African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12451

AJB Articles

Propagation of Pecan (Carya illinoensis): A review

May 2018

The Pecan (Carya illinoensis) is the most important species that belongs to the Carya genus. It is cultivated mainly for its nut, which is rich in oils and proteins, and for its good quality wood. Pecan is conventionally propagated by budding or grafting onto rootstocks obtained by open pollination. However, these techniques are not very efficient due to low propagation rates, poor survival and difficult establishment....

Author(s): Fabrizio Giuseppe Casales, Elmarie Van der Watt and Gesine Maria Coetzer  

Azospirillum spp. potential for maize growth and yield

May 2018

The importance of biotechnology involved in the availability of nutrients to plants in different production systems is well known. In the search for agricultural sustainability, biological nitrogen fixation process stands out, especially in tropical regions where soil organic matter can be rapidly mineralized. In this aspect, researches have pointed out the potentialities of the use of diazotrophic bacteria, as well as...

Author(s): Lucas Tadeu Mazza Revolti, Carlos Henrique Caprio, Fábio Luíz Checchio Mingotte and Gustavo Vitti Môro  

Vitamin C, iron and zinc levels of selected African green leafy vegetables at different stages of maturity

April 2018

Nutrient level at harvest of vegetables is an important aspect in the efforts to combat food and nutrition insecurity in developing countries. However information on the nutrient levels at different maturity stages of most indigenous African green leafy vegetables is scanty. This study was undertaken to determine the levels of vitamin C, iron and zinc in Amaranthus cruentus, Cleome gynandra and Solanum villosum at...

Author(s): Teddy Frederick Mamboleo, John Mbonea Msuya and Akwilina Wendelin Mwanri  

Expression and purification of human IL-2 protein from Escherichia coli

April 2018

Human interleukin 2 protein (IL-2) is an important cytokine found to be elevated in several types of cancer. A synthetic DNA sequence of the cDNA of mature IL-2 protein was cloned into the pRSET-B expression vector. The expressed IL-2 protein in Escherichia coli [BL21] was associated with the formation of insoluble inclusion bodies (IBs). The effect of different cultivation conditions (temperature,...

Author(s): Ramadan Hassan, Mohammed El-Mowafy and Eman Samy Zaher  

Actinomycetes bioactive compounds: Biological control of fungi and phytopathogenic insect

April 2018

Actinomycetes are aerobic and gram-positive spore forming bacteria. They belong to the order actinomycetales and are characterized by substrates and aerial mycelium growth. They are the most abundant microorganisms in soil. They play important roles in the cycling of organic matter and inhibit the growth of several plant pathogens in the rhizosphere. Due to the presence of enzymes such as proteases and chitinase,...

Author(s): Edelvio de B. Gomes, Léo Ruben L. Dias and Rita de Cássia M. de Miranda  

Assessment of plantain (Musa sapientum L.) accessions genotypic groups relatedness using simple sequence repeats markers

April 2018

Plantains are important sources of high-calorie energy in Ghana. They are also of great socio-economic importance in the country, and very important sources of rural income. Although several species exist all over the world, plantains belonging to the AAB group are unique to West Africa and Ghanaian collections have unique features and peculiar taste. Morphological and biochemical characterization are the popular...

Author(s): Marian D. Quain, Adelaide Agyeman and Beloved M. Dzomeku  

Adaptation of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas) (L.) Lam] genotypes in various agro-ecological zones of Malawi

April 2018

Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas) (L.) Lam] is grown by small holder farmers across a wide range of environments in Malawi. A multi-location trial of eight genotypes for three seasons at six research stations was undertaken using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model analysis to determine the genotypes’ stability and influence of genotype × environment interactions (GEI) on storage...

Author(s): Felistus Chipungu, Wisdom Changadeya, Aggrey Ambali, John Saka, Nzola Mahungu and Jonathan Mkumbira  

Enzymatic activity and elicitor of phytoalexins of Lippia sidoides Cham. and endophytic fungi

April 2018

Secondary metabolites may play a number of roles, among them, is the activation of plant defense mechanisms, such as phytoalexins and the synthesis of antioxidative enzymes. This study aimed to test the eliciting activity of phytoalexins of Lippia sidoides Cham. and six endophytic fungi associated with it and to verify the synthesis of the enzymes, as a response to the antioxidative and antifungal system. The assays...

