African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12184

AJB Articles

March 2017

Isolation and identification of Talaromyces purpurogenus and preliminary studies on its pigment production potentials in solid state cultures

Pigments from various sources such as annatto seeds, cochineal, beet root, and microalgae are widely used in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, textile and other industries. However, these sources of pigments have various limitations such as toxicity and environmental pollution of synthetic pigments, and low productivity of pigments from higher organisms due to long period of growth. The objective of this study was to...

Author(s): Christiana N. Ogbonna, Hideki Aoyagi and James C. Ogbonna

March 2017

Microsatellite, inter simple sequence repeat and biochemical analyses of Rosa genotypes from Saudi Arabia

Rosa damascena Mill. as a main economic crop in the world is planted for beauty and essential oil production in Ta’if region. For the management and improvement of this important crop, genetic variability was evaluated amongst six Rosa genotypes grown in different plantations using microsatellite (simple sequence repeats, SSR), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and biochemical markers. The six SSR primers showed...

Author(s): Shawkat M. Ahmed, Hadeer Y. Darwish, and Khalid H. Alamer

March 2017

PCR validation of predicted virulence factors in a collection of Xanthomonas campestris (pv. musacearum and vascolurum) strains

Bacterial plant pathogens belonging to the Xanthomonas genus are adapted to their host plants and are not known to colonize other environments. Xanthomonas colonize host parts such as leaves, stems and roots before entering vascular tissues and engaging in an invasive pathogenic phase. These bacterial strains have evolved strategies to adapt to life in this environment. The host-pathogen interactions of Xanthomonas...

Author(s): Arthur Wasukira, Geoffrey Tusiime and Jerome Kubiriba

March 2017

A study on metallo-β-lactamases producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water samples from various parts of Malaysia

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram negative aerobic rod shaped bacterium and is an opportunistic pathogen that usually causes nosocomial infection in immunocompromised patient with various infections and affects normal healthy human as well. P. aeruginosa is also an omnipresent pathogen that can be inhabited in soil, water, vegetable, human and animal. Metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) producing P. aeruginosa are known to...

Author(s): Nagaraja Suryadevara, Ooi Yi Shuang and Paulraj Ponnaiah

March 2017

Ethanolic Allium sativum extract down-regulates the pelF gene involved in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation

Exploration of efficacious plant extracts that can reduce or inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation is necessary. Allium sativum is a suitable candidate because of its relative abundance. This study was carried out to determine the effect of ethanolic A. sativum extract on the expression of the P. aeruginosa biofilm gene, pelF. The presence of the pelF gene in the isolates used for this study was confirmed via...

Author(s): Nathaniel Nyakaat Ninyio, Hadiza Bashir Gidado, Mariama O. Yahaya, Tayaza  B. Fadason, Raji A. Bamanga and Lucy M. Yaki

March 2017

In vitro evaluation of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented Shamita and Kocho for their desirable characteristics as probiotics

The study was conducted to evaluate in vitro probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fermented Shamita and Kocho. Sixteen samples, 8 each of Shamita and Kocho, were collected from Arat-Kilo and Merkato sites in Addis Ababa, respectively. The average pH values of Shamita and Kocho samples were 3.52 and 3.44, respectively. A total of 140 LAB were isolated, of which 101 isolates (72%) were found to...

Author(s): Negasi Akalu, Fassil Assefa and Asnake Dessalegn 

March 2017

Differentiation of Urochloa brizantha cultivars by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers in seed samples

Approximately 80-90% of cultivated grassland areas in Brazil are covered by Urochloa brizantha [syn. Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf.]. Some genotypes of Urochloa have being widely used with a wrong nomenclature, like species and cultivars. In this way, the Urochloa cultivar identification is primordial for breeding programs and seed production. Considering the importance of genetic purity in...

Author(s): Inaê Braga, Claudia Jaqueline Tome Yamamoto, Ceci Castilho Custódio and Nelson Barbosa Machado-Neto

March 2017

Characterization of actinobacteria from the semiarid region, and their antagonistic effect on strains of rhizobia

The actinobacteria are the most abundant bacterial group in the soil, where they present different characteristics and antagonistic effects on other microorganisms. The objectives of this study were to characterize and evaluate the antagonistic effect of actinobacteria from the semiarid region on rhizobia from the same climatic region. Tests were performed to observe chromogenic and micro-morphological characteristics,...

