African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12213

AJB Articles

November 2017

Effect of different stablizers on quality characteristics of the set-type yogurt

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of seven different stabilizers on some properties of set-type yogurt. Stabilizers used were sodium caseinate, gelatin, carrageenan, xanthan gum, guar gum, locust bean gum (LBG), native corn starch. For the control group, no stabilizer was added. During the storage period, while the fat and pH values of the yoghurt samples were reduced, the stabilizers had no effects on...

Author(s): Emine Macit and Ihsan Bakirci

November 2017

Effect of adenine sulphate, casein hydrolysate and spermidine on in vitro shoot multiplication of two banana varieties (FHIA-21 and PITA-3)

A highly reproducible and efficient in vitro shoot regeneration system was developed for two banana varieties (FHIA-21 and PITA-3) using shoot tip as explant. Shoot tip was inoculated onto Murashige and Skoog (MS, 1962) medium supplemented with cytokinins [benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin (Kin) and 2-isopentenyl (2-iP)] and additives [Adenine sulphate (Ads), spermidine (Spd) and casein hydrolysate (CH)] for shoot...

Author(s): Oumar Silué, Kan Modeste Kouassi, Kouablan Edmond Koffi, Konan Eugène Pacome Kouakou and Séverin Aké

November 2017

Production and characterization of proteases from edible mushrooms cultivated on amazonic tubers

Proteases are important commercial enzymes, and among their numerous sources are the Basidiomycetes. The use of proteases in many industrial areas promotes the search for enzymes with new properties. The aim of this study is to produce and characterize peptidases of a biocomposite from mycelial biomass grown in Amazonic tubers. Lentinus citrinus DPUA 1535 and Pleurotus ostreatoroseus DPUA 1720 were cultivated on...

Author(s): Ana Rita Gaia Machado, Salomão Rocha Martim, Mircella Marialva Alecrim and Maria​ Francisca Simas Teixeira

November 2017

Conversion of lignocellulose from palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit fibre and physic (Jatropha curcas) nut shell into bio-oil

Harmful gases are released into the atmosphere through burning of residues which is commonly practiced in Nigeria and can be attributed to climate change issues. Agricultural residues have the potentials to be used as energy and chemical source and meet its deficit in the country. This paper focuses on utilization of lignocellulosic materials obtained from two agricultural residues through renewable technology to...

Author(s): Onifade, T. B., Wandiga, S. O., Bello, I. A., Jekanyinfa, S. O. and Harvey, P. J.

November 2017

Occurrence and genetic variability of partial coat protein gene of Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) in Kenya

A survey was conducted to determine the occurrence of sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) infecting sweet potato in Kenya. Vine cuttings of sweet potato were collected in 2011 from fields in Central, Western and Coastal regions of the country. The cuttings were grown in an insect-proof screen-house and scion grafted to Ipomoea setosa indicator plants. DNA was extracted from leaf samples of graft-inoculated I. serosa...

Author(s): Maina, S., Miano, D. W., Mbogo, E., Amimo, J. O., Irungu, J. and Njiruh, P. N.

November 2017

Promising substrates to increase the production of tannase under solid state fermentation (SSF) by Penicillium spp.

Tannase (tannin acyl hydrolse, E.C. is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester and depside bonds of hydrolysable tannins. Among the filamentous fungi the genus Penicillium is recognized as the second best producer of tannase. This enzyme presents applications in several industrial segments, such as in the production of judges and teas. The industrial production of tannase can be performed through solid...

Author(s): Roberta Cruz, Juliana Silva de Lima, Julyanna Cordoville Fonseca, José Erick Galindo Gomes⊃, José Ivaldo de Siqueira Silva Júnior⊃, Keila Aparecida Moreira⊃ and Cristina Maria de Souza-Motta⊃

November 2017

Optimization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SKM10 single cell protein production from mango (Magnifera indica L.) waste using response surface methodology

The present study aims at optimizing the production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SKM10 single cell proteins (SCP) from mango waste. To optimize the production process, the effect of two independent variables was evaluated by a three-level full factorial design using response surface methodology (RSM). The parameters studied were inoculum size (2 to 12% v/v) and concentration of substrates (5 to 10 g/L). Analytical...

