African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12370

AJB Articles

Studies on enhanced African black soap from Theobroma cacao (cocoa) and Elaeis guineensis (palm kernel oil)

June 2018

The indigenous African organic soap is formed by saponification. Using the local and ancient method, with slight modifications, palm kernel oil (Elaeis guineensis) and the filtrate of burnt cocoa pod ash (Theobroma cacao) were used to prepare African black soap (C11H23COO-K+). The prepared black soap was thereafter divided into five parts. Part A was the control without additives, while parts B, C and D were enhanced...

Author(s): Adebomi A. Ikotun, Esther O. Faboro, Adejoke S. Kolade and Abimbola A. Owoseni

Identification and genetic diversity of Jordanian potato soft rot isolates, Pectobacterium carotovorum subspecies carotovorum (DYE 1969)

June 2018

Bacterial soft rot disease is one of the most important factors affecting potato production in Jordan. Based on biochemical and physiological analyses, Jordanian isolates of soft rot from potato were identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subspecies carotovorum (DYE 1969). Phylogenetic analysis using pmrA gene sequence data showed that isolates from different regions were closely related to each other, whereas little...

Author(s): Ibtihal Abu-Obeid, Hamed Khlaif and Nida Salem  

Surface plasmon resonance and antimicrobial properties of novel silver nanoparticles prepared from some indigenous plants in Uyo, Nigeria

June 2018

Synthesis of nanoparticles was done by green method. Aqueous extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Telferia occidentalis and Lasianthera africana were used as the model vegetables. Silver nitrate was used as the silver precursor, while the plant extracts served as the reducing agents and Xanthan gum (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00% w/v) was introduced as stabilizing agents. Twelve batches of silver nanoparticles were synthesized:...

Author(s): Tenderwealth Clement Jackson, Bernard Opatimidi Patani and Ntiido Ndifreke Udosen  

Morphological variability and molecular characterisation of thirty soybean genotypes using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers

June 2018

The genetic and morphological diversity of soybean germplasms was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and morphological traits such as plant height, height of cotyledon leaves, basal leaf length, basal leaf width, basal leaf area, terminal leaflets number, terminal leaflet length, terminal leaflet width, terminal leaflet area and basal leaf petiole length. A total of 30 germplasms were...

Author(s): Titilayo Akande, Lucky O. Omoigui and Joseph Ikwebe  

Phenotypic characterization and symbiotic effectiveness test of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) rhizobia isolated from Dejen and Aneded Districts, East Gojjam Zone, Amahara Region, Ethiopia

June 2018

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important leguminous crop grown in different parts of Ethiopia. It is a nutritionally valued and N2-fixing legume which forms a symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium. This study was conducted to characterize and evaluate symbiotic efficacy of chickpea rhizobia isolated from soil samples collected from the study area. Seventeen chickpea rhizobia were isolated by soil host plant trap...

Author(s): Birhan Aynalem, Tadele Temesgen, Yilkal Bezie and Seble W. Yohannis  

Development and validation of analytical methodology for quantification of total flavonoids of Morus nigra by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrophotometry

June 2018

Morus nigra L. is known in the region of Brazilian São Francisco Valley as "amora-miúra". It is widely used in traditional medicine, mainly in treatment of diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular problems, obesity and gout. This study proposed to develop and validate a fast, simple, efficient and low cost analytical method that could quantify total flavonoid content present in crude...

Author(s): Pedrita Alves Sampaio, Hyany Andreysa Pereira Teixeira, Nathália Andrezza Carvalho de Souza, José Marcos Teixeira de Alencar-Filho, Grasielly Rocha Souza, Emanuella Chiara Valença Pereira, Raimundo Gonçalves de Oliveira-Júnior, Pedro José Rolim-Neto, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, and Larissa Araújo Rolim  

Production of single cell protein (SCP) and essentials amino acids from Candida utilis FMJ12 by solid state fermentation using mango waste supplemented with nitrogen sources

June 2018

In Burkina Faso, deficiency of amino acids in protein is becoming a major healthy public problem. This study was purposed to optimize essentials amino acids in single cell protein (SCP) by supplementing different nitrogen sources during fermentation of mango waste with Candida utilis FJM12. Analytical methods were used to determine biomass yield, chemical composition and amino acids profile of SCP. The principal...