Author(s): José Vinícius Leite Lima⊃, Suzana Cláudia Silveira Martins⊃, Katia Aparecida de Siqueira⊃, Marcos Antônio Soares⊃ and Claudia Miranda Martins⊃

March 2017

Post-treatment of municipal sewer in shallow polishing ponds

This work aims to investigate the influence of polishing ponds (PP) depth on the post-treatment of sanitary sewers. Two treatment systems were designed and monitored. One system was an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) rector and intermittent flow sand filter; followed by a PP of 0.20 m depth with low superficial application rate (24.9, high sunlight incidence (597 Wm-2) and enough biological...

Author(s): Tales Abreu Tavares de Sousa, Wilton Silva Lopes, Israel Nunes Henrique, Valderi Duarte Leite and José Tavares de Sousa

March 2017

Effect of two different habitats on some primary and secondary phytochemicals of Miswak (Salvadora persica L.)

Salvadora persica is a popular medicinal plant in the Middle East countries. It is well adapted to a wide range of habitats. In this study we have compared the effect of two different habitats (Al-ahsabah valley and Shada Mountain) in Al-Baha City, south west of Saudi Arabia on the content of some primary and secondary metabolites in S. persica. The results show that soil texture, soil moisture and organic matter...

Author(s): Amal Ahmed Mohammed Al-Ghamdi and Manal El-Zohri,

March 2017

Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) based diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus in Panama

The bovine leukemia virus is an exogenous retrovirus that causes enzootic bovine leukosis. The aim of this study was to apply and compare a diagnostic test in an outbreak of bovine leukemia virus by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)  in a core conservation of native cattle Guaymí. From the results obtained by the three techniques used, the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test detected 33 positive...

Author(s): Axel Villalobos-Cortés, Selma Franco, Rita Gonzalez and Marcelino Jaén

March 2017

Proteins patterns of eight genera of the Asteraceae family

Asteraceae family grows as wild plants in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia near the Gulf coast with prevalent high humidity coupled with more moderate temperatures. Eight genera were collected during the flowering season to study genetic diversity according to protein patterns for each plant. The protein patterns showed different numbers of bands, concentrations, molecular weight and intensity. Two common bands were...

Author(s): Mona S. Al-Ahmadi

March 2017

Evaluation of cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of two artificial sweeteners by using eukaryotic test systems

Considering the vast use of sweeteners by the Brazilian population and the constant need for toxicological studies of food additives, this study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic and mutagenic potentials of the sodium saccharin and/or sodium cyclamate sweeteners in plant (Allium cepa) and animal (Mus musculus) test systems based on concentrations permitted by the Brazilian laws. In A. cepa, both the sweeteners...

Author(s): Victor Alves de Oliveira, Virleny Maria alves de Oliveira, Thayse Wilma Nogueira de Oliveira, Andressa Nathanna Castro Damasceno, Charles Emanuel de Oliveira Silva, Stella Regina Arcanjo Medeiros, Bruno Moreira Soares, Felipe Cavalcanti Carneiro da Silva, Raí Pablo Sousa de Aguiar, Muhammad Torequl  Islam, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Paula Peron and João Marcelo de Castro e Sousa

March 2017

Molecular characterization of introduced sugarcane genotypes in Ethiopia using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers

The major thrust of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) variety improvement programs is to increase sugar yield in addition to biomass and energy cane for biofuel production.  However, due to its genetic complexity, sugarcane has received very little research interest, despite its economic importance, and molecular marker techniques are being developed only in recent times. Furthermore, until the present date few molecular...

Author(s): Adebabay Tazeb, Teklehaimanot Haileselassie and Kassahun Tesfaye

March 2017

Refinement of protocol for rapid clonal regeneration of economical bamboo, Bambusa balcooa in the agroclimatic conditions of Bihar, India

Bambusa balcooa is a commercially important bamboo. The present study was undertaken for refinement of protocol for the rapid and mass production of this species of bamboo in agroclimatic condition of Bihar. Micro-clonal propagation techniques have been employed for the study. This technique is the only method for the large scale production of B. balcooa. Explants were collected from Bamboo setum from TNB College...