Author(s): Talita Pereira de Souza Ferreira, Ronice Alves Veloso, Gil Rodrigues dos Santos, Laiza Priscila dos Santos, Tatiani Pereira de Souza Ferreira, Alessandra Macedo Barros, Richard Dias Possel and Raimundo Wagner de Souza Aguiar

In vitro somatic embryogenesis and regeneration potential of two potato varieties in Uganda

April 2018

In vitro somatic embryogenesis and regeneration are important techniques for crop improvement and mass propagation. This study was conducted to establish and optimize a regeneration system for agronomically important potato cultivars (‘Victoria’ and ‘Rutuku’) of Solanum tuberosum L. in Uganda. Completely randomized design experiments were set up at Bioscience East and Central Africa (BecA) Tissue...

Author(s): Arinaitwe Abel Byarugaba, Magembe Eric, Barekye Alex and Rob Skilton

ELISA, RT-PCR, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and sequencing methods for investigating an epidemic FMD virus serotype O outbreaks

April 2018

This study was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence of non-structure protein for foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and identify FMDV serotypes. A total of 3600 serum samples (1080 buffaloes and 2520 cattle) were collected randomly from different breeds, age, and sex at El Beheira, El Dakahlia, and El Giza. Nonstructure protein of FMDV was detected in 41 of 1080 (3.8%) Buffalo and 185 of 2520 (7.3%) cattle....

Author(s): Halla E. K. El Bahgy and Mahmoud M. A. Moustafa

Heterosis, heterobeltiosis, narrow-sense and broad-sense heritabilities for Phytophthora megakarya tolerance in two populations of Theobroma cacao L.

April 2018

A 2x2 diallel mating design was set up to estimate quantitative genetic parameters after leaf artificial inoculation tests in nursery and field for three consecutive years. F12 and F40 families of two reciprocal crosses viz., F12: ♀SCA12 × â™‚ICS40 and F40: ♀ICS40 × â™‚SCA12 were used to study heterosis (mid-parent), heterobeltiosis (better-parent), heritability (narrow-sense and broad-sense) and to...

Author(s): Jude N. MANGA, Martine L. ONDOBO, Pierre O. EFFA, Jules C. K. DJOKO, and Pierre F. DJOCGOUE,  

Production and purification of extracellular pullulanase by Klebsilla aerogenes NCIM 2239

April 2018

The present study was carried out to optimize the production of pullulanase from Klebsilla aerogenes NCIM 2239, a new strain of the bacterium. The organism was screened for its ability to synthesize and secrete extracellular pullulanase, by analysis of pullulan degrading activity. Environmental (pH and temperature) and nutritional (carbon and nitrogen) factors influencing growth and product formation were optimized...

Author(s): N. Prabhu, R. Uma Maheswari, M. Vijay Pradhap Singh, S. Karunakaran, C. Kaliappan and T. Gajendran  

Preventive effect of black rice antioxidant extract on oxidative stress induced by ethyl alcohol

April 2018

The present study investigated the black rice ethanolic extract (BREE) protective effect as natural antioxidants against oxidative stress induced by ethyl alcoholic (EA) in male rats. BREE flavonoids and phenols were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The study was conducted on 40 male Wistar rats weighing 170±2 g, the animals divided into 4 equal groups. The first group was given...

Author(s): Suhailah S. Al-Jameel and Soheir N. Abd El-Rahman,  

Rice (Oryza sativa) breeding strategies for grain biofortification

April 2018

Biofortification is a process in which plant species are improved in order to raise the nutritional content of the product consumed. The following are some of the main techniques that can be introduced in plant breeding programs in order to improve the nutritional quality of the food to be produced. The rice breeding for higher Fe and Zn content in grain, rice breeding for higher β-carotene content in the grain,...

Author(s): Fábio Luíz Checchio Mingotte, Lucas Tadeu Mazza Revolti, Sandra Helena Unêda Trevisoli, Leandro Borges Lemos and Domingos Fornasieri Filho

Bioactivity guided fractionation of potent antiacne plant extract against Propionibacterium acnes

March 2018

Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a commensal anaerobic, Gram positive bacterium that belongs to the normal microflora. P. acnes play an important role in the pathogenesis of various skin infections and diseases. However, the available agents are associated with number of side effects and P. acnes show the genetic base of antibacterial resistance against erythromycin and clindamycin. Therefore, alternative natural...