Author(s): Marius K. SOMDA, Cheik Amadou Tidiane OUATTARA, Iliassou MOGMENGA, Mahamadi NIKIEMA, Ibrahim KEITA, Nicolas OUEDRAOGO, Desiré TRAORE and Alfred S.TRAORE

November 2017

Comparative evaluation of anti-oxidative potentials of fermented locust bean condiment and its moringa fortified variant

The need to boost daily intake of natural antioxidants to combat free radicals causing degenerative diseases has become more imperative. Fermented locust bean condiment was fortified with moringa leaf powder (rich in antioxidants) at 20, 30 and 50% substitution levels. Proximate composition, phenolic content, total flavonoid, reducing power, and the sensory properties of the condiments were determined using standard...

Author(s): Gibson L. Arueya, Maimuna Sani and Akeem Olayemi Raji

November 2017

Morphogenesis and plant regeneration from Anthurium andreanum cv Calypso leaf explant

Anthuriums are among the most attractive ornamental plants; however, the commercial production of these plants is limited by the slow propagation methods presently in use. This situation can be resolved with the application of in vitro culture techniques which allow massive plant propagation through morphogenic processes. Plant growth regulators (PGR) and the composition of the basal media comprising the culture medium...

Author(s): López-Puc Guadalupe and Rodríguez-Buenfil Ingrid Mayanin

November 2017

Genetic variability and character association of some local wheat varieties (Triticum species) using agromorphological traits grown in South Gondar zone, Ethiopia

Wheat is the most important cereal crop in Ethiopia ranking third in terms of area after teff and maize and second in terms of production after maize. Six local wheat varieties cultivated in South Gondar, one of the 11 zones found in Amhara region, were collected from the local farmers to study their variability, heritability and trait associations using 12 agro-morphological traits. The studied genotypes were grown in...

Author(s): Admas Alemu Abebe and Tesfaye Molla Desta

November 2017

Salinity increased vitamins concentration in Amaranthus cruentus leaves

Salt stress is one of the major environmental constraints limiting agricultural productivity and influencing the concentration of bioactive compounds of vegetables. In this study, the effect of NaCl salt stress on nutrient contents of leaves in a cultivar of amaranth, an important leafy vegetable cultivated in some tropical regions worldwide, was evaluated. The experiment was carried out in a screen house at Center for...

Author(s): Agapit Dossou WOUYOU, Elpide Adonnel AHISSOU, Christophe Bernard GANDONOU, Françoise ASSOGBA KOMLAN, Alban HOUNGBÈMÈ, Fernand Ahokannou GBAGUIDI, Hyacinthe AHISSOU, Latifou LAGNIKA, Séraphin Ahissou ZANKLAN and Stanley LUTTS

October 2017

Impact of trona-aided boiling on the phytochemical constituents and beneficial micronutrients of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.)

The influence of boiling lima bean, using trona solution, on its phytochemical constituents and selected micronutrients was investigated. Lima bean was initially boiled for 3 h using 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5% trona solution, respectively at ratio 1:5 (bean/trona solution). The boiled lima bean was subsequently dried in an oven at 55°C for 12 h after which it was subjected to various analyses. Maximum reduction of...

Author(s): Mathew K. Bolade, Israel E. Agarry and Oladayo O. Bolade

October 2017

Extracellular biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Actinomycetes from amazonic biome and its antimicrobial efficiency

The microbial sources used for the production of nanoparticles are important, and one of the reasons for bacterial preference is their ease of manipulation and ecofriendly potential. Three bacteria strains of Streptomyces genus were used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The aim of the present study was to confirm Streptomyces spp. as biological systems in the synthesis and extracellular...

Author(s): Nélly Mara Silva-Vinhote, Nelson Eduardo Durán Caballero,, Taciana de Amorim Silva, Patrick Veras Quelemes, Alyne Rodrigues de Araújo, Ana Carolina Mazarin de Moraes, Ana Lygia dos Santos Câmara, João Paulo Figueiró Longo, Ricardo Bentes Azevedo, Durcilene Alves da Silva, José Roberto de Souza de Almeida Leite and Maria Francisca Simas Teixeira

October 2017

In vitro micropropagation of grape vine (Vitis vinifera L.) from nodal culture

The objective of this study was to optimize a protocol for in vitro micropropagation of selected grape vine varieties. Preliminary studies were conducted to optimize the duration of sterilization of the explants. For shoot initiation experiment nodes of the three varieties of grape vines were cultured on MS medium (Murashige-Skoog’s, 1962) supplemented with five different concentrations of 6-Benzylaminopurine...

