjected to anti-fungal and cytotoxic tests. It exhibited a significant antifungal...

Author(s): Kasim L. S., Ukpo G. E. and Odukoya O. A.

October 2013

Biological properties of brittle star Ophiocnemis marmorata collected from Parangipettai, Southeast coast of India

The classes Ophiuroidea (Brittle stars) and Asteroids (sea stars) belonging to phylum, Echinodermata are characterized by their toxic saponins content. The aim of the present observation was to study the antimicrobial, hemolytic and cytotoxic properties of crude extracts from Ophiocnemis marmorata. The antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract showed maximum zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (7.0 mm)...

Author(s): ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­K. Prabhu and S. Bragadeeswaran

September 2013

Probiotics and controversies

Probiotics are bacteria with potential health enhancing and curing effects and are generally used for treating various forms of diarrheal diseases. The increasing use of probiotics is getting controversial both in terms of efficacy and potential side effects, as there is no conclusive study on the optimal dose and product formulation of probiotics.   Key words: Probiotics, living microorganisms, bacteria

Author(s): Tahir Hussain

September 2013

Plasmid profile of human Escherichia coli isolated from five major geopolitical zones of Nigeria

  Plasmid exchange between different strains of bacteria of the same species or different strains of different species is a recognized source for the rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance. In this study, 89 human isolates of Escherichia coli from five major geopolitical zones of Nigeriawere isolated and tested against 14 antibiotics by the disk diffusion method. Resistance plasmids were...

Author(s): Chijioke A. Nsofor and Christian U. Iroegbu

August 2013

Virulence determination of bacterial isolates through culture in India ink including broth

  Virulency is the degree of pathogenicity exhibited by most of the pathogens and it is a measure that effectively differentiates pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains. In the present study, culture of bacteria for 10 to 12 h (overnight) at 37°C in 10% India ink included broth that can be used as marker test for initial virulence identification while screening a number of bacterial isolates. These results...

Author(s): T. Behera, P. Swain and D. Mohapatra

August 2013

A Mathematical approach for describing the dependence between organic matter content and pH value in some waste water

  Water pollution is a major problem in the world, which can turn our precious earth into abyss. Waste water contains so many pollutants like inorganic and organic matter. Waste water decreases the pH of water. Pollution has high organic matter per-cent, with neutral pH and low salinity. We aimed to explain such a problem mathematically using an exponential method, which can be used to eliminate pollution from...

Author(s): Chandra Prabha and Shiv Dayal

July 2013

Dynamics of phytoplankton succession in Tungabhadra River near Harihar, Karnataka (India)

  There has been a serious concern about declining water quality in the rivers and streams since 1960. Wide varities of pollutants have been reported to cause deterioration of water quality in rivers. Tungabhadra River in Karnataka is an important tributary of Krishna. It has a drainage area of 71,417 sq. km out of which 57,671 sq. km area lies in the state of Karnataka. The river covers the distance of...

Author(s): B. Suresh, S. Manjappa and E. T. Puttaiah

July 2013

Synthesis of simple molecules prepared as arginase inhibitors and evaluated against Leishmania amazonensis

  In this work, we synthesized substances and evaluated the potential leishmanicidal activity. Thirty-four (34) compounds from different chemical classes were selected for a simple synthesis in overall good yields, eight of which are not described in the literature. From the 34 compounds evaluated for preliminary leishmanicidal activity, three can be considered as prototypes for the development of...

Author(s): Núbia Boechat, Adriana S. Lages, Osvaldo A. Santos-Filho, Marcelo Genestra†, Mônica M. Bastos and Warner B. Kover

June 2013

Antifungal activity of Swietenia mahogany on Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans

  The present study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal activities of aqueous and solvent extract of Swietenia mahogany which is used as a traditional folk medicine in India for the treatment of different infectious diseases and disorders. The antifungal activities of the extracts were tested against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans by disc diffusion assay and...

Author(s): D. Shyam Sundar, S. Anandan and S. Karthick Raja Namasivayam

June 2013

Bacterial activity of crude extracts of Vernonia amygdalina on clinical isolates

  The antibacterial activities and preliminary phytochemical screening of ethanolic and aqeous extract of Vernonia amygdalina was performed against clinical isolates obtained from University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) which included Escherichia coil, Staphylococcus aureus andPseudomonas aeruginosa. Generally, the ethanol extracts showed more activities than aqueous...

Author(s): Adetunji C. O., Olaniyi O.O. and Ogunkunle A.T.J.

May 2013

In vitro synergistic activity of amikacin combined with subinhibitory concentration of tigecycline against extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

  The number of extended-spectrum β-lactamases-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) strains is constantly increasing. This is of great concern in human healthcare around the world. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of amikacin-tigecycline combination against six tigecycline-resistant ESBL-KP clinical isolates using disc diffusion method, checkerboard titration...

Author(s): Elsayed Aboulmagd, Abdulrahman A. Alsultan, Hamdan I. Al Mohammad, Soad Al-Badry and Eman M. Hussein

May 2013

Assessment of the antimicrobial properties of fractions obtained from bryophytes

  Water, ethanol and acetone extracts were obtained from 10 selected bryophytes (seven mosses and three liverworts) viz: Radula flacida, Cyatodium africanum, Frullania spongiosa, Thuidium gratum, Ectropothecium aeruginosum, Sematophyllum caespitosum, Stereophyllum radiculosum, Babula lamberenensis, Campilopus aspericuspis and Calymperes erosum. A total of 24 fractions of various colors...

Author(s): Olofin, T. A., Akande, A. O. and Oyetayo, V. O.

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