Author(s): Marius Kounbèsiounè SOMDA, Mahamadi NIKIEMA, Ibrahim KEITA, Iliassou MOGMENGA, Sonagnon H. S. KOUHOUNDE, Yerobessor DABIRE, Wahauwouélé H. COULIBALY, Essodolom TAALE and Alfred S.TRAORE  

Isolation and screening of antibiotic producing actinomycetes from rhizosphere and agricultural soils

May 2018

Antibiotics are secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms. Actinomycetes are the top producers of antibiotics. The study was designed to isolate and screen antibiotic producing actinomycetes obtained from rhizosphere of plants and agricultural soils. A total of 30 actinomycetes were isolated. Out of the 30 actinomycetes, 18 (60%) showed antimicrobial activities against one of the tested microorganisms of which 9...

Author(s): Atsede Muleta, and Fassil Assefa

Screening for total antioxidant activity, flavonoids and phenolics variability in forty-five accessions of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

May 2018

Build-up of free radicals in the human body can cause oxidative stress which may invariably lead to degenerative diseases and eventual death. Antioxidants such as polyphenols and flavonoids found in fruits and vegetables have been shown to protect the body against the damaging effects of these free radicals. Roselle contains high amounts of antioxidants and its leaves are often used for sauces or in herbal preparations...

Author(s): W. Nunekpeku, H. M. Amoatey, S. Agbenyegah, M. Owusu-Ansah, V. Oduro, K. E. Danso, D. K. Asare and E. Achoribo

Interrelationships of quantitative traits and genetic variability of Desi type chickpea genotypes as revealed by agro-morphology and inter simple sequence repeat markers

May 2018

Plant breeders need to stay alert in developing new cultivars on a steady basis to respond to the need of ever increasing human population by exploring either natural variability present in germplasms or generating new variability. Field experiment was conducted at five locations of Western Ethiopia during the 2016/2017 main cropping season to study interrelationships and genetic variability present in Desi type...

Author(s): Biru Alemu, Dagnachew Lule, Kassahun Tesfaye, and Teklehaimanot Haileselassie  

Molecular evidence of Helicobacter suis infection in pigs in Nigeria

May 2018

Helicobacter suis mainly colonizes the stomach of pigs and occasionally infects humans. It is a prevalent cause of gastritis and gastric ulcers in both species. This study was designed to determine the colonization rate of H. suis in the stomach of pigs in Nigeria. Pig slaughter house surveys were conducted and stomach mucosa samples were collected from the fundus of the stomach of a total of 160 pigs in four locations...

Author(s): Oladipo O. Omotosho, Olalekan T. Jeremiah, Benjamin O. Emikpe, Olusegun A. Fagbohun, Olusegun O. Odupitan, Temitope I. Durotoye and Ademola A. Owoade

Marine killer yeast Metschnikowia saccharicola active against pathogenic yeast in crab and an optimization of the toxin production

May 2018

A marine yeast strain, DD21-2 was isolated from sediments in Dandong, China, which has killer activity against yeast Metschnikowia bicuspidata WCY (pathogenic to crab, Portunus trituberculatus). Routine identification, sequence analysis of 26S rDNA and ITS sequencing showed that the strain was M. saccharicola DD21-2, and has not been previously reported as having killer activity against M. bicuspidata WCY. To optimize...

Author(s): Chunming Tan, Lin Wang, Yong Xue, Gang Yu, Shaoling Yang and Shuo Lin

Efficient plant regeneration protocol for finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] via somatic embryogenesis

May 2018

In the present study, an efficient protocol for somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration was established in six finger millet varieties (GBK-043137, GBK-043128, GBK-043124, GBK-043122, GBK-043094 and GBK-043050). Shoot tips from 3 days in vitro grown plants were inoculated on MS supplemented with various concentrations and combinations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D),...

Author(s): Alex Ngetich, Cecilia Mweu, Mathew Ngugi, Asunta Mukami, Henry Ojulong and Wilton Mbinda

Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers linked to drought tolerant traits in selected Sudanese rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes

May 2018

Rice growth and productivity are affected by biotic and abiotic stresses; key among them being drought. Conventional breeding for drought tolerance is slowed down by the complex nature of mechanisms underlying this stress although molecular markers offer a promising approach. Plant exposure to drought stress leads to a significant effect in chlorophyll content and reduction in photosynthesis. In this study, 23 Sudanese...