Author(s): Beza Kinfe, Tileye Feyssa and Girma Bedada

October 2017

Fungi and aflatoxin analysis of processed ogiri-egusi and ogiri-ugba consumed in Abakaliki metropolis

This study investigated fungi and total aflatoxins quality of ogiri [fermented melon seed (Citrullus vulgaris] and fermented African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla) consumed as soup condiment in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The ogiri samples were purchased from two major markets in Abakaliki metropolis [meat market (OM and UM) and rice mill market (OR and UR)]. The samples were screened for their pH...

Author(s): Fidelis Azi, Michael O. Odo, Peter A. Okorie, Helen A. Njoku, Veronica N. Nwobasi and Amechi S. Nwankwegu

October 2017

Evaluation of crude preparations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC 52712) pectolytic enzymes in cassava starch extraction: Effects of variety on yield and starch recovery rates

Application of enzyme preparations has shown great potential in aiding extraction procedures. However, the focus has mostly been on single crop varieties, thereby limiting knowledge on the effects of enzyme technology to those (single) varieties studied. The present work compared the effects of various dosages of crude pectolytic enzymes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC 52712) on yield and extraction rates of starch...

Author(s): Japheth Kwame Agyepong and John Barimah

October 2017

Fermentation of deproteinized cheese whey by Saccharomyces fragilis IZ 275 for ethanol production on pilot scale

Cheese whey is presented as an alternative for the production of ethanol to be a major source for growth of microorganisms, which catalyze lactose directly to ethanol and other products. Thus the aims of this study were to analyze the influence of nutrients in the cheese whey (15%w/v) fermentation by Saccharomyces fragilis IZ 275, to estimate the ethanol production and verify the repetition of the results of...

Author(s): Geyci de Oliveira da Silva Colognesi, Denise Renata Pedrinho, Garcia Sandra, Luiz Rodrigo Ito Morioka and Hélio Hiroshi Suguimoto

October 2017

Adoption of pelleted Digitalia iburua grain as carrier for heat stable Newcastle disease vaccine virus for village poultry

The development of pelleted food–based vaccine against Newcastle disease (ND) using a thermostable NDVI2 strain in Acha (Digitalia iburua) is reported. The Acha cereal was subjected to rigorous processing of washing, soaking, boiling, roasting and grinding into fine powder prior to virus incorporation. The mixture which was passed through a locally fabricated pelleting machine resulted in fine pellets. The virus...

Author(s): Ibu, O. J., Shittu, A. I., Egbuji, A., Okoye, J. O. A., Echeonwu, G. O. N., Abdu, P., Okwor, E. C., Eze, D., Usman, M., Lohlum, A. and Rabo, J. S.

October 2017

Aroma characterization of ripe date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) from Algeria

The headspace of eight Algerian date varieties with low market value were analyzed for their aroma compounds using solid phase micro extraction and gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. In this study, 61 identified compounds were categorized in various chemical classes on the basis of their functional groups, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, terpenoids, ketones, hydrocarbons, and ethers. Twenty specific...

Author(s): El Yamine MEZROUA, AbdelNacer AGLI, Guido FLAMINI, Sofiane BOUDALIA and Hayet OULAMARA

October 2017

Evaluation of genetic diversity in rice (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) germplasm from Liberia and Ghana using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers

Rice is an important staple food crop that feeds over half of the global population and it has become the cereal that provides a major source of calories for the urban and rural poor in Africa. This research aimed to use simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to evaluate the genetic diversity in rice (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) germplasm as breeding method. In the present study, 16 SSR markers were used across 48...

Author(s): Zogbo Luther, Richard Akromah, Daniel Nyadanu, David P. Tokpah, Zipporah Page, Victor M. Voor and Agnes D. Kwaloe

October 2017

Xylose recovery from dilute-acid hydrolysis of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) empty fruit bunches for xylitol production

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different process conditions, such as the sulfuric acid concentration, contact time, solid:liquid ratio and particle size, on the xylose recovery and the formation of by-products from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with dilute-acid hydrolysis. Moreover, an adapted and non-adapted strain of the yeast Candida guilliermondii was used to obtain xylitol from the optimal...

