African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12405

AJB Articles

Comparative study of maggots’ production in brewery wet grains, dung and rumen content of cattle with or without addition of attractant

October 2020

The objective of this study was to compare maggots’ production in different substrates following an experimental design of six treatments (S1, 1000 g of brewery wet grains - BWG; S2, 900 g of BWG and 100 g of blood; S3, 1000 g of dung; S4, 900 g of dung and 100 g of blood; S5, 1000 g of rumen content; and S6, 900 g of rumen content and 100 g of blood) repeated trice. 121 flies were collected and identified and 5...

Author(s): Gilbert Comlan ZOUGOU TOVIGNON, Abdourhamane Ibrahim TOURE, Cédric SIMA OBIANG, Arsène Valery MBOKO, Férence Ndzani MATUMUINI, Taffarel Juani MEKOSSANGOYE NDOUNGA, Kady Divine MOUSSOUNDA GASSAMA, Frédéric Christol NGANSOP NONO, Joseph-Privat ONDO, Louis Clément OBAME ENGONGA, Franck MOUNIOKO, Fernand TENDONKENG, Emile MIEGOUE, Benoit BOUKILA and Etienne PAMO TEDONKENG

Symptoms, epidemiology and diagnosis: A mini-review on coronavirus

October 2020

There is worldwide concern about the rapid spread of the Covid19 (COVID-19) pandemic which now affects almost every country in the world. Generating accurate diagnosis of COVID-19 by testing hundreds of thousands of people per day, and the search for effective therapeutics and vaccines are currently the focus of intense research in large numbers of companies and academic institutions around the world. This review will...

Author(s): Abdulkarim S. BinShaya, Mohamed Bamaga, Awal Zaki, Hajir Alsaihati, Adnan Alwatban, Fahad Aldakheel, Abdulaziz Alanazi, Nahed Alharthi, Amani F. Alanazi, Arwa F. Alanazi and Faris Q. B. Alenzi

Investigation of lipid production and fatty acid composition in some native microalgae from Agadir region in Morocco

October 2020

Microalgae are a promising alternative source to produce biofuels and bio-products, as they consume carbon dioxide to grow, multiply quickly, and can be cultivated in domestic and industrial wastewater. The efficiency of microalgae-based biodiesel industry depends on the selection of appropriate strains with best lipid content yields and adequate fatty acids composition. The aim of this study was to select a potential...

Author(s): Youssef Mir, Zahra Brakez, Yassine El Alem and Lhoucine Bazzi

DNA isolation and optimization of PCR protocol for ISSR analysis of Girardinia diversifolia: A medicinal and economic plant species from Nepal Himalaya

October 2020

Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis is a perennial herb commonly known as Himalayan giant nettle which belongs to the family Urticaceae. The plant has cultural, medicinal and economic importance. The plant contains high concentration of polysaccharides, polyphenols and secondary metabolites which obstructs the process of isolation of the Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and inhibits downstream Polymerase Chain Reaction...

Author(s): Bijay Raj Subedee, Giri Raj Tripathi and Ram Prasad Chaudhary  

Diversity assessment of vanilla (Vanilla species) accessions in selected counties of Kenya using simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers

October 2020

Diversity assessment of vanilla (Vanilla species) in Kenya is a key strategy for germplasm conservation and improvement. Production of vanilla crop in Kenya is limited due to inadequate knowledge on genetic diversity. This study was carried out to characterize 76 vanilla accessions from five counties of Kenya using 14 microsatellite DNA markers. POPGENE version 1.32 was used to compute variety factors. Amplicons ranged...

Author(s): Leah N. Simiyu, Joseph N. Wolukau and Maurice E. Oyoo

Genetic progresses from over four decades of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, Poaceaea family] breeding in Ethiopia

October 2020

Information on genetic progress achieved over time from a breeding program is absolutely essential to develop effective and efficient breeding strategies. Thirty-seven improved lowland sorghum varieties released between 1976 and 2016 and promising advanced lines were evaluated to estimate the genetic progresses made in 40 years of sorghum breeding in Ethiopia. The study was conducted at 2 environments during 2018...

Author(s): Tsegaye Gebremariam Gebregiorg, Taye Tadesse, Amare Seyoum and Hussein Mohamed

Treatment of mangrove and well contaminated water using activated charcoal from coconut shell in Douala, Cameroon

October 2020

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of activated carbon, based on coconut shell, in the treatment of mangrove and well contaminated water from the BONAPRISO district. More precisely, it consisted of preparing the activated carbon, then characterizing the mangrove water and the well water through a manual of sampling procedure; and finally verifying that the activated carbon produced had a...

Author(s): Paul Fabrice Nguema, Boniface Efon, Zakari Mohamadou Mounir, Madeleine Ondoa Manga and Muller Nandou Tenkeu

Advancing adoption of genetically modified crops as food and feed in Africa: The case of Kenya

October 2020

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and Genetic Engineering (GE) technology has been around since mid 1990s. Numerous successful applications of genetically modified (GM) crops have been recorded in different parts of the world. The technology has been adopted steadily in several countries with acreage under GM crops steadily increasing in many cases. Socio-economic studies show GMO adoption result in improved...

Author(s): Benard Oloo, Karim Maredia and Ruth Mbabazi

In vitro efficacy of two microbial strains and physicochemical effects on their aflatoxin decontamination in poultry feeds

September 2020

The efficacy of two microbial isolates, Bacillus spp. (B285) and Saccharomyces spp. yeast strain (Y833), in reducing aflatoxin concentration in poultry feeds in comparison with the commonly used commercial chemical binder, bentonite, was investigated using the VICAM ® fluorometer. The influence of the poultry feed matrix, pH (4.5 and 6.5), and temperature (room temperature, 37 and 42ºC) on the aflatoxin...

Author(s): Zakia Tebetyo, Paul Bogere, Margaret Mary Nabulime, Archileo N. Kaaya, Benoit Gnonlonfin, Mohammed Ntale and Jesca Lukanga Nakavuma,  

Phenotypic and genetic characterization of selected Kenyan groundnut (Arachis hypongaea L.) varieties

September 2020

Groundnuts are among the principle economic oilseed largely cultivated in warm regions of Kenya and contribute to domestic food security and cash revenue. The study aimed at evaluating genetic diversity and phenotypic characterization of groundnut varieties grown in some parts of Kenya. Six varieties (ICG83708, ICGV99568, CG7, ICGV12991, RV and Chalimbana) obtained from KALRO (Kakamega) based on quality traits. Seeds...

Author(s): Michael Mumbe Wanjira, Mathew Piero Ngugi and Wilton Mbinda  

Evaluation of sugar beet monogerm O-type lines for salinity tolerance at vegetative stage

September 2020

Increased production of sugar beet under rainfed conditions on saline–sodic soils in the Iranian areas highlights the importance of salt tolerant varieties. Screening of genotypes for salinity tolerance is difficult in field due to heterogeneity of physical and chemical properties of soil. In order to evaluate the salinity tolerance of 21 sugar beet monogerm O-types lines, a pot experiment was conducted using a...

Author(s): Zahra Abbasi  

Diversity and genetic structure in natural populations of Croton linearifolius (Euphorbiaceae) based on molecular markers

September 2020

Croton linearifolius Mull. Arg, an endemic species of Brazil, has insecticidal activity proven. To the detriment of its importance as a natural resource, the studies of this species are incipient, as well as the strategies applied to its management and conservation. The diversity and genetic structure in 61 individuals of C. linearifolius collected in the National Forest Contendas do Sincorá (NFCS) were...

Author(s): Thalana Souza Santos Silva, Janaína Silva Freitas, Elisa Susilene Lisboa dos Santos, and Carlos Bernard Moreno Cerqueira-Silva,  

Evaluation of different fungi and bacteria strains for production of cellulases by submerged fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as carbon source: Effect of substrate concentration and cultivation temperature

September 2020

Cellulases (enzymes of great potential in biotechnology) are currently of interest due to their applicability in the hydrolysis of cellulose from lignocellulosic materials, producing fermentable sugars for alcohol production. The great demand for efficient enzymes is the driving force to prospect new cellulases-producing microorganisms, as well as to optimize the enzyme production step. Many variables can be optimized...

Author(s): Laura M. Pinotti, Larissa B. Paulino, Jacyele C. Agnezi, Patrícia A. dos Santos, Henrique N. L. da Silva, Julio P. Zavarise, Gabriella S. B. Salomão and Paulo W. Tardioli  

Spectroscopic and chemical analysis of a Nigerian hybrid Hevea Brasiliensis (Rubber) seed oil for product quality assessment in technical applications

September 2020

Rubber seeds from a Nigerian hybrid rubber tree were dried in an oven at 110°C for 2 h to 7 wt% moisture content and cold-screw pressed at 30°C to obtain an oil yield of 28 wt%. Chemical compositional, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses were conducted on the oil sample extracts. Chemical analysis of the oil indicated iodine value of 136.07 g I2/100 g...

Author(s): Samuel E. Onoji, Sunny E. Iyuke, Anselm I. Igbafe and Michael O. Daramola  

Characterization of Kenyan French Bean genotypes into gene pool affiliations using allele specific markers

September 2020

French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a major export crop in Kenya where it serves as a cash crop for smallholder farmers and a source of employment. However, there is limited information on characterization of available germplasm which is essential in genetic improvement of this crop. The present study was therefore aimed to identify the gene pool affiliations of Kenyan French bean germplasm using specific molecular...

Author(s): Edith Esther Arunga and Oriama Shadrack Odikara  

Exploring differentially expressed genes of microspore embryogenesis under heat stress in sweet pepper

September 2020

Stress is considered to be the inducer of microspore embyogenesis (ME), and heat stress is indispensible in the ME of sweet pepper. The aim of the study was to explore differentially expressed genes of microspore embryogenesis under heat stress in sweet pepper. The swollen