Author(s): Vinod Kumar Gauttam, Kavita Munjal and Nitisha Negi

Molecular characterization and tissue expression analysis of five genes for chitinase in the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

March 2018

Insect chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes that cleave chitin of the cuticle and peritrophic membrane during molting. Multiple genes encode insect chitinases, which are characterized as having diverse chemical and enzymatic properties depending on the time and the site of expression. This work was done to isolate and characterize chitinase genes from the red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver), a cryptic...

Author(s): Babiker M. A. Abdel-Banat, Hamadttu A. F. El-Shafie, Khalid A. Alhudaib, Wael S. El-Araby and Mohammed R. Al-Hajhoj

Genetic diversity study of Ethiopian Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) varieties based on phenotypic traits and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers

March 2018

Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the earliest domesticated food legumes of the world. This study was designed to reveal the genetic diversity existing among 32 Ethiopian faba bean varieties grown at three locations (Sinana, Agarfa and Selka) using 23 phenotypic traits and 11 inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers. The combined analysis of variance across the three locations showed highly significant (p<0.05)...

Author(s): Behailu Mulugeta Asfaw, Kifle Dagne, Gemechu Keneni Wakayo, Seid Ahmed Kemal and Kassahun Tesfaye Muleta,

Preliminary studies on the laxative properties of Senna alata L. and Hollandia yoghurttm

March 2018

Experiments on Senna alata aqueous extract and Hollandia yoghurt were done to determine active compounds responsible for their laxative properties and to further establish sample vulnerability to microbial attack. Phytochemical screening was performed on test substrates to analyze for alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and steroids. Escherichia coli (Gram negative), Micrococcus species (Gram positive),...

Author(s): Oke D. G., Oluranti O. O. and Akande J. A.

Determination of toxicity and chromatographic analysis of spilanthol content in in vitro culture of Spilanthes oleracea Jacq.

March 2018

Spilanthes oleracea Jacq. has been extensively used due to its pharmacological activities, and it has been considered as a promising vegetable crop. Nodal-segment cultures of S. oleracea were established in order to analyze the content of alkamide spilanthol. On average, 11 buds/nodal segment were developed after 30 days on MS basal salts liquid medium containing 2.22 μM benzyladenine (BA). Regenerated shoots formed...

Author(s): Viviane Gesteira, Naomi Kato Simas, Morgana, Castelo T. L. Branco, Alexandre dos S. Pyrrho and Alice Sato,

Development of liquid inoculants for strains of Rhizobium tropici group using response surface methodology

March 2018

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important legume for human consumption in many countries of South and Central America, Asia and Africa. The crop can benefit from the biological nitrogen fixation process, especially when inoculated with elite rhizobial strains. Strains belonging to the “Rhizobium tropici group” are preferred because they show high tolerance to abiotic stresses, but their...

Author(s): Jackson Seiti Gundi,, Mariana Sanches Santos, André Luiz Martinez Oliveira, Marco Antonio Nogueira and Mariangela Hungria,

Energy balance of elephant grass biomass for power generation by direct biomass combustion

March 2018

In Brazil, elephant grass has been used for thermal energy production, due to the high productivity, energy efficiency, biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and biomass quality for energy generation by direct burning. The use of biomass depends mainly on the energy balance and biomass characteristics for energy production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomass of dry matter yield, qualitative biomass variables...

Author(s): Morais R. F., Morais C. S. B., de Morais L. F. and Almeida J. C. C.

Biodegradation of fenthion and temphos in liquid media by Bacillus safensis isolated from pesticides polluted soil in the Sudan

March 2018

The objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of the bacteria Bacillus safensis strain FO-36bT isolated from pesticide-polluted soil in degrading fenthion and temphos in mineral salt media (MSM). Fenthion and temphos were incubated with the isolated bacteria. Samples were drawn at 0, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days to analyze residual fenthion and temphos content with gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance...