Author(s): Katherine Manjarres-Pinzón, Mario Arias-Zabala, Guillermo Correa-Londoño, Eduardo Rodriguez-Sandoval and Eduardo Rodríguez-Sandoval 

October 2017

Effect of encapsulated Pseudomonas putida strain PF1P on plant growth and its microbial ecosystem

Pseudomonas putida is a well-known plant growth promoting bacterium (PGPB) with the capacity to improve plant growth. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of P. putida towards plant growth and its interaction with its microbial ecosystem. P. putida strain PF1P was isolated from the rhizosphere of banana plant (Musa species). The isolated P. putida strain PF1P possess ability to secrete acetic acid (42.1...

Author(s): Jeffrey Lim Seng Heng and Nur Samahah Mohd Zainual

October 2017

Potentiality of lytic bacteriophages and their virolysins in lysing multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi

Bacteriophage virolysins or lytic enzymes are bacterial peptidoglycan hydrolases responsible for lysing bacterial cells. Consequently, they are used as enzybiotics alongside with bacteriophage therapy to remedy multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potentiality of lytic bacteriophages and their virolysins in curing multi-drug resistant S. typhi. S. typhi was isolated and...

Author(s): Ayman A. Elshayeb, Abdelazim A. Ahmed, Marmar A. El Siddig and Adil A. El Hussien

October 2017

Adsorption of a cationic dye by Marula (Sclerocarya birrea) fruit seed shell based biosorbent: Equilibrium and kinetic studies

Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution using a low cost Sclerocarya birrea fruit shell powder based biosorbent was investigated in a batch system. Results showed that optimum adsorption capacity was achieved at pH 8 and biosorbent dosage of 0.6 g, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 27.690 mg g-1. Equilibrium studies showed that experimental data fitted well on the Temkin isotherm (R2 = 0.9641), as well as...

Author(s): Mupa Mathew, Mautsi Musharu Phineas and Gwizangwe Isaac

October 2017

The effects of plant growth regulators on in vitro gynogenic embryo formation in onion (Allium cepa L.)

Different combinations of plant growth regulators were tried on in vitro gynogenesis by flower bud and ovary culture for two open pollinated Turkish onion cultivars, “Bayram 1” and “Yakut” and a synthetic population of “OH-1”, which serves as a responsive control for extraction of gynogenic haploids of onion for two years (2011 and 2012). In 2011, modified Dunstan and Short (BDS)...

Author(s): Faika Yarali and Ruhsar Yanmaz

October 2017

Selection of loose-leaf lettuce breeding lines based on non-parametric indexes

Non-parametric selection indexes (that is, require no estimation of parameters) can be used to help the selection process in the final stage of genetic enhancement. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of non-parametric selection indexes to choose promising lineages of loose-leaf lettuce, so that genetic gain of each lineage can be estimated and then registered in the Ministry of...

Author(s): Willame dos Santos Candido, Dora Enith Tobar-Tosse, Renato Silva Soares, Lucas da Silva Santos, Carolina Andrade Franco and Leila Trevisan Braz

September 2017

Water use efficiency in soybean crop after inoculation with Azospirillum brasiliense in the Cerrado of Tocantins State, Brazil

Crops in the Cerrado experience short drought stress periods that affect cultivation development, especially the water use efficiency (WUE), which can be modified by the use of Azospirillum brasiliense bacteria. In this sense, this study evaluated soybean plants’ response to A. brasiliense inoculation, in relation to WUE, in the Cerrado of Tocantins State. During the growing season of 2015/2016, three experiments...

Author(s): Evandro Reina and Joenes Mucci Peluzio

September 2017

Assessment of three cocoa hybrid families’ susceptibility and cysteine involvement in defense process against Phytophthora megakarya

Black pod disease (BPD) is the major cocoa pathology constraint caused by an Oomycete, Phytophthora megakarya prevailing in African cocoa producing countries. The development of T. cacao planting material tolerant to BPD lies on cross-pollination of adequate parental genotypes which generate offspring with desirable traits. We assessed the susceptibility to BPD of offspring derived from three manual crosses...

Author(s): Minyaka Emile, Simo Claude, Mouen Piau Jean Cyrille, Madina Banen Colette Vanessa, Djocgoue Pierre François, and Omokolo Ndoumou Denis

September 2017

Effect of quercetin nanoparticles on the kidney of the streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male rats: A histological study and serum biochemical alterations

Diabetes is directly involved in oxidative stress production. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the morphological and functional alterations caused by oxidative stress and to evaluate the antioxidant effect of quercetin nanoparticles (QUNPs) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic (type II) rats. Seventy two male albino adult rats were randomly distributed in 6 different experimental groups, with 12...