Author(s): Ahmed Bashier, Joel Masanga, Wariara Kariuki and Steven Runo  

Light quality and plant growth regulators influence pigment production in Alternanthera brasiliana calli

May 2018

Alternanthera brasiliana is a medicinal plant with several popular use and high production of betalains. The aim of the present research was to establish a protocol for callus induction and betalain biosynthesis in A. brasiliana species, as well as to investigate the effect of different qualities of light in increasing betalain in A. brasiliana callus cultures. In this way, the callus initiation and the improvement of...

Author(s): Andressa Reis, Alitcia Moraes Kleinowski, Renata Trevizan Telles, Fátima Rosane Schuquel Klein, Luciano do Amarante and Eugenia Jacira Bolacel Braga  

Presence of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene in cereals and cereal-based products in local markets and supermarkets of Yaoundé, Cameroon

May 2018

The use and importation of genetically modified (GM) crops and products derived from these crops are regulated by national and international policies, which unfortunately are often not properly implemented in some countries. Given the ongoing globalization of trade and increasing availability of GM plant products, countries like Cameroon with a weak system to regulate the importation of these products face the threat of...

Author(s): Youbouni Gisèle Flodore Ghepdeui, Palmer Masumbe Netongo, Olivia Afa Achonduh-Atijegbe Sarah Riwom Essama and Wilfred Fon Mbacham  

Effects of ethanolic extract of Waltheria indica aerial parts on some liver and kidney function indices in albino rats

May 2018

This study evaluated the toxicological effects of chronic treatment with ethanolic extract of Waltheria indica aerial portion on body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters in albino rats using standard methods. Rats treated with 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day of the extract showed no behavioural changes. However, there was general reduction of activity in rats given 800 and 1,600 mg/kg bw/day of the extract....

Author(s): Hamidu J. L., Ayo J. O., Adelaiye A. B. and Abubakar M. S.  

Genetic diversity and relatedness of oil palm progenies determined by microsatellite and agronomic markers

May 2018

Genetic diversity in oil palm has been usually determined using agro-morphological markers (traits) before the advent of DNA-based markers including microsatellite markers, which have the advantage of being environmentally independent. The current study aimed to compare genetic diversity and relationships among 10 Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) dura × tenera oil palm progenies using simple...

Author(s): Maxwell N. Okoye, Claude Bakoumé, Michael I. Uguru and Rajinder Singh  

Development of in vitro propagation protocol for some recalcitrant cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) genotypes in Sierra Leone

May 2018

A study on rapid propagation of cassava through tissue culture was conducted with three elite cassava genotypes: Slicass 6, Slicass 11 and Cocoa from Sierra-Leone. They showed slow growth in Murashige & Skoog (MS) basal medium which was proven to be optimal for a vast number of cassava accessions. Prior to mutation induction, a large population needs to be produced for mutagen susceptibility test and for mutant...

Author(s): Janatu Veronica Sesay, Nicole Gado G. Yamba, Joseeph Sherman-Kamara and Dan David Quee  

Propagation of Pecan (Carya illinoensis): A review

May 2018

The Pecan (Carya illinoensis) is the most important species that belongs to the Carya genus. It is cultivated mainly for its nut, which is rich in oils and proteins, and for its good quality wood. Pecan is conventionally propagated by budding or grafting onto rootstocks obtained by open pollination. However, these techniques are not very efficient due to low propagation rates, poor survival and difficult establishment....

Author(s): Fabrizio Giuseppe Casales, Elmarie Van der Watt and Gesine Maria Coetzer  

Azospirillum spp. potential for maize growth and yield

May 2018

The importance of biotechnology involved in the availability of nutrients to plants in different production systems is well known. In the search for agricultural sustainability, biological nitrogen fixation process stands out, especially in tropical regions where soil organic matter can be rapidly mineralized. In this aspect, researches have pointed out the potentialities of the use of diazotrophic bacteria, as well as...

Author(s): Lucas Tadeu Mazza Revolti, Carlos Henrique Caprio, Fábio Luíz Checchio Mingotte and Gustavo Vitti Môro  

Vitamin C, iron and zinc levels of selected African green leafy vegetables at different stages of maturity

April 2018

Nutrient level at harvest of vegetables is an important aspect in the efforts to combat food and nutrition insecurity in developing countries. However information on the nutrient levels at different maturity stages of most indigenous African green leafy vegetables is scanty. This study was undertaken to determine the levels of vitamin C, iron and zinc in Amaranthus cruentus, Cleome gynandra and Solanum villosum at...