Author(s): Choudhary A. K., Priyanka K. and Ashish R.

March 2017

Banana influences on differential expression of hypersensitive response and pathogenicity gene f (hrpf) in Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum

Banana Xanthomonas wilt is a devastating disease of cultivated banana in East and Central Africa, manifesting as initial leaf wilting, premature fruit ripening and eventual death of all infected plants leading to total yield loss. In order to contribute towards development of effective disease control options, hrpf expression by Xanthomonas campestris pv musacearum (Xcm) during establishment of Xanthomonas wilt...

Author(s): Mudonyi, B., Tusiime, G., Kubiriba, J., Tushemereirwe, W. K. and Changa, C. M.

March 2017

Production and characterization of bacterial cellulose before and after enzymatic hydrolysis

Bacterial cellulose (BC) is produced by bacteria such as Gluconacetobacter xylinus. It has unique structural and mechanical properties and is highly pure as compared to plant cellulose. In this study, BC was produced in Hestrin-Schramm (HS) medium. G. xylinus produced an average dry yield of 1.4 ± 0.09 g/L BC after 9 days of fermentation period. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed BC to be...

Author(s): Richard Auta, Grazyna Adamus, Michal Kwiecien, Iza Radecka and Paul Hooley

March 2017

Molecular characterization of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers

Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willdenow) is a pseudocereal of Amaranthace family which originated from the Andes of South America. Quinoa is an interesting plant whose capacity to tolerate adverse environmental factors and exceptional nutritional qualities warrant further research in all fields of plant biology, agronomy, ecology and biotechnology. Presently, it is an underutilized crop, which has the potential become a...

Author(s): Morillo Coronado Ana-Cruz, Manjarres Elsa Helena and Morillo Coronado Yacenia

March 2017

Micropropagation of Peach, Prunus persica (L.) BATSCH. cv. Garnem

The present study aimed to develop micropropagation procedure for Prunus persica cv. Garnem. Shoot induction and multiplication was found from nodal explants cultured on MS medium fortified with different concentrations of two cytokinins (6-benzyladeninepourine and Kinetin) alone and in combination with 0.5 mg/l gibberellic acid and 0.01 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid. Microplantlets were cultured to root on ½...

Author(s): Wegayehu Felek, Firew Mekibib and Belayneh Admassu

March 2017

Comparative study of native microorganisms isolated from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) waste and commercial microorganism (Clostridium thermocellum) used for bioethanol production

This study was to examine the efficiency of native microorganisms, in relation to the commercial bacterium Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 for bioethanol production from waste watermelon on a pilot scale. The raw material was subjected to a grinding process for the later stage of hydrolysis under different temperatures using Aspergillus fumigatus and Leuconostoc dextranicum native microorganisms. This was followed...

Author(s): Rueda O. Darwin, Angulo Alexandra, Mafla Elena, Bangeppagari Manjunatha, Rueda B. Bryan, Gangireddygari V. Subbareddy, Naga Raju Maddela and Bugude Rajeswari

March 2017

Effect of the essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Mentha piperita on fungal growth and morphology

This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils of Thymus vulgaris L., Cinnamomum zeylanicum B. and Mentha piperita L. on some saprophytic fungi. Essential oils were extracted by hydro-distillation, and chemical composition was analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). T. vulgaris had as major components, Thymol (35.12%), p-cymene (25.36%) and γ–terpinene...

Author(s): Wilson Agwanande Ambindei, Pierre Michel Dongmo Jazet, Leopold Ngoune Tatsadjieu, Priya P, Manilal VB, Krishnakumar B and Paul Henri Amvam Zollo

March 2017

Silver nanoparticles biosynthesized by secondary metabolites from Moringa oleifera stem and their antimicrobial properties

Biological extracts have recently shown a great potential for rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with antibacterial activity. AgNPs were synthetized by reduction effect of secondary metabolites produced by the Nigrospora sp. fungus, from Moringa oleifera stem as a reducing agent and silver nitrate (AgNO3) (1 mM) as salt precursor. The synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) was monitored through analysis of the...