Author(s): Suhailah S. Al-Jameel and Soheir N. Abd El-Rahman,

September 2017

Molecular characterization of virus isolates from genus Potyvirus infecting Vigna subterranea in Burkina Faso

Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) is an African legume with a great nutritional, economic and social potential. However, one of the main constraints to this crop is viral diseases which reduced yields. Indeed, approximately 12 viruses have been reported to infect bambara groundnut. Among these, only four were reported from Burkina Faso, namely, cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), bean common mosaic virus...

Author(s): Konate M. N., Ouedraogo M., Neya B. J., Bangratz M., Palanga E., Nandkangre H., Ouoba A., Nanema R., Sawadogo N. and Sawadogo M.

September 2017

Effect of physicochemical factors on the biodegradation of phenol by Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12842 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 948

Phenol is a very toxic substance and it can cause a number of environmental problems when it enters a water system.  Biological treatment is considered a cost-effective and safe technology and it plays an important role in the remediation of environmental pollutants. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 948 and Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12842 were employed to biodegrade phenol, with different culture...

Author(s): Fatimah Alshehrei

September 2017

Characteristics of Bacillus subtilis HNMY-13 and HNMY-15 strains in aflatoxin B1 degradation and Astragalus bio-transformation

Astragalus of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Bacillus subtilis are extensively used in animal feed and for production of various fermented compounds. In order to observe the characteristics of HNMY-13 and HNMY-15 B. subtilis strains, this study focused on the optimization of parameters in liquid fermentation of the two strains in aflatoxin B1 degradation, and Astragalus polysaccharide yield. The optimal...

Author(s): Hongxing Qiao,, Hongtao Shi, Zhen Zhang, Yale Jiang and Chuanzhou Bian,

September 2017

The use of molecular markers in turtles: A technological prospecting

The application of molecular markers stands out in studies on the genetic variability of animal and plant species. This tool contributes to studies on the history of some chelonian species, since it takes into consideration their longevity and the endangerment they are often exposed to. The aim of the current study is to perform a quantitative research to document and analyze the development of technological...

Author(s): Lígia Almeida Pereira, Helmara Diniz Costa, Lígia Tchaicka, Ana Lúcia Abreu Silva and Alana Lislea de Sousa

September 2017

Cloning and expression of acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) lactonase genes of Bacillus cereus INT1c and Bacillus thuringiensis SGT3g in Escherichia coli

Inhibition of virulence genes expression of phytopathogenic bacteria can be done by degrading the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) compounds using AHL-lactonase. In this study, the AHL-lactonase genes were cloned and expressed from Bacillus cereus INT1c and Bacillus thuringiensis SGT3g in Escherichia coli, in order to understand the characteristics and biocontrol mechanisms of their AHL-lactonase. Amplification using aiiA...

Author(s): Iman Rusmana, Anja Asmarany and Aris Tri Wahyudi

September 2017

Evaluating chemical composition of Butia capitata pulp among various populations and locations using multivariate analysis

There are many native species from Cerrado that are used as food supply. However, their nutritional constitution is still unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate and quantify the nutritional composition of coquinho-azedo fruits, obtained from different regions and populations in Northern Minas Gerais, using multivariate analysis. Ripe fruits of various B. capitata populations were obtained from four...

Author(s): Hélida Mara Magalhães, Telma Melo Brandão, Juliana Stracieri, Herick Fernando de Jesus, D`iemesson San Tiago Mendes and Moacir Pasqual

September 2017

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using wild Cucumis anguria: Characterization and antibacterial activity

In the present study silver nanoparticles were synthesized using wild Cucumis anguria leaf extract using the green route which is a simple, cost-effective and an environmentally friendly technique. When the aqueous silver ions were exposed to the wild C. anguria leaf extract, they were reduced and this resulted in the formation of silver nanoparticles. The conditions of synthesis were optimized by adjusting the pH, time...