Author(s): Teddy Frederick Mamboleo, John Mbonea Msuya and Akwilina Wendelin Mwanri  

Expression and purification of human IL-2 protein from Escherichia coli

April 2018

Human interleukin 2 protein (IL-2) is an important cytokine found to be elevated in several types of cancer. A synthetic DNA sequence of the cDNA of mature IL-2 protein was cloned into the pRSET-B expression vector. The expressed IL-2 protein in Escherichia coli [BL21] was associated with the formation of insoluble inclusion bodies (IBs). The effect of different cultivation conditions (temperature,...

Author(s): Ramadan Hassan, Mohammed El-Mowafy and Eman Samy Zaher  

Actinomycetes bioactive compounds: Biological control of fungi and phytopathogenic insect

April 2018

Actinomycetes are aerobic and gram-positive spore forming bacteria. They belong to the order actinomycetales and are characterized by substrates and aerial mycelium growth. They are the most abundant microorganisms in soil. They play important roles in the cycling of organic matter and inhibit the growth of several plant pathogens in the rhizosphere. Due to the presence of enzymes such as proteases and chitinase,...

Author(s): Edelvio de B. Gomes, Léo Ruben L. Dias and Rita de Cássia M. de Miranda  

Assessment of plantain (Musa sapientum L.) accessions genotypic groups relatedness using simple sequence repeats markers

April 2018

Plantains are important sources of high-calorie energy in Ghana. They are also of great socio-economic importance in the country, and very important sources of rural income. Although several species exist all over the world, plantains belonging to the AAB group are unique to West Africa and Ghanaian collections have unique features and peculiar taste. Morphological and biochemical characterization are the popular...

Author(s): Marian D. Quain, Adelaide Agyeman and Beloved M. Dzomeku  

Adaptation of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas) (L.) Lam] genotypes in various agro-ecological zones of Malawi

April 2018

Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas) (L.) Lam] is grown by small holder farmers across a wide range of environments in Malawi. A multi-location trial of eight genotypes for three seasons at six research stations was undertaken using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model analysis to determine the genotypes’ stability and influence of genotype × environment interactions (GEI) on storage...

Author(s): Felistus Chipungu, Wisdom Changadeya, Aggrey Ambali, John Saka, Nzola Mahungu and Jonathan Mkumbira  

Enzymatic activity and elicitor of phytoalexins of Lippia sidoides Cham. and endophytic fungi

April 2018

Secondary metabolites may play a number of roles, among them, is the activation of plant defense mechanisms, such as phytoalexins and the synthesis of antioxidative enzymes. This study aimed to test the eliciting activity of phytoalexins of Lippia sidoides Cham. and six endophytic fungi associated with it and to verify the synthesis of the enzymes, as a response to the antioxidative and antifungal system. The assays...

Author(s): Talita Pereira de Souza Ferreira, Ronice Alves Veloso, Gil Rodrigues dos Santos, Laiza Priscila dos Santos, Tatiani Pereira de Souza Ferreira, Alessandra Macedo Barros, Richard Dias Possel and Raimundo Wagner de Souza Aguiar

In vitro somatic embryogenesis and regeneration potential of two potato varieties in Uganda

April 2018

In vitro somatic embryogenesis and regeneration are important techniques for crop improvement and mass propagation. This study was conducted to establish and optimize a regeneration system for agronomically important potato cultivars (‘Victoria’ and ‘Rutuku’) of Solanum tuberosum L. in Uganda. Completely randomized design experiments were set up at Bioscience East and Central Africa (BecA) Tissue...

Author(s): Arinaitwe Abel Byarugaba, Magembe Eric, Barekye Alex and Rob Skilton

ELISA, RT-PCR, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and sequencing methods for investigating an epidemic FMD virus serotype O outbreaks

April 2018

This study was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence of non-structure protein for foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and identify FMDV serotypes. A total of 3600 serum samples (1080 buffaloes and 2520 cattle) were collected randomly from different breeds, age, and sex at El Beheira, El Dakahlia, and El Giza. Nonstructure protein of FMDV was detected in 41 of 1080 (3.8%) Buffalo and 185 of 2520 (7.3%) cattle....