Author(s): Eric Cristina Arrieta, Benjamín Valdez, Mónica Carrillo, Mario Alberto Curiel, Francisco David Mateos, Rogelio Arturo Ramos, Navor Rosas and José María Bastidas

March 2017

Biodegradation of monocrotophos by bacteria isolated from soil

Bacteria were isolated by enrichment culture technique from groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) soils and tested for their ability to degrade monocrotophos in mineral salts medium under aerobic conditions in the laboratory. Based on some of the morphological and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were identified as Rhodococcus phenolicus strain MCP1 and Rhodococcus ruber strain MCP-2. The initial (0-day) recovery...

Author(s): Srinivasulu M., Nilanjan P. C., Chakravarthi B. V. S. K., Jayabaskaran C., Jaffer M. G., Naga R. M., Manjunatha B., Darwin R. O., Juan O. T. and Rangaswamy V.

March 2017

An improved protocol for in vitro propagation of the medicinal plant Mimosa pudica L.

This work aimed to develop a protocol for the in vitro establishment, multiplication, rooting and ex vitro acclimatization of Mimosa pudica L., a species used in folk medicine and with pharmacological activity. Aseptic cultures were established from seeds inoculated in MS medium, without growth regulators, followed by an in vitro stabilization phase in culture medium supplemented with 2.22 μM BAP. The cultures were...

Author(s): Ricardo Ernesto Bianchetti, Cristiano Ferrara de Resende, Vinícius Sacramento Pacheco, Felipe Floriano Dornellas, Aline Mystica Silva de Oliveira, Jober Condé Evangelista Freitas and Paulo Henrique Pereira Peixoto

March 2017

Quality characteristics of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb) of different fruit sizes

Fruits of persimmon are considered as one of the health promoting foods which has been established as one of the major fruits in Korea. Persimmon is one of the fruits processed mainly by drying. Quality characteristics of dried persimmon prepared with different fruit sizes of cultivar Sanggandungsi were investigated. Smaller sized fruits showed significantly high weight loss as compared to bigger ones due to drying. On...

Author(s): Ji Hyeong Cho, In Kyu Song, Doo Hyun Cho, Sanjeev Kumar Dhungana, Hong Ahn and  Il-Doo Kim

February 2017

Identification of superior soybean lines by assessing genetic parameters and path analysis of grain yield components

This study estimated genetic parameters, identified traits of direct and indirect correlation with the grain yield through path analysis and select superior lines, maximizing genetic gain. Two experiments were conducted in 2012/2013 season in randomized blocks with three replications. 23 lines (experiment I) and 44 lines (experiment II) were seeded. For all traits analyzed in both experiments, there was a significant...

Author(s): Bruno Henrique Pedroso Val, Fabiana Mota da Silva, Eduardo Henrique Bizari, Wallace de Sousa Leite, Eder Licieri Groli, Elise de Matos Pereira, Sandra Helena Unêda-Trevisoli and Antonio Orlando Di Mauro

February 2017

Evaluation of some biological activities of Euglena gracilis biomass produced by a fed-batch culture with some crop fertilizers

The feasibility of growing Euglena gracilis in some crop fertilizers was investigated and some biological activities of the produced biomass were evaluated. A fed-batch mixotrophic culture was done in an airlift photobioreactor operated at an aeration rate of 0.2 vvm. A final biomass concentration of 2.6 gL-1 obtained with NPK15:15:15 after 96 h of cultivation was significantly lower than the 5.7 gL-1 obtained with BGII...

Author(s): Eze Chijioke Nwoye, Ogbonna James Chukwuma, Ndu Okechukwu Obisike, Ochiogu Izuchukwu Shedrack and Charles Ogugua Nwuche

February 2017

Genetic diversity and population structure of traditional sweet cassava accessions from Southern of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using microsatellite markers

Sweet cassava is a food culture of great importance because it is a source of nutrition and energy for millions of people in tropical and sub-tropical regions. For that reason, genetic diversity and population structure studies are necessary in order to obtain more information regarding the evaluated genotypes, reassuring their use in future breeding programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic...