Author(s): Muchanyereyi-Mukaratirwa Netai, Moyo Joyce N., Nyoni Stephen, and Cexton Musekiwa

September 2017

Polymorphism of -308 G/A TNF-α gene correlated with the concentration of TNF-α and lipid profile in obese subject of Javanese population

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an adipokine produced in adipocytes which acts as a marker of inflammation. Increased levels of TNF-α have been associated with obesity and abnormal lipid profile. This study aimed to examine the relationship between polymorphism in -308 G/A TNF-α with concentrations of TNF-α, lipid profile and obesity in a Javanese population. The study consisted of 200...

Author(s): Pramudji Hastuti, Demes Chornelia Martantiningtyas, Dewi Karita, Tasmini and Ahmad Hamim Sadewa

September 2017

Production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and biofilm by Azospirillum brasilense aiming at the development of liquid inoculants with high performance

Azospirillum brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6 have been broadly and successfully used in commercial inoculants in Brazil, for both non-legumes and legumes, contributing to increases in grain yields with reduced applications of chemical fertilizers. Azospirillum survival, however, may be very low in liquid inoculant formulations and strategies such as the enrichment with polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and biofilm may help...

Author(s): Mariana Sanches Santos, Mariangela Hungria, and Marco Antonio Nogueira

September 2017

Biodegradation and toxicity of waste from anaerobic fermentation of stillage

Several studies have been carried out to produce biofuels by anaerobic digestion of stillage from ethanol fermentation. This type of process, known as ABE Fermentation, generates by-products such as acetone, butanol and ethanol. This fermentation can use pure or mixed cultures of anaerobic bacteria, mainly of the genus Clostridium. In this context, there is the need for deeper studies for proper disposal of the residue...

Author(s): Mariane Aparecida Messetti, Ariovaldo José da Silva, Graciete Mary dos Santos, José Silvio Govone and Dejanira Franceschi de Angelis

September 2017

Objective assessment of bull sperm motility parameters using computer vision algorithms

The quality control of frozen semen samples from cattle is established by parameters such as percentage of progressive motility (% MP) because it is related to the fertilization capacity of bulls. Nowadays, sperm quality test is performed by direct visual inspection of sperm through a microscope in andrology laboratories. However, there is a high subjectivity in the observation and assessment depending on the observer;...

Author(s): Daniel Rodríguez-Montaña and Edgar Roa-Guerrero,

September 2017

Production, optimization and characterization of silver oxide nanoparticles using Artocarpus heterophyllus rind extract and their antifungal activity

For the first time, the phytochemical fabrication of noble silver oxide nanoparticles was reported using Artocarpus heterophyllus rind extract as well as their characterization. The UV-vis absorption spectrum of the phytochemical-mediated reduced reaction mixture showed a surface plasmon peak at 428 nm, which confirmed the presence of silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle production was ideal at pH 9 with 2.0 mL...

Author(s): Velu Manikandan, Pyong-In Yi, Palanivel Velmurugan, Palaniyappan Jayanthi, Sung-Chul Hong, Seong-Ho Jang, Jeong-Min Suh and Subpiramaniyam Sivakumar

September 2017

Phylogenetic characterization of East African cassava mosaic begomovirus (Geminiviridae) isolated from Manihot carthaginensis subsp. glaziovii (Müll.Arg.) Allem., from a non-cassava growing region in Tanzania

Manihot carthaginensis subsp. glaziovii (Müll.Arg.) Allem., a wild relative of cassava, native to Brazil, is one of the popular agroforestry trees used for hedges and/or boundary plants surrounding homesteads and farms and also harbours cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs) and cassava brown streak ipomoviruses. Sequences of the DNA-A component of East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV) isolates from M....

Author(s): F. Tairo, W. K. Mbewe, D. Mark, M. Lupembe, P. Sseruwagi and J. Ndunguru

September 2017

Genetic diversity of Cameroonian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars revealed by microsatellite markers

The assessment of genetic diversity is a key prerequisite for studying the adaptation of populations to new environmental conditions, and therefore for the selection of new varieties. The present investigation aimed to estimate the levels and genetic structure within bread wheat varieties grown in Cameroon. Thus, genetic diversity was assessed in 17 hexaploid wheat cultivars, using 11 microsatellite markers. Genetic...