Author(s): Azhari Omer Abdelbagi[], Adam Ishag Abdallah Wady[], Abd Elaziz Sulieman Ahmed Ishag[], Ahmed Mohammed Ali Hammad[], Mohamed Abdalla Omer Abdalla and Jang-Hyun Hur

Assessment of genetic diversity of Burkina Faso sweet grain sorghum using microsatellite markers

March 2018

Sweet grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an under-harvested crop produced mainly for its sweet grains in the pasty stage. Little is known of its genetic diversity remains. This study aims to determine the level and structure of the genetic diversity of sweet grain sorghum from Burkina Faso. Thus, 93 accessions were evaluated using 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers. The analysis revealed 49 alleles in...

Author(s): Nerbéwendé SAWADOGO, Teyoure Benoit Joseph BATIENO, Zakaria KIEBRE, Mahamadi Hamed OUEDRAOGO, Wend-Pagnangdé Marie Serge Félicien ZIDA, Kiswendsida Romaric NANEMA, Baloua NEBIE, Pauline BATIONO-KANDO, Renan Ernest TRAORE, Mahamadou SAWADOGO and Jean-Didier ZONGO

Genetic structure of indigenous sheep breeds in Nigeria based on electrophoretic polymorphous systems of transferrin and haemoglobin

March 2018

The study used 100 indigenous sheep comprising 25 Balami, 25 Uda, 25 Yankassa and 25 West African Dwarf breeds reared extensively. The blood samples were taken from Vena Jugularis, processed according to standard procedure and transferrin and haemoglobin examined using cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The observed allele frequencies and genotypes (%) were tested with Hardy-Weinberg’s Equilibrium (χ2). Seven...

Author(s): Osaiyuwu Henry Osamede and Salako Emmanuel Adebowale  

Technical review of molecular markers and next-generation sequencing technology to manage plant pathogenic oomycetes

March 2018

To feed the world human population which is expected to reach 10 billion in the next three decades, agricultural sustainability is required for stable food production. However, crops always suffer from many biotic and abiotic stresses. Among them, plant pathogens often cause severe yield losses. Plant pathogenic oomycetes are one of the most destructive plant diseases, which include Phytophthora infestans in potato and...

Author(s): Ramadan Ahmed Arafa, and Kenta Shirasawa

Thermal, physical and chemical analysis of Eisenia andrei flour for supplementary diet

March 2018

The search for sources of animal feed has been well-regarded for farmers. In spite of this, the objective of this study was to show the thermal, physical and chemical properties of earthworms flour from Eisenia andrei for supplementary food for animals. The species was studied by simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, combustion calorimetry, moisture, ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate...

Author(s): Wagner M. Carlesso, Rosecler Ribeiro, Taciélen Altmayer, Jordana Finatto, Maira C. Martini, Débora T. Brietske, Tamara E. Gonçalves, Matheus Scheibel, Aline Camini, Fernando J. M. Kuffel, Cassiano R. Brandt, Henrique P. Etgeton, Daniel Kuhn, Maria C. Dallazen, Éder M. M. Flores, Simone Stulp, Eduardo M. Ethur, Elisete M. de Freitas and Lucélia Hoehne

Chemical composition of Citrus limon (Eureka variety) essential oil and evaluation of its antioxidant and antibacterial activities

March 2018

The study evaluates the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects properties of essential oil of Citrus limon (Eureka) extracted by hydrodistillation. The composition of this oil was analysed by GC/MS for 30 constituents, which accounted for 97.8% of total oil. The main components were limonene (61.3%) followed by β-pinene (9.7%), α-citral (4.2%) and α-terpinene (3.8%). Antioxidant...

Author(s): Himed Louiza, Merniz Salah and Barkat Malika

Toxicity of powdered and ethanolic extracts of Uvaria chamae (Annonaceae) Bark on selected stored product insect pests

March 2018

A study was carried out on the insecticidal effects of the powdered stem bark extract of Uvaria chamae and its ethanolic extract on three most devastating stored products pests (Coleopterous) in Nigeria, namely: Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Bruchidae), Rhizopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Curculionidae). Graded concentrations of each formulation of the powdered bark and ethanolic...

Author(s): Negbenebor, H. E., Makanjuola, W. A., Denloye, A. A. and Nura, S.

Physico-chemical and bacteriological characterization of sachet water sold in Yaounde City, Cameroon

March 2018

The objective of this study is to take an inventory of all the sachet water brands sold in Yaounde and to assess their sanitary quality. This study was carried out on 100 samples, representing 20 sachet water brands sold in the urban city of Yaounde, Cameroon. Selected physico-chemical and bacteriological analyses of the sachet water were done. The results showed that their pH values and nitrate level  were in line...

Author(s): Hermann GAPWU, Patience BONGSE KARI ANDOSEH, Irène GUEMCHE SILLAG, Joséphine Mireille AKOA ETOA, Christian Gaéle NEMBOT FOMBA and Pauline MOUNJOUENPOU

Impact of clarification process on the nutritional, mineral and vitamin composition of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juice

March 2018

This study investigates the impact of clarification process on the nutritional, mineral and vitamin composition of the cashew apple juice. The proximate composition in percentage for moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fibre, ether extract, crude protein and carbohydrate were determined in line with the recommended methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC), and vitamin profile was analysed using Gas...

Author(s): Ukonze J. A., Ogu E., Onu F. M., Dimelu I., Ifeanyieze F. O. and Ejiofor T. E.

Agronomic evaluation and web blight resilience of common bean genotypes in the littoral region of Ecuador

March 2018

Common bean is very important in the daily diet of Ecuadorians. Web blight (Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn) is the major constraint faced by common bean farmers in Ecuador and everywhere in the world, causing high losses of yield grain every year. A constant selection of genotypes with excellent productive and resilience to disease features in each region is presented as a potential solution to these problems. The present...

Author(s): Ronald Villamar-Torres,, Luis Godoy Montiell , , Julio Muñoz-Rengifo, , Samir Zambrano Montes, Seyed Mehdi Jazayeri, Naga Raju Maddela, , Luis Alcivar Torres, Alexis Matute Matute, Marcos Heredia Pinos, Ousseini Issaka Salia and Felipe Garcés-Fiallos,

Production of rice cereal-based Kefir beverage

March 2018

The aim of the present research was to evaluate the use of the sugary Kefir grains as a starter culture for new rice cereal-based Kefir beverage. Fermentation was performed by inoculating Kefir grains in rice extract. Flasks containing Kefir grains and substrates were statically incubated at 28°C for 24 h. The microbiota of sugary Kefir grains and rice cereal-based Kefir beverage were genera Lactobacillus,...

Author(s): Karina Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Uéllina Silva Souza, Marcia Regina Silva, Ferlando Lima Santos and Itaciara Larroza Nunes

Antioxidant, antimicrobial and antifeedant activity of phenolic compounds accumulated in Hyoscyamus muticus L.

March 2018

Hyoscyamus muticus is an endangered desert plant spread in the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East deserts. The methanol extract of the aerial parts of H. muticus grown in the arid zones in the Northern regions of Saudi Arabia were subjected to primary phytochemical analysis which revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and sterols, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of...

Author(s): Eman Ramadan Elsharkawy, Abdelaziz Ed-dra, Emad Mohamed Abdallah and Ahmed M. H. Ali,

Food additives and their health effects: A review on preservative sodium benzoate

March 2018

Food additives are widely used by the food industry to increase the product shelf life and/or attribute as well as enhance certain characteristics of particular foods, which are often lost during processing. With the advent of modern life, more and more additives have been employed by the food industry. Despite their wide use, they are substances that may cause adverse reactions like any other drug. This study aimed to...

Author(s): Bruna G. O. Linke, Thais A. C. Casagrande and Lígia A. C. Cardoso

Maximizing L-glutaminase production from marine Bacillus subtilis JK-79 under solid state fermentation

February 2018

L-Glutaminase is majorly produced by microorganism including bacteria, yeast and fungi. It mainly catalyzes the hydrolysis of gamma-amido bond of L-glutamine. In the present investigation, the potent marine isolate, Bacillus subtilis JK-79 producing L-glutaminase was evaluated for the maximum L-glutaminase production by solid state fermentation (SSF). In this context, different agro-industrial residues reported in...

Author(s): Jambulingam Kiruthika, Nachimuthu Saraswathy and Saranya Murugesan

Effect of water deficit at different stages of development on the yield components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) genotypes

February 2018

Cowpea cultivation is widespread in West Africa where it is an important source of protein. This study is aimed at determining the effects of water deficit applied at different stages of cowpea development on yield and its components (pod number, seed number, seed yield, aerial biomass yield, harvest index and root biomass of the plant). The experiments were carried out in pots during the rainy season of 2016 under...

Author(s): TOUDOU DAOUDA Abdoul Karim, ATTA Sanoussi, INOUSSA Maman Maârouhi, HAMIDOU Falalou and BAKASSO Yacoubou  

Shell morphology and the radula structures of two closely related bulinid snails intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium in Nigeria

February 2018

Bulinid snails act as intermediate host of schistosomes and the presence of the snail gives schistosomiasis an expansive characteristics. Schistosomiasis is of medical and veterinary importance in the tropical and subtropical regions. The shell shape and structure of radula teeth of bulinids are often specific to a species or genus, and are widely used for gastropod species identification. Bulinid species collected from...

Author(s): Opeyemi Gbenga Oso and Alexander Bababunmi Odaibo

Extraction of high quality RNA from hard tissues of adult coconut palms

February 2018

An experimental protocol originally designed to isolate plant DNA was modified to obtain high quality total RNA from organs of adult coconut palms collected in situ. With this protocol, high quality RNA was extracted from leaves, inflorescences, primary and secondary roots, zygotic embryos and solid endosperm, with no carbohydrate or protein contamination. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...

Author(s): Ramón Souza-Perera, Nelson Torres-Hernández and José Juan Zúñiga-Aguilar

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oil of Lippia sidoides against drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from food

February 2018

Chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oil of Lippia sidoides (EOLS) and its major constituent was investigated. Chemical composition was analyzed in a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Antioxidant activity (AA) was obtained using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Antimicrobial activity was tested using disk-diffusion test...

Author(s): Renata Albuquerque Costa, Theodora Thays Arruda Cavalcante, Carla Thiciane Vasconcelos de Melo, Domingos Lucas Araújo Barroso, Hider Machado Melo, Mário Geraldo de Carvalho and Francisco Eduardo Aragão Catunda Júnior,

Chlorella vulgaris DPSF 01: A unique tool for removal of toxic chemicals from tannery wastewater

February 2018

The present study investigated the removal of toxic pollutants and reduction of heavy metals from tannery wastewater using Chlorella vulgaris. The physiochemical parameters like pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride, total hardness (TH), bicarbonate, magnesium, ammoniacal nitrogen, phosphate and heavy...

Author(s): P. S. Subashini and P. Rajiv

The antibacterial activity of bacterial endophytes isolated from Combretum molle

February 2018

Although intense research has gone into the exploration of various Combretaceae species towards the discovery of therapeutic relevant compounds, their endophytes have never been explored as potential repositories of alternative sources of novel and medically beneficial equivalents. In the present study, five bacterial endophytes (Lysinibacillus, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas and Bacillus species) were...

Author(s): Mamonokane O. Diale, Eunice Ubomba-Jaswa, and Mahloro H. Serepa-Dlamini

Efficacy of lantana (Lantana camara) extract application against aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae) in rape (Brassica napus) over varied periods of time

February 2018

Contact bioefficacy of lantana (Lantana camara L.) leaf extract (LLE) against rape aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) in three rape (Brassica napus L.) seed brands at given time (hours) periods was explored. Samples of pounded young leaves mixed with distilled water (3 kg l-1, 2 kg l-1 and 1 kg l-1) were prepared. Dimethoate (7.5 ml 10 l-1) and distilled water were the positive and negative controls, respectively....

Author(s): Culver Mvumi and Precious R. Maunga

Characterization of biodiesel obtained from atemoya (Annona squamosa × A. cherimola) seed oil

February 2018

Biodiesel is derived from renewable sources, such as vegetable oils, by means of a transesterification process in which triacylglycerols are transformed into smaller molecules of esters of fatty acids and glycerol. The transesterification reactions of ‘Gefner’ atemoya (Annona squamosa × A. cherimola) seed oil extracted by pressing (physical) and solvent (chemical) processes were studied, with analysis...

Author(s): Luciana Soares Da Cruz, Bárbara Lemes Outeiro Araújo, Luiz Roberto Marques Albuquerque, Pedro Castro Neto, Angelita Duarte Corrêa and Luciana de Matos  Alves Pinto

Isolation, purification and partial characterization of thermostable serine alkaline protease from a newly isolated Bacillus thuringinsis-SH-II-1A

February 2018

In the present study, the isolation, purification and partial characterization of thermostable serine alkaline protease produced from Bacillus thuringinsis SH-II-1A was reported. The culture was isolated from soil of slaughter house waste and identified further from ribosomal sequence. The crude enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and Sephadex G-200 gel permeation chromatography up to 17.04...

Author(s): Sunil L. Harer, Manish S. Bhatia and Neela M. Bhatia

Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and watermelon chlorotic stunt virus induced gene silencing in tobacco plants

February 2018

Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) are the most widespread and damaging viruses to cucurbits in the Middle East. CYSDV and WmCSV are cucurbit-infecting bipartite whitefly-transmitted viruses. Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a universal mechanism by which plants are able to systemically switch off the expression of targeted genes via the reduction...

Author(s): Ahmed Mohamed Soliman, Adel Abdelsabour Rezk, and Khalid Abdallah Alhudaib

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus: Diagnosis and metabolites

February 2018

The existence of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was figured out in different locations in Al-Ahsaa of Saudi Arabia. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results of samples collected showed that TYLCV existed in all locations. Using AVcore and ACcore primers, begomoviruses family were detected in symptomatic tomato plants and by using TYv2664 and TYc138 (specific primers for the detection of TYLCV), the results proved...

Author(s): Ahmed Mohamed Soliman, and Maged Elsayed Mohamed,

The nitrogen-fixing Frankia significantly increases growth, uprooting resistance and root tensile strength of Alnus formosana

February 2018

Restoration of Alnus formosana (Burk.) Makino on landslide areas is important for agroforestry, forestry and soil erosion control in Taiwan. To ensure successful reforestation, A. formosana seedlings have to develop strong root system for nutrient and water acquisition as well as anchorage. Inoculating of A. formosana with symbiotic nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria Frankia may help mitigate drought and nutrient...

Author(s): Jung-Tai Lee and Sung-Ming Tsai

Polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rDNA from three nosocomial bacterial isolates in Kaduna State, Northern Nigeria

February 2018

A wide variety of opportunistic pathogens has been detected in hospital surfaces. Medical center surfaces can serve as reservoirs of pathogenic bacteria. Among this pathogens, Pseudomonas species are one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, frequently found in hospital environments. Polymerase chain amplification system remains one of the best methods for the rapid detection of low numbers of pathogenic...

Author(s): Richard, R., Denwe, S. D.., Yerima, M. B. and Olatunde, S. K.

Toxicological and safety assessment of tartrazine as a synthetic food additive on health biomarkers: A review

February 2018

Recently, progressive use of synthetic food additives increase the attention paid on their benefit and toxicity in food, especially for the young. One of these additives is artificial azo dyes tartrazine. This study aimed to provide an outline of the existing evidence on the beneficial and side effect of food additive with special reference to tartrazine on different organ health. The methods include updated search for...

Author(s): Kamal A. Amin, and Fawzia S. Al-Shehri  

Development and improved selected markers to biosurfactant and bioemulsifier production by Rhizopus strains isolated from Caatinga soil

February 2018

This study screened four Rhizopus species as biosurfactant producers using different markers. First of all, Rhizopus spp. UCP 1607 was identified as Rhizopus arrhizus by morphological and molecular methods. The production of biosurfactant/bioemulsifier was investigated by submerged fermentation using soybean post-frying oil (5% v/v) and sodium glutamate (1% w/v) medium. The primary markers’ hemolysis and parafilm...

Author(s): Milagre A. Pele, Dayana Montero-Rodriguez, Daylin Rubio-Ribeaux, Adriana F. Souza, Marcos A. C. Luna, Michele F. Santiago, Rosileide F. S. Andrade, Thayse A. Lima e Silva, André L. C. M. A. Santiago and Galba M. Campos-Takaki  

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