Author(s): Tiago Maretti Gonçalves, Pedro Soares Vidigal Filho, Maria Celeste Gonçalves Vidigal, Rebecca Caroline Ulbricht Ferreira, Vanesca Priscila Camargo Rocha, Alex Henrique Tiene Ortiz, Leonel Domingos Moiana and Marcus Vinícius Kvitschal

February 2017

Effect of mineral salts and nitrogen source on yeast (Candida utilis NOY1) biomass production using tubers wastes

The deficiency of protein in human food and animal feed is well recognized due to the rapid growth of population. It is therefore, important to increase protein production by utilizing all the available ways and means. In the light of this, an attempt was made in this study by selecting Candida utilis NOY1. This yeast was used to determine the optimum concentration of different minerals salts and nitrogen source on...

Author(s): Nicolas Ouedraogo, Aly Savadogo, Marius K. Somda, François Tapsoba, Cheikna Zongo and Alfred S. Traore

February 2017

Blood biochemical profile of Sudanese crossbred repeat breeder cows

Repeat breeder (RB) is a cow that fails to conceive from three or more successive insemination, but with normal estrus and absence of detectable clinical abnormalities. It is one of the major problems in dairy production. In the present study, the plasma biochemistry of Sudanese crossbred RB cows was examined. Plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), total protein (TP) and urea nitrogen were...

Author(s): Mohamed Esmail Ahmed, Faisal Omer Ahmed, Ehab A. M. Frah and Imadeldin Elfaki

February 2017

Hybrids performance of doubled haploid lines derived from 10 tropical bi-parental maize populations evaluated in contrasting environments in Kenya

The doubled haploid (DH) technology enables maize breeders to develop a large number of homozygous lines rapidly and test them in hybrid combinations early in the breeding cycle. The objectives of this study were to evaluate testcross performance of 556 DH lines derived from 10 diverse tropical backcross (BC1) populations, and to estimate variance components and broad-sense heritability under both well-watered and...

Author(s): Yoseph Beyene, Stephen Mugo, Sylvester O. Oikeh, Collins Juma, Mike Olsen and B. M. Prasanna

February 2017

Algae for Africa: Microalgae as a source of food, feed and fuel in Kenya

Microalgae are unicellular photosynthetic organisms that inhabit diverse ecological habitats ranging from freshwater and brackish water to seawater and wastewater. They are also especially equipped to thrive in extreme temperatures and pH conditions. Decades of research have highlighted their potential as sources of biofuels, foods, feeds and high-value bio-actives. However, industrial-scale cultivation of microalgae is...

Author(s): Moejes, Fiona Wanjiku, and Moejes, Karin Brenda

February 2017

Qualitative detection of genetically modified material in crops and food products containing maize and soybean in Algeria

The present study was carried out to ascertain the genetic status of soybean and maize crops introduced in Algeria and to test local and imported products containing maize and soybean for the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMO into the food and feed chain). Samples from crops and processed food products were selected, randomly sampled and screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of the...

Author(s): Louanchi M , Belalia N, Lehad A, Laala S and Salhi L. N.

February 2017

Uses and technological prospects for the mangaba, a native fruit of Brazil

Mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes - Apocynaceae) is a native fruit of Brazil which is of great importance in its areas of occurrence. This species has been subjected to habitat fragmentation that is mainly due to human activity, and requires conservation. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the biotechnological advances in the species. This paper deals with recent studies on the genetic diversity and bioactive...

Author(s): Ana Veruska Cruz da Silva, Adrielle Naiana Ribeiro Soares, Ana Silva Ledo, Tatiana Santos Costa, Camila Santos Almeida, Julie Anne Espíndola Amorim, PriscilLa Santana Santos and Marina Ferreira Vitória

February 2017

Assessment of genetic variations of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) in the Volta Lake of Ghana using microsatellite markers

A study was conducted to investigate genetic diversity and population structure among populations of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae) in the Volta Lake of Ghana using microsatellite markers. Four hundred (400) fish specimens were obtained from nine naturally occurring subpopulations and one selectively bred strain, ‘Akosombo strain’. These were characterized using 15 microsatellite loci. Twelve...

Author(s): Mireku, K. K., Kassam, D., Changadeya, W., Attipoe, F. Y. K. and Adinortey, C. A.

February 2017

The potential of Aspergillus species in transformation of agricultural products for sustainable production of textile and leather industries in Tanzania

Manufacturing industries contribute about 8% of the gross domestic products (GDP) whereas leather and textile industries supply 18% employments of manufacturing industries in Tanzania. Manufacturing industries merely depend on agriculture for raw materials and other inputs. However, processing of leather and textiles requires a lot of inputs, many of them supplied from agricultural produce and some are imported from...

