African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12193

AJB Articles

December 2018

Superoxide dismutase activity and jasmonic acid during in vitro-ex vitro transition of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) micropropagated plantlets

Recent agriculture is characterized by intensive and cleaning productions, which need seeds with high quality in large quantities bonded by in vitro culture labs. Nevertheless, in vitro ex vitro transition and during acclimatization losses occur due to the death of plantlets unable to survive this abiotic stress. Reactive oxygen species production during jasmonic acid-induced changes of previous transition was...

Author(s): González-Olmedo J. L., Garza-García Y., Mbogholi A., Rodríguez-Escriba R. C., Aragón C. E., Rodríguez R., and Moreno A.  

December 2018

Preliminary study on rice straw degradation using microbial inoculant under shake flask condition

Abundance and unmanaged agriculture residues lead to unutilized resource waste and environmental pollution. Application of microbial technology to manage agriculture waste could produce value-added product. A preliminary study on biodegradation of rice straw using different potential microorganisms was tested under controlled environment. Three different inoculant cultures were used to observe their efficiency in rice...

Author(s): Nurul Ain Abu Bakar, Mohammad Hariz Abdul Rahman, Nur Alyani Shakri, Syuhaidah Abu Bakar and Abhar Abdul Hamid

December 2018

DNA extraction from silica gel-preserved common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves

Extraction of non-degraded and contaminant-free DNA from field specimen requires collection under liquid nitrogen which is not readily available in resource constrained laboratories in low and middle income countries (LMICs). A method of extracting DNA from silica gel-preserved common bean (Proteus vulgaris L.) leaves is presented. The method, which does not involve the use of phenol, chloroform or isoamyl alcohol also...

Author(s): Male Allan Ssekamatte, Kato Fred and Mukankusi Clare Mugisha

November 2018

Marker-assisted backcrossing for associating nutritional quality to drought tolerance in barley

Backcross breeding enhanced by marker assisted selection is currently the most powerful method used to transfer one or a few genes controlling specific traits from one line into another. This method was used to cross naked barley variety, “Tombari” known as A, having high nutritional quality with hulled variety, “Giza131” called B, highly tolerant to drought. The objective of this work is to...

Author(s): Amani Ben Naceur, Sameh Mnasri, Hatem Cheikh-M’hamed, Chedly Abdelly and M’barek Ben Naceur  

November 2018

Identification and mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) resistance in genotype UG 5

Soybean rust, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is one of the most serious and widespread foliar diseases of soybean causing high yield losses world-wide. The objective of this study was to identify and map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) resistant to soybean rust in genotype UG 5. Ninety-seven F2 mapping plants, obtained from a cross between Wondersoya and UG 5, were used for this study. Quantitative trait locus analysis using QTL...

Author(s): Hailay Mehari Gebremedhn, Ulemu Mercy Msiska, Miesho Belay Weldekidan, Fentaw Abate Asmamaw, Akech Winnifred, Dramadri Isaac Onziga, Thomas Lapaka Odong, Patrick Rubaihayo and Phinehas Tukamuhabwa

November 2018

Characterization of fifteen microsatellite loci and genetic diversity analysis for the Ghanaian food security crop Solenostemon rotundifolius (Frafra potato)

Frafra potato (Solenostemon rotundifolius) is an important food crop indigenous to Western Africa and a member of the Labiaceae (mint) family. It is nutrient-rich and drought tolerant; however, despite its potential as a food security crop, it has not received the research support needed to promote its widespread adoption and safeguard its diversity. As a result, Frafra potato is becoming extinct and restricted to...

Author(s): Lichun Hua, Đenita Hadziabdic, Naalamle Amissah, Marcin Nowicki, Sarah L. Boggess, Margaret Staton, Nianjun Teng and Robert N. Trigiano

November 2018

Evaluation of genetic diversity of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) landraces from West Africa using microsatellite markers

Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) is an important staple food crop, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of West Africa. However, the genetic diversity of pearl millet in these regions is poorly understood, and yet it is useful in identification of landmarks for in situ germplasm conservation and breeding programs, particularly in establishment of heterotic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess...

Author(s): Mary N. Onsarigo and Dionysious K. Kiambi  

November 2018

Comparison of four DNA extraction methods in Heliconia (Heliconia L.)

Molecular analysis in plants requires the use of high quality DNA. Currently, there are a myriad of DNA extraction protocols, which still seems that their applicability across different species is not straightforward. The aim of the present study was to evaluate four different cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based DNA extraction protocols for Heliconia species from lyophilized fully mature leaves. A split-plot...

Author(s): Olvera S., Cortés-Cruz M., Contreras-Toledo A., Ortiz S., Avendaño-Arrazate C., Olivera A., Canul J. and Grajales M.  

October 2018

Bioremediation potentials of sunflower and Pseudomonas species in soil contaminated with lead and zinc

This study was conducted to assess the ability of sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) inoculated with Pseudomonas species to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (lead and zinc). The contaminants were added to 20 kg soil in pots as lead nitrate (Pb (NO3)2) and zinc nitrate (Zn (NO3)2); 400 mg/l metal concentrations were added to 20 kg soil in pots. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design...

Author(s): Elizabeth Temitope Alori, Abiodun Joseph, Ojo Timothy Vincent Adebiyi, Ajibola Patrick Aluko and Chidera Onyekankeya  

October 2018

Applications of genomic copy number variations on livestock: A review

Genomic copy number variations (CNVs) have significantly modified genomic regions during inversions, translocations, duplications and deletions that keep shaping phenotypic variation through changes in gene dosage, regulation and transcript structure. The objective of this review was to discuss the current application of CNVs on domestication, adaptations, productions, coat colour, morphology and diseases of livestock,...

Author(s): Habtamu Abera Goshu, Min Chu and Ping Yan

October 2018

Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of cowpea rhizobia from soils of Ethiopia

Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of cowpea rhizobia indigenous to soils of Ethiopia are unknown. Forty indigenous cowpea rhizobial isolates were collected from cowpea-growing areas of the country and were characterized for their growth and genetic properties. Based on their cultural characteristics, the isolates were categorized into fast (FG), slow (SG), and extraslow-growings (ESG). The FG, SG, and ESG...

Author(s): Girmaye Kenasa, Fassil Assefa and Mussie Y. Habteselassie  

October 2018

Propolis as natural additive: A systematic review

Propolis extract is a resin collected by the bees and contains numerous active substances with a recognized pharmaceutical potential use. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of studies with the use of propolis as a food additive and the microencapsulation technology for incorporation of the product in food. Studies in Portuguese, English and Spanish were identified from online databases, Lilacs,...

Author(s): Marly Silveira Santos, Maria Leticia Miranda Fernandes Estevinho, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho, Karina Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Rosane Freitas Schwan and Rogeria Comastri de Castro Almeida

October 2018

Anti-diabetic and some haematological effects of aqueous and ethanol leaf extract of Eriosema psoraleoides in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats

This study investigates the anti-diabetic and some hematological effects of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Eriosema psoraleoides in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Forty-eight albino mice were used for the lethal dose (LD50) study, while twenty-eight Wistar rats were used for the diabetic and haematological study. The result of the phytochemical analysis shows some important phytochemicals that could confer...

Author(s): Nduka, Florence O., Ogugua, Victor N., Joshua, Packer E., Okpachi, Victor E., Gometi, Sandra A. and Nwigwe, Juliet O.  

October 2018

Comparative survey of three processes used for the extraction of total phenol content and total flavonoid content of Anacardium occidentale L. and the assessment of its antioxidant activity

Three processes were used for the extraction of total phenol and total flavonoid contents of Anacardium occidentale L. and to determine its antioxidant activity. Whatever the extraction process was, the total flavonoid and total phenol contents were of the same order. With the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), 666.07 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g dry matter (DM) of total phenol content was obtained from the...

Author(s): MADJITOLOUM BETOLOUM Salomon, TALLA Emmanuel, NYEMB Jean Noël, NGASSOUM Martin Benoît, TSATSOP TSAGUE Roli Karole and MAHMOUT Yaya  

October 2018

Resveratrol inhibits cell viability and proliferation via apoptotic pathways in ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is the most common female malignancy and the main cause of death from gynecological malignancies. Resveratrol (3,4,5 tri-hydroxystilbene) is a phytoalexin and a polyphenolic compound present in human dietary material such as peanuts, mulberries, grapes and red wine. We demonstrated that resveratrol depressed the proliferation of HO8910PM cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in vitro (P <...

Author(s): YAO Jing-ping, XU Fei, LI Rong, LI Meng and QU Jun-wei  

September 2018

Next-generation sequencing platforms for latest livestock reference genome assemblies

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) or high-throughput sequencing platforms refers to different modern sequencing technologies that allow scientist to sequence millions to billions of reads (base pairs) in a single, much more quicker and cheaper cost than the previously used Sanger (first generation) sequencing method. Next-generation sequencing platforms classified as second generation sequencing platforms which require...

Author(s): H. Gatew and G. M. Tarekegn,  

September 2018

The effect of different nutrient media on in vitro shoot and root proliferation of Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex Andrews

Murashige and Skoog (MS), Knudson C (KC) and Vacin and Went (VW) nutrient media are among the most widely used for micropropagation of orchid species. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of these growth media on in vitro shoot and root proliferation of Vanilla planifolia by using nodal segment as explants. Three different media; Murashige and Skoog (MS), Knudson C (KC) and Vacin and Went (VW) were...

Author(s): Noorhazira Sidek, Nuraini Shafinaz Mohd Anuar, Laila Naher and Kharul Azmi Mu’azzam Abdul Rahman

September 2018

Genetic diversity of blackberry (Rubus subgenus Rubus Watson) in selected counties in Kenya using simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers

Genetic diversity of blackberry (Rubus subgenus Rubus Watson) is essential for efficient breeding and improvement of its pomological traits and yield. In this research, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were used to determine the genetic diversity of 90 blackberry accessions collected from six different counties in Kenya. From 11 SSR markers used to genotype the blackberry accessions, a total of 127 alleles were generated....

Author(s): Jared A. Ochieng, Maurice E. Oyoo, Robert M. Gesimba, Paul C. Korir, Pascal P. Okwiri Ojwang’ and James O. Owuoche

September 2018

Characterization of fluorescent Pseudomonas from Oryza sativa L. rhizosphere with antagonistic activity against Pyricularia oryzae (SACC.)

The aim of this work was to select and characterize native Cuban fluorescent Pseudomonas from the rhizosphere of Oryza sativa with in vitro and in vivo antagonistic activity against Pyricularia oryzae. A total of 200 isolates were recovered with the typical growth and cultural characteristics of fluorescent Pseudomonas. The results showed that 12.5% of total isolates were capable of inhibiting mycelial growth, with...

Author(s): Annia Hernández-Rodríguez, Yanelis Acebo-Guerrero, Gema Pijeira Fernández, Acela Díaz de la Osa and Gloria Maria Restrepo-Franco  

September 2018

Chromium (III) and its effects on soil microbial activities and phytoremediation potentials of Arachis hypogea and Vigna unguiculata

The aim of this research was to evaluate the impact of chromium (III) nitrate on soil microbial activities and growth performance and phytoremediation potentials of two staple leguminous crops, namely cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and groundnut (Arachis hypogea). Pristine sandy loam soil samples were polluted with nitrate salts of chromium (III) at four different levels (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) in triplicates. There...

Author(s): Chibuzor Nwadibe Eze, Chuks Kenneth Odoh, Emmanuel Aniebonam Eze, Paul Ikechukwu Orjiakor, Simeon Chukwuemeka Enemuor and Uchenna Jude Okobo  

September 2018

Phytochemical and proximate composition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit from Nsukka, Nigeria

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is very common, cultivated throughout the world and often eaten as a raw vegetable without cooking. In this study, the phytochemical and proximate compositions of cucumber were investigated. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of the homogenate of C. sativus fruit showed that reducing sugars (574.36 ± 3.88 mg/g) was highest amount when compared to other phytochemicals, alkaloids...

Author(s): Uzuazokaro Mark-Maria Agatemor, Okwesili Fred Chiletugo Nwodo and Chioma Assumpta Anosike  

September 2018

Trichoderma atroviride 102C1: A promising mutant strain for the production of a β-glucosidase, -xylosidase and -L-arabinofuranosidase activities using agroindustrial by-products

Holocellulolytic accessory enzymes are very important in assisting hydrolysis of biomass. The use of these enzymes in the enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass is very important for obtaining building blocks in the concept of biorefinery. In previous studies, the mutant strain Trichoderma atroviride 102C1 was tested for production of endoglucanases, FPases and endoxylanases. This study aimed at evaluating the efficiency...

Author(s): Jéssica Caroline Araujo SILVA, André Luiz Grigorevski-Lima, Elba Pinto da Silva BON, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues COELHO and Rodrigo Pires do NASCIMENTO

September 2018

Genetic diversity of seed storage protein in the Ethiopian garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.)

The Ethiopian garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) is an important crop extensively used as food and medicine. In this study, total seed storage proteins of 112 garden cress genotypes collected from diverse growing regions in Ethiopia were investigated to assess patterns of genetic diversity and relationships. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), a total of 1774 stable protein bands...

Author(s): Legesse Tadesse, Firew Mekbib, Adugna Wakjira and Zerihun Tadele

September 2018

Identification and evaluation of secondary metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in native strains of Trichoderma species

Trichoderma species is a heterotrophic saprobion organism, which competes with other microorganisms, preventing them from developing. This fungus has mechanisms of action, among which are: production of antibiotics and metabolites, and hyperparasitism, which also promotes the induction of systemic resistance in plants. In this study, five native Trichoderma strains which were collected from agricultural land in...

Author(s): Martínez-Padrón Hadassa Yuef, Torres-Castillo Jorge Ariel, Rodríguez-Herrera Raúl, López-Santillán José Alberto, Estrada-Drouaillet Benigno and Osorio-Hernández Eduardo

September 2018

Heterozygote polymorphisms of ARG16GLY and GLN27GLU ADRB2 gene is risk protective for obesity in Javanese population of Indonesia

The relationship between obesity and insulin resistance is influenced by various factors, including genetics. ADRB2 gene polymorphisms of Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu showed inconsistent results toward obesity and insulin resistance in some populations. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of the genetic polymorphisms of Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu of the ADRB2 gene and to analyze risk factors for obesity and insulin...

Author(s): Nazula Rahma Shafriani, Pramudji Hastuti and Ahmad Hamim Sadewa  

September 2018

The technological influence of the different methods of extraction on the initial concentration of thymol in the essential oil of thyme (Thymus satureioides)

The present study deals with the influence of the technological factor in relation to the technique used for the extraction of essential oil of thyme, its chemical composition, and in particular, the concentration of thymol as the principal chemo-typical active substance of this variety of thyme from the Moroccan High Atlas. The working protocol includes the extraction of the essential oil by three different methods...

Author(s): Imad eddine Elkacimi, Yahia Cherrah and Katim Alaoui

September 2018

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentiality of Solanum xanthocarpum

Inflammation is the body’s immune response to combat suspected harmful effect by a stimulus. Antioxidants prevent chain of reaction that would result in the production of free radicals. Prolonged usage of steroids as anti-inflammatory agents is unsafe, demanding search for anti-inflammatory compounds with sustainable future. In this study, seeds and leaves of Solanum xanthocarpum were explored in vitro for their...

Author(s): Rohini Pungle, Aditya Tambe, Anil more and Arun Kharat  

September 2018

Evaluation of the effects of plant aqueous extracts as anti-diabetic agents on alloxan induced diabetic male rabbits

This study investigates the effect of barley (Hordeum vulgare), black plum (Syzygium cumini) and Chinese tree leaves (Pistacia chinesis) aqueous extracts  on serum glucose, cholesterol, urea, uric acid level and body weight of normal and alloxan-induced diabetic male rabbits. Rabbits were kept in fasting condition for 12 h, then diabetes was induced using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/Kg) . From the 7th day of...

Author(s): Hadia Akber Samoo, Jagarwanti Maheshwari, Atta Muhammad Babar, Ather Hameed Sheikh, Imrana Khushk, Muhammad Aqeel Bhutto, Jawaid Ahmad Khokhar, Abdul Sattar Qureshi, Syed Akbar Shah and Aftab Hussain Khaskheli  

September 2018

Genetic diversity in Radix species from the middle and south of Iraq based on simple sequence repeats

Ten newly developed microsatellite loci were isolated from an AG20 and CAG20 enriched genomic DNA library of Radix sp. from Iraq. The simple sequence repeats (SSR) comprised 76.0% di-, 20.0% tri- and 4.0% tetra-nucleotide repeats. The number of alleles for all 10 loci ranged from 4 to 18, with a mean of 11.3 alleles per locus. The observed (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He) values varied from 0.286 to 0.8670.927...

Author(s): Ali BM Al-Waaly, Kanokporn Triwitayakorn, Nattaya Srisawad, Duncan R Smith, Mohammad K Mohammad and Supajit Sraphet

September 2018

Antioxidant activity of essential oil of three cultivars of Amomum subulatum and standardization of high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the estimation of 1,8-cineole

Essential oils of the fruits of three cultivars of Amomum subulatum (Family-Zingiberaceae), such as varlangy, seremna and sawney were isolated. Antioxidant potential was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging and FeCl3-reducing models and the presence of 1,8-Cineole was quantified using the developed high performance thin...

Author(s): Aftab Alam and Rita Singh Majumdar  

September 2018

Reduction of organic load from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using selected fungal strains isolated from POME dump sites

Environmental concerns are becoming important global tasks. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) contains oil and grease and also rich in organic matter in the form of total suspended solids which can increase biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of POME. It is generated in huge quantities during the production of crude palm oil and pollutes land, water and atmosphere if left untreated. The current...

Author(s): Suseela Lanka and Muralidhar Pydipalli  

September 2018

Variation of concentrations of thymol and carvacrol in the essential oil of thymus satureoides during aging

The aim of this work is to do a stability study of two chemo-typical active ingredients (thymol and carvacrol) of the essential oil of thyme “Thymus satureoides” collected from Azilal Region, Morocco. Specimen identification was performed for the raw obtained plant materials and the  essential oil extraction carried out through initial and final chemical characterization of the essential oil - at t = 0...

Author(s): Imad Eddine Elkacimi, Yahia Cherrah and Katim Alaoui

August 2018

Simple and rapid detached leaf technique for screening common beans (Phaseolus vulgarise L.) in vitro against angular leaf spot (Pseudocercospora griseola) disease

A rapid and reliable detached-leaf technique was developed for screening common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes against angular leaf spot (ALS) disease caused by Pseudocercospora griseola. It is helpful to differentiate between susceptible and resistance common bean genotypes. Detached leaves of common bean tested genotypes were inoculated by immersing them into a spore suspension followed by placing into petri...

Author(s): Yayis Rezene, Kassahun Tesfaye, Clare Mukankusi, Esther Arunga and Paul Gepts  

August 2018

Isolation and regeneration of protoplasts from leaf explants of Rhyncholaelia digbyana

A protocol for the isolation and regeneration of protoplasts from leaf explant of Rhyncholaelia digbyana is presented. The protoplasts were isolated using hemicellulase enzymes at 1.5, 2.25, and 3% (w/v), pectinase at 0.5 and 0.75% (w/v) and cellulase at 1 and 2% (w/v). Protoplast counting was carried out with a Neubauer camera and an optical microscope at 40X, and viability was determined with Evans blue dye at 0.025%...

Author(s): Luis Alberto Mota-Narváez, Gilbert José Herrera-Cool,Teresa del Rosario Ayora-Talavera, Nancy Santana-Buzzy, and Guadalupe López-Puc  

August 2018

Detection of genetically modified DNA in processed maize and soybean products in Nigeria

Cultivation and commercial utilization of genetically modified (GM) crops has significantly increased in many parts of the world and particularly in developing countries where food security is a challenge. Despite stringent regulations requiring that food made from GM foods should be properly labelled, evidence of unlabelled foods made from GM crops sold in local markets in many of these countries is increasing. This...

Author(s): Andrew Chibuzor Iloh, Paul Chidozie Onyenekwe and Opeolu Oyejide Ojo,  

August 2018

Preservative potentials of essential oils of three Nigerian spices in mixed fruit juice and their antioxidant capacity

The study was conducted to evaluate the preservative potentials of essential oils (EOs) of Piper guineense, Xylopica aethiopica and Tetrapleura tetraptera in mixed fruit juice and determine their antioxidant capacity. The preservative effect at varying concentrations was evaluated using S. cerevisiae, S. aureus and B. cereus as test isolates. The antioxidant properties were determined using 1,1-...

Author(s): Ogueke Chika C., Nnadi Nkechi B., Owuamanam Clifford I., Ojukwu Moses, Nwachukwu Ikenna N., Ibeabuchi Chidi J and Bede Evelyn N.

August 2018

Development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for the quantification of rutin and isoquercetin in Morus nigra L. (Moraceae)

Morus nigra L. is widely used by the population of the São Francisco Valley (Brazil) for the treatment of several diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, arthritis etc. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an analytical method that is capable of identifing and quantifing flavonoids in the ethanolic crude extract (Mn-EtOH) and its ethyl acetate phase (Mn-AcOEt) obtained from M. nigra leaves...

Author(s): Pedrita Alves Sampaio, Grasielly Rocha Souza, Pedro Guilherme Sousa de Sá, Nathália Andrezza Carvalho de Souza, José Marcos Teixeira de Alencar Filho, Pedro José Rolim-Neto, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida and Larissa Araújo Rolim  

August 2018

Effect of spices on the microbiological quality of Hibiscus sabdariffa (zobo) drink and molecular characterization of the associated spoilage organisms

Hibiscus sabdariffa drink (zobo) was preserved with three concentrations of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and mixture of cloves and ginger, respectively while the control had no spice. The bottled H. sabdariffa drink was stored at 28 ± 2°C for 16 days. The total bacteria and fungi counts were determined every 48 h during storage. Bacterial and fungal growths were not detected in...

Author(s): Adeoye, B. K., Oyewole, O. B. , Idowu, M. A., Obadina, A. O., Ani, I. F. and Ngozi, E. O.    

August 2018

Camwood (Baphia nitida) alcoholic extract: A suitable counter stain for haematoxylin in the demonstration of liver and kidney histomorphology

The counter staining ability of Camwood (Baphia nitida) alcoholic extract and its electrostatic compatibility with haematoxylin was determined. One gram of locally sourced red paste was subjected to simple extraction in 100 ml of 70 and 95% alcohol, respectively. Primary staining of buffered formalin fixed, paraffin embedded liver and kidney tissues was done with haematoxylin followed by counter staining with extract...

Author(s): Omowumi, B. J. , Benard, S. A., Afolabi, O. O., Fowotade, A. A. and Olutunde, O. A.  

August 2018

Genetic diversity among elite chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties of Ethiopia based on inter simple sequence repeat markers

The inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker was used in this study for genetic fingerprinting and identification of released chickpea varieties and for the determination of the genetic relationships among these cultivars. A total of 19 released chickpea varieties were subjected to ISSR analysis with the objective of evaluating the genetic diversity among the cultivars. A total of 20 ISSR primers were initially...

Author(s): Zerihun Jida, Shiferaw Alemu and Destaw Mullualem

August 2018

In vitro regeneration of Neocarya macrophylla (Sabine) Prance, wild fruit of Niger

Neocarya macrophylla is a spontaneous fruit species that constitutes the dominant population of Dallol Bosso in Southwestern Niger. In order to test the in vitro regeneration ability of this species, micro-propagation was applied to micro-cuttings from young almond seedlings. The Murashige and Skoog basal medium was enriched with several concentrations of naphthaleneacetic...

Author(s): Aboubacar Kolafane and Sidikou Djermakoye Seyni Ramatou  

August 2018

Biomanagement of Rose and carnation wastes in flower industries with three epigeic earthworm species: Eisenia fetida, Eisenia andrie and Dendrobanae veneta

The horticulture sector in Ethiopia is being challenged by multifaceted hitches, among which managing excess wastes produced from the farms and minimizing the cost of inorganic fertilizers are the major ones. The performance of three epigeic earthworm species, Eisenia fetida, Eisenia andrie and Dendrobanae veneta, in managing flower (Rose and Carnation) wastes through vermicomposting was evaluated. The study was done...

Author(s): Gezahegn Degefe, Girum Tamire and Said Mohammed  

August 2018

Effect of sample extraction, preparation methods on HPLC quantification of plumbagin in in vivo and in vitro plant parts of Plumbago zeylanica L.

Plumbagin is an important therapeutic compound of Plumbago zeylanica L., the commercial demand of this compound warrants optimizing a suitable method to isolate plumbagin in large scale. The present study was undertaken to obtain the maximum recovery of plumbagin content by employing different extraction methods viz., ultra-assisted extraction (UAE), maceration extraction (ME), soxhlet extraction (SE), serial soxhlet...

Author(s): Krishna Muralidharan, Malaiyandi Jayanthi, Ramasamy Surendran, Muthusamy Balasubramanian and Shanmugam Girija  

August 2018

Co-expressing house fly cytochrome P450 6A1 and human cytochrome P450 reductase in Escherichia coli to bioconvert insecticide aldrin

Aldrin used in agricultural as well as industrial or home pest control is known to be a persistent organic pollutant, having chronic adverse effects on wildlife and humans. The degradation of aldrin has drawn a lot of attentions. In this study, house fly cytochrome P450 6A1 (CYP 6A1) or both house fly cytochrome P450 6A1 and human NADPH-P450 reductase (CPR) together was expressed in Escherichia coli cells to study their...

Author(s): Yating Wu, Yong Li, Xiaosheng Liang, Nan Jiang and Yunhua Wu  

August 2018

Isolation and identification of bacterial endophytes from Crinum macowanii Baker

The widespread distribution of Crinum macowanii across the African continent has entrenched the plant’s medicinal usage in treating diverse diseases. While its phytochemistry is well established, its microbial symbionts and their utility have not been described. As such, five bacterial endophytes, viz. Staphylococcus species C2, Staphylococcus species C3, Bacillus species C4, Acinetobacter species C5 and...

Author(s): Rebotiloe F. Morare, Eunice Ubomba-Jaswa, and Mahloro H. Serepa-Dlamini  

August 2018

Nuclear isolation and purification using SDS/urea (NIPSU) method for efficient and rapid extraction of high-purity genomic DNAs from Jatropha curcas L: A comparative analysis of DNA isolation protocols

Jatropha curcas L. (Jatropha) has gained popularity for its potential use in biodiesel production in arid regions, and its yield improvement by molecular breeding has been anticipated. However, Jatropha is known for its recalcitrance in the extraction of pure genomic DNAs. In this study, four DNA extraction methods were comparatively examined for their efficiency and quality of genomic DNA isolations from Jatropha....

Author(s): Yoshihiko Nanasato,, Ryo Uenoyama, Kaede Tomooka, Atsushi Kato, and Kinya Akashi,  

August 2018

Evaluation and comparison of staining effect of Punica granatum flower extract on testis and ovary of Wistar rats: First results

The evaluation and comparison of the staining effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum) flower extract (dye solution) on histological sections of rat testis and ovary provides a simple, quick technique for the visualisation of both cells. In the developed procedure, this work shows the staining effect of P. granatum flower extract used at different pH of dye bath and temperatures on the histological sections of rat testis...

Author(s): Nilgün Güler Kuşçulu  

August 2018

Circular RNA expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in rheumatoid arthritis patients

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, chronic autoimmune disease involving synovial inflammation and joint destruction. Lack of knowledge on RA pathogenesis hinders development of effective treatments. The aim of this study was to examine whether circular RNAs (circRNAs), which are involved in the development of other diseases, may also play a role in RA. Expression profiles of circRNAs were compared between...

Author(s): Xinqiang Song, Erqin Dai, Pengpeng Zhang, Shuai Wang, Lei Wang, Lei Chen, Yapeng Han and Yuan Luo#  

August 2018

Comparative analysis of the chemical compositions of indigenous watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seeds from two districts in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Seeds from different indigenous watermelons were analysed for their chemical composition such as phenolics, proteins, oils, minerals, ash and fibre content as well as antioxidant activity measured in methanol extract using 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The morphological variations of watermelons, which revealed diversity in terms of fruit and seed colour were also assessed. Average percentages for lipid...

Author(s): Emmanuel Alpheus Mogotlane, Phatlane William Mokwala and Phetole Mangena

August 2018

Application of molecular and biotechnological techniques in plant disease management: A review

Plant diseases are a major challenge in crop production. They are caused by nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses as well as plant nutritional factors. Diseases interfere with the normal physiological and metabolic processes of plants. This results in various effects including wilting, stunting, yellowing and death of plant tissues and organs. Crop losses due to diseases manifest in form of reduced yield, poor quality...

Author(s): Olivier Dayou, Maina Mwangi , Andrew Ogolla Egesa, Peter Munyao Muteti and Careen Ihazano Chumba  

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