Author(s): Halla E. K. El Bahgy and Mahmoud M. A. Moustafa

Heterosis, heterobeltiosis, narrow-sense and broad-sense heritabilities for Phytophthora megakarya tolerance in two populations of Theobroma cacao L.

April 2018

A 2x2 diallel mating design was set up to estimate quantitative genetic parameters after leaf artificial inoculation tests in nursery and field for three consecutive years. F12 and F40 families of two reciprocal crosses viz., F12: ♀SCA12 × â™‚ICS40 and F40: ♀ICS40 × â™‚SCA12 were used to study heterosis (mid-parent), heterobeltiosis (better-parent), heritability (narrow-sense and broad-sense) and to...

Author(s): Jude N. MANGA, Martine L. ONDOBO, Pierre O. EFFA, Jules C. K. DJOKO, and Pierre F. DJOCGOUE,  

Rice (Oryza sativa) breeding strategies for grain biofortification

April 2018

Biofortification is a process in which plant species are improved in order to raise the nutritional content of the product consumed. The following are some of the main techniques that can be introduced in plant breeding programs in order to improve the nutritional quality of the food to be produced. The rice breeding for higher Fe and Zn content in grain, rice breeding for higher β-carotene content in the grain,...

Author(s): Fábio Luíz Checchio Mingotte, Lucas Tadeu Mazza Revolti, Sandra Helena Unêda Trevisoli, Leandro Borges Lemos and Domingos Fornasieri Filho

Preventive effect of black rice antioxidant extract on oxidative stress induced by ethyl alcohol

April 2018

The present study investigated the black rice ethanolic extract (BREE) protective effect as natural antioxidants against oxidative stress induced by ethyl alcoholic (EA) in male rats. BREE flavonoids and phenols were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The study was conducted on 40 male Wistar rats weighing 170±2 g, the animals divided into 4 equal groups. The first group was given...

Author(s): Suhailah S. Al-Jameel and Soheir N. Abd El-Rahman,  

Production and purification of extracellular pullulanase by Klebsilla aerogenes NCIM 2239

April 2018

The present study was carried out to optimize the production of pullulanase from Klebsilla aerogenes NCIM 2239, a new strain of the bacterium. The organism was screened for its ability to synthesize and secrete extracellular pullulanase, by analysis of pullulan degrading activity. Environmental (pH and temperature) and nutritional (carbon and nitrogen) factors influencing growth and product formation were optimized...

Author(s): N. Prabhu, R. Uma Maheswari, M. Vijay Pradhap Singh, S. Karunakaran, C. Kaliappan and T. Gajendran  

Bioactivity guided fractionation of potent antiacne plant extract against Propionibacterium acnes

March 2018

Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a commensal anaerobic, Gram positive bacterium that belongs to the normal microflora. P. acnes play an important role in the pathogenesis of various skin infections and diseases. However, the available agents are associated with number of side effects and P. acnes show the genetic base of antibacterial resistance against erythromycin and clindamycin. Therefore, alternative natural...

Author(s): Vinod Kumar Gauttam, Kavita Munjal and Nitisha Negi

Molecular characterization and tissue expression analysis of five genes for chitinase in the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

March 2018

Insect chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes that cleave chitin of the cuticle and peritrophic membrane during molting. Multiple genes encode insect chitinases, which are characterized as having diverse chemical and enzymatic properties depending on the time and the site of expression. This work was done to isolate and characterize chitinase genes from the red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver), a cryptic...

Author(s): Babiker M. A. Abdel-Banat, Hamadttu A. F. El-Shafie, Khalid A. Alhudaib, Wael S. El-Araby and Mohammed R. Al-Hajhoj

Genetic diversity study of Ethiopian Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) varieties based on phenotypic traits and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers

March 2018

Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the earliest domesticated food legumes of the world. This study was designed to reveal the genetic diversity existing among 32 Ethiopian faba bean varieties grown at three locations (Sinana, Agarfa and Selka) using 23 phenotypic traits and 11 inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers. The combined analysis of variance across the three locations showed highly significant (p<0.05)...

Author(s): Behailu Mulugeta Asfaw, Kifle Dagne, Gemechu Keneni Wakayo, Seid Ahmed Kemal and Kassahun Tesfaye Muleta,

Preliminary studies on the laxative properties of Senna alata L. and Hollandia yoghurttm

March 2018

Experiments on Senna alata aqueous extract and Hollandia yoghurt were done to determine active compounds responsible for their laxative properties and to further establish sample vulnerability to microbial attack. Phytochemical screening was performed on test substrates to analyze for alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and steroids. Escherichia coli (Gram negative), Micrococcus species (Gram positive),...

Author(s): Oke D. G., Oluranti O. O. and Akande J. A.

Determination of toxicity and chromatographic analysis of spilanthol content in in vitro culture of Spilanthes oleracea Jacq.

March 2018

Spilanthes oleracea Jacq. has been extensively used due to its pharmacological activities, and it has been considered as a promising vegetable crop. Nodal-segment cultures of S. oleracea were established in order to analyze the content of alkamide spilanthol. On average, 11 buds/nodal segment were developed after 30 days on MS basal salts liquid medium containing 2.22 μM benzyladenine (BA). Regenerated shoots formed...

Author(s): Viviane Gesteira, Naomi Kato Simas, Morgana, Castelo T. L. Branco, Alexandre dos S. Pyrrho and Alice Sato,

Development of liquid inoculants for strains of Rhizobium tropici group using response surface methodology

March 2018

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important legume for human consumption in many countries of South and Central America, Asia and Africa. The crop can benefit from the biological nitrogen fixation process, especially when inoculated with elite rhizobial strains. Strains belonging to the “Rhizobium tropici group” are preferred because they show high tolerance to abiotic stresses, but their...

Author(s): Jackson Seiti Gundi,, Mariana Sanches Santos, André Luiz Martinez Oliveira, Marco Antonio Nogueira and Mariangela Hungria,

Energy balance of elephant grass biomass for power generation by direct biomass combustion

March 2018

In Brazil, elephant grass has been used for thermal energy production, due to the high productivity, energy efficiency, biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and biomass quality for energy generation by direct burning. The use of biomass depends mainly on the energy balance and biomass characteristics for energy production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomass of dry matter yield, qualitative biomass variables...

Author(s): Morais R. F., Morais C. S. B., de Morais L. F. and Almeida J. C. C.

Biodegradation of fenthion and temphos in liquid media by Bacillus safensis isolated from pesticides polluted soil in the Sudan

March 2018

The objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of the bacteria Bacillus safensis strain FO-36bT isolated from pesticide-polluted soil in degrading fenthion and temphos in mineral salt media (MSM). Fenthion and temphos were incubated with the isolated bacteria. Samples were drawn at 0, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days to analyze residual fenthion and temphos content with gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance...

Author(s): Azhari Omer Abdelbagi[], Adam Ishag Abdallah Wady[], Abd Elaziz Sulieman Ahmed Ishag[], Ahmed Mohammed Ali Hammad[], Mohamed Abdalla Omer Abdalla and Jang-Hyun Hur

Technical review of molecular markers and next-generation sequencing technology to manage plant pathogenic oomycetes

March 2018

To feed the world human population which is expected to reach 10 billion in the next three decades, agricultural sustainability is required for stable food production. However, crops always suffer from many biotic and abiotic stresses. Among them, plant pathogens often cause severe yield losses. Plant pathogenic oomycetes are one of the most destructive plant diseases, which include Phytophthora infestans in potato and...

Author(s): Ramadan Ahmed Arafa, and Kenta Shirasawa

Genetic structure of indigenous sheep breeds in Nigeria based on electrophoretic polymorphous systems of transferrin and haemoglobin

March 2018

The study used 100 indigenous sheep comprising 25 Balami, 25 Uda, 25 Yankassa and 25 West African Dwarf breeds reared extensively. The blood samples were taken from Vena Jugularis, processed according to standard procedure and transferrin and haemoglobin examined using cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The observed allele frequencies and genotypes (%) were tested with Hardy-Weinberg’s Equilibrium (χ2). Seven...

Author(s): Osaiyuwu Henry Osamede and Salako Emmanuel Adebowale  

Assessment of genetic diversity of Burkina Faso sweet grain sorghum using microsatellite markers

March 2018

Sweet grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an under-harvested crop produced mainly for its sweet grains in the pasty stage. Little is known of its genetic diversity remains. This study aims to determine the level and structure of the genetic diversity of sweet grain sorghum from Burkina Faso. Thus, 93 accessions were evaluated using 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers. The analysis revealed 49 alleles in...

Author(s): Nerbéwendé SAWADOGO, Teyoure Benoit Joseph BATIENO, Zakaria KIEBRE, Mahamadi Hamed OUEDRAOGO, Wend-Pagnangdé Marie Serge Félicien ZIDA, Kiswendsida Romaric NANEMA, Baloua NEBIE, Pauline BATIONO-KANDO, Renan Ernest TRAORE, Mahamadou SAWADOGO and Jean-Didier ZONGO

Thermal, physical and chemical analysis of Eisenia andrei flour for supplementary diet

March 2018

The search for sources of animal feed has been well-regarded for farmers. In spite of this, the objective of this study was to show the thermal, physical and chemical properties of earthworms flour from Eisenia andrei for supplementary food for animals. The species was studied by simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, combustion calorimetry, moisture, ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate...

Author(s): Wagner M. Carlesso, Rosecler Ribeiro, Taciélen Altmayer, Jordana Finatto, Maira C. Martini, Débora T. Brietske, Tamara E. Gonçalves, Matheus Scheibel, Aline Camini, Fernando J. M. Kuffel, Cassiano R. Brandt, Henrique P. Etgeton, Daniel Kuhn, Maria C. Dallazen, Éder M. M. Flores, Simone Stulp, Eduardo M. Ethur, Elisete M. de Freitas and Lucélia Hoehne

Chemical composition of Citrus limon (Eureka variety) essential oil and evaluation of its antioxidant and antibacterial activities

March 2018

The study evaluates the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects properties of essential oil of Citrus limon (Eureka) extracted by hydrodistillation. The composition of this oil was analysed by GC/MS for 30 constituents, which accounted for 97.8% of total oil. The main components were limonene (61.3%) followed by β-pinene (9.7%), α-citral (4.2%) and α-terpinene (3.8%). Antioxidant...

Author(s): Himed Louiza, Merniz Salah and Barkat Malika

Toxicity of powdered and ethanolic extracts of Uvaria chamae (Annonaceae) Bark on selected stored product insect pests

March 2018

A study was carried out on the insecticidal effects of the powdered stem bark extract of Uvaria chamae and its ethanolic extract on three most devastating stored products pests (Coleopterous) in Nigeria, namely: Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Bruchidae), Rhizopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Curculionidae). Graded concentrations of each formulation of the powdered bark and ethanolic...

Author(s): Negbenebor, H. E., Makanjuola, W. A., Denloye, A. A. and Nura, S.

Physico-chemical and bacteriological characterization of sachet water sold in Yaounde City, Cameroon

March 2018

The objective of this study is to take an inventory of all the sachet water brands sold in Yaounde and to assess their sanitary quality. This study was carried out on 100 samples, representing 20 sachet water brands sold in the urban city of Yaounde, Cameroon. Selected physico-chemical and bacteriological analyses of the sachet water were done. The results showed that their pH values and nitrate level  were in line...

Author(s): Hermann GAPWU, Patience BONGSE KARI ANDOSEH, Irène GUEMCHE SILLAG, Joséphine Mireille AKOA ETOA, Christian Gaéle NEMBOT FOMBA and Pauline MOUNJOUENPOU

Antioxidant, antimicrobial and antifeedant activity of phenolic compounds accumulated in Hyoscyamus muticus L.

March 2018

Hyoscyamus muticus is an endangered desert plant spread in the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East deserts. The methanol extract of the aerial parts of H. muticus grown in the arid zones in the Northern regions of Saudi Arabia were subjected to primary phytochemical analysis which revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and sterols, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of...

Author(s): Eman Ramadan Elsharkawy, Abdelaziz Ed-dra, Emad Mohamed Abdallah and Ahmed M. H. Ali,

Food additives and their health effects: A review on preservative sodium benzoate

March 2018

Food additives are widely used by the food industry to increase the product shelf life and/or attribute as well as enhance certain characteristics of particular foods, which are often lost during processing. With the advent of modern life, more and more additives have been employed by the food industry. Despite their wide use, they are substances that may cause adverse reactions like any other drug. This study aimed to...

Author(s): Bruna G. O. Linke, Thais A. C. Casagrande and Lígia A. C. Cardoso

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