Author(s): Never Zekeya, Madundo Mtambo, Suleman Ndaro, Musa Chacha Patrick Ndakidemi and Ernest R. Mbega

February 2017

Expression stability of reference genes in the skeletal muscles of beef cattle

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relative expression stability of five candidate reference genes in the semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus thoracis (LT) of beef steers, heifers and young bulls. The mRNA levels of Beta-Actin, eukaryotic initiation factor-2B Subunit 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, peptidylprolyl isomerase-A and succinate dehydrogenase complex-subunit A were quantified using...

Author(s): Christopher Heinz Hunke Mberema, and Olivier A. E. Sparagano

February 2017

Influence of Suillus luteus on Fusarium damping-off in pine seedlings

The role of the ectomycorrhizal (Myc) fungus Suillus luteus as a biological control agent against damping off caused by Fusarium verticillioides (Fo) and Fusarium oxysporum (Fm) on Scots (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) was studied in a greenhouse experiment. The vegetative mycelium of S. luteus in a vermiculite/peat carrier was added to potting substrate before inoculation with Fo or Fm spores...

Author(s): Estefanía Mateos, Jaime Olaizola, Juan Alberto Pajares, Valentín Pando and Julio Javier Diez

February 2017

The ameliorative role of cranberry extract and bone marrow cells against chlorambucil cytotoxicity in rat fertility

The objective of the current study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of cranberry extracts and bone marrow cells against chlorambucil (CHB) effect on rats' fertility. Forty adult male albino rats were divided randomly into eight equal groups as the following; normal control, rats injected orally with 0.2 mg/kg of CHB for 14 days, rats injected orally with 100 mg/kg of cranberry extract (CB) for ten days,...

Author(s): Ebtesam H. O. Nafie, Eman Khater, Mohamed Awwad, Mohamed Zowail and Kholud Hegazy

February 2017

Tradescantia pallida as a biomonitoring tool to assess the influence of vehicle exhaustion and benzene derivatives

Air pollutants affect their quality, making, inappropriate, harmful and damaging to health in general. The air quality can be measured by the use of higher plants as bioindicators in environmental biomonitoring. In this study, we evaluated the increased frequency of micronuclei (MN) in Tradescantia pallida exposed to potentially toxic environments. The vegetables were implanted in five points (4 test and 1 control) for...

Author(s): Ricardo Melo de Carvalho, Jéssica Laís Couto Machado, Rai Pablo Sousa de Aguiar, Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira da Mata, Reyca Rodrigues e Silva, Jadson Silva Teixeira, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Muhammad Torequl Islam, and Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante,

February 2017

Phytochemical importance and utilization potential of grape residue from wine production

Grapes are placed at a distinct position, both in the economy and at nutritional and phytochemical levels. The number of studies performed aimed at identifying the various bioactive compounds of grapes, how their cellular structures are linked, efficient methods of extraction and its effect on human health are rather relevant. The use of grapes for wine production is a worldwide activity, therefore a great quantity of...

Author(s): Marina Gonçalves Cirqueira, Samantha Serra Costa, Josiane Dantas Viana, Carlos Antônio Borges Cohim Silva, Marcelo Andres Umsza-Guez and Bruna Aparecida Souza Machado

February 2017

Nanoscale development and its application in multidisciplinary area: An African perspective

The need to fulfil and address the United Nations millennium goals in developing countries is essential and recently nanotechnology has proved and shown potential to change and improve many sectors of African industry, from consumer products to health care to transportation, energy and agriculture. In addition to these societal benefits, nanotechnology presents new opportunities to improve how we measure, monitor,...

Author(s): Anza-vhudziki Mboyi, Ilunga Kamika and Maggy N. B. Momba

February 2017

Plant physiological stimulation by seeds salt priming in maize (Zea mays): Prospect for salt tolerance

Nowadays to lessen the influence of salinity on crop performances such as germination, seedling growth and yield, several actions are undertaken; for example the use of different priming methods, antioxidants and plant growth controllers. Seed priming, best fits in this study on maize crop and is controlled by hydration process followed by re-drying that allows pre-germination which enhanced metabolic activities to...

Author(s): Berhane Gebreslassie Gebreegziabher and Chala Adugna Qufa

February 2017

Use of biosurfactant surfactin produced from cassava wastewater for anaerobic treatment of effluent from a poultry slaughterhouse

The use of a biosurfactant surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis LB5a in cassava growth medium (cassava wastewater) was evaluated to treat anaerobically, the effluent from a poultry slaughterhouse. During the effluent pretreatment, effects of surfactin concentration factors were evaluated, considering the ones which were superior and below its critical micelle concentration (CMC = 28 mg L-1): 6, 13, 27, 31, 48, 73 and...

Author(s): Natássia Jersak Cosmann, Benedito Martins Gomes, Simone Damasceno Gomes, Ana Paula Resende Simiqueli and Glaucia Maria Pastore

February 2017

Effect of activators and inhibitors on extracellular thermostable alkaline protease isolated from Bacillus subtilis obtained from eastern province of Saudi Arabia

Alkaline proteases need some ions to achieve highest activity. These metallic ions help in, enzyme stability and activity through its thermal stability at high degrees. This protects the enzyme from being destroyed by heat. The results show that the ideal condition for enzyme activity was, using Mn2+ ions as the activator with 1112.5 U/ml activity, while MgSO4.7H2O has  lower effectiveness of an enzyme activity...

Author(s): Eida Marshid Al-Khaldi and Amira Hassan Al-Abdalall

February 2017

Optimization of biomass and glucoamylase production by Candida famata using response surface methodology

Glucoamylase is among the most important enzymes in biotechnology. The present study aims to determine better conditions for growth and glucoamylase productivity by Candida famata and to reduce the overall cost of the medium using central composite design (CCD) with one central point and response surface methodology. A three-level central composite design (CCD) factorial design based was employed to obtain optimal...

Author(s): LAGZOULI Mohamed, EL KETTANI Youssfi, AITOUNEJJAR Ali, ELYACHIOUI Mohamed and JADAL Mohamed

February 2017

Selection of filamentous fungi producing lipases from residual waters of slaughterhouses

The exploration and use of lipases produced by microorganisms are in line with societal concerns since they provide clean development options within the standards of environmental sustainability. The objective of this work was therefore to isolate microorganisms with the potential of producing lipases, which could be used in the waste water treatment systems of slaughterhouse units. Waste water samples were collected...

Author(s): Sideney Becker Onofre, Dirceu Abatti, Douglas Refosco, Amarildo Antonio Tessaro, Jean Alisson Becker Onofre and Alessandra Buss Tessaro

January 2017

Microbial production of carotenoids – A review

Carotenoids are natural pigments that can be synthesized by various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi and microalgae. These pigments comprise around 700 different structures with peculiar colors and biological properties that are beneficial to health. Advantages of biotechnological production of carotenoids include the ability of microorganisms to use low cost substrates, the optimized...

Author(s): Ligia Alves da Costa Cardoso, Karen Yuri Feitosa Kanno and Susan Grace Karp

January 2017

Relationship analysis between gene expression profiles and rat liver cirrhosis occurrence

Liver cirrhosis (LC) is a kind of liver disease which is pathologically characterized by abnormality and necrosis of hepatic cells, proliferation of fibrous tissue, nodular regeneration and pseudolobule formation. To explore the mechanism of LC occurrence at the level of mRNA, Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array was used to detect gene expression profiles of rat fibrotic livers in 3, 6 and 9 weeks after CCl4 treatment in this...

Author(s): Gaiping Wang, Congcong Zhao, Meng Chen, Shasha Chen, Cuifang Chang and Cunshuan Xu

January 2017

Molecular identification, micronutrient content, antifungal and hemolytic activity of starfish Asterias amurensis collected from Kobe coast, Japan

The starfish Asterias amurensis is one of the common species in Japanese coastal area. The species is considered an extremely rich source of biological active compounds, including saponin. Saponins are secondary metabolites and exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities. The species of starfish caught in Kobe, Hyogo prefecture, Japan, was analyzed for species identification and micronutrient content. The starfish...

Author(s): Farhana Sharmin, Shoichiro Ishizaki and Yuji Nagashima

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