Author(s): Honoré Tékeu, Eddy M. L. Ngonkeu, François P. Djocgoué, Aletta Ellis, Venasius Lendzemo, Lezaan Springfield, Lionel Moulin, Agnieszka Klonowska, Diégane Diouf, Willem C. Botes and Gilles Béna

September 2017

Expression and functional evaluation of Mytilus galloprovincialis foot protein type 5 (Mgfp-5), the recombinant mussel adhesive protein

Mussel contains a variety of adhesion proteins, among which, Mytilus galloprovincialis foot protein type 5 (Mgfp-5) is one of the major proteins required for substrate adhesion. The labor-intensive nature and insufficiency of the extraction process have frequently resulted in very little purified recombinant Mgfp-5. These prompt technologies such as chemical synthesis and genetic engineering are employed to overcome...

Author(s): Yawei Lv, Yujing Zhang, Wenying Gao and Yingjuan Wang

August 2017

Anaerobic and micro-aerobic 1,3-propanediol production by engineered Escherichia coli with dha genes from Klebsiella pneumoniae GLC29

1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) is a bifunctional molecule, and used in applications similar to those of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, 1,3-butanediol and 1,4-butanediol. The use of glycerol as a feedstock is an alternative to reduce production costs for both 1,3-PDO and biodiesel, since biodiesel glycerol can be used for the production of 1,3-PDO by bacteria. Also, using metabolic engineering, it is possible to...

Author(s): Paulo M. A. Neto, Lorenzo E. R. P. P. L. D. B. Briganti, Donovan Layton, Michael Wierzbicki, R. Adam Thompson, Henrique Ferreira and Jonas Contiero

August 2017

Obtaining mutant fungal strains of Aspergillus niger with high production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) using ultraviolet light irradiation

A strain of Aspergillus niger PR-142 native to northern coast of Peru was subjected to successive processes of mutagenesis by ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation at 253.7 nm to increase the production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). An initial selection was made by considering the mutants with increased invertase activity followed by the measurement of β-fructosyltransferase (FTase) activity both in mycelium and...

Author(s): Boris Gutarra Castillo, Marina Díez-Municio, Juan Cisneros de la Cruz and Javier Moreno

August 2017

Post-harvest conservation of ‘Rubi’ grapes treated with abscisic acid

Loss of mass, shatter and decay are undesirable for fresh grapes, as they decrease the cluster quality during post-harvest conservation. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of abscisic acid (S-ABA) application on ‘Rubi’ grapes’ loss of mass, shatter, decay incidence and conservation periods. ‘Rubi’ grapes’ clusters used in the experiment were gotten from a commercial...

Author(s): Francisco José Domingues Neto, Adilson Pimentel Junior, Daniel Callili, Silvia Regina Cunha, Fernando Ferrari Putti, Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima, Renata Koyama, Sergio Ruffo Roberto and Marco Antonio Tecchio

August 2017

In vitro plant regeneration from ovules of Taraxacum officinale and Taraxacum koksaghyz

Taraxacum koksaghyz, the Russian dandelion, produces latex in its taproots and is an alternative to Hevea brasiliensis as a source for rubber. Studying the inheritance of rubber content and yield as well as breeding of T. koksaghyz could strongly benefit from haploid or doubled haploid techniques. Therefore, this study aimed at establishing the conditions to produce haploid and/or double haploid T. koksaghyz plants....

Author(s): Chandrasekera B. S. G., Fluess H., Zhao Y. C., Trigiano R. N. and Winkelmann T.

August 2017

Artificial spawn generation based on alginate encapsulated mycelium as inoculum for mushroom cultivation

Spawn quality is an important factor that affects the final yield in mushroom production. One of the most common risks is the contamination of substrates and spawn by mitosporic fungi. Some species do not easily grow on grain substrate as traditional species do and these find it real difficult to produce spawn. A method was evaluated to produce spawn for mushroom production based on aseptically encapsulated mycelium...

Author(s): Gastón Ortiz, María Belén Colavolpe and Edgardo Albertó

August 2017

In vitro potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) growth under different orientation and light/dark exposure conditions

In vitro storage of prolific potato cultivars increases labour, space and material costs due to frequent sub-culturing. A method that reduces frequent sub-culturing can lower maintenance costs of potato storage. A study was undertaken to assess in vitro growth of potato under either (1) complete dark exposure, (2) dark exposure for three days only and then to light or (3) light exposure throughout. Also, micro shoots...

Author(s): Simon A. Mng’omba, Hellen Mwale, Brian Chimzinga, Kareem Longwe and Peter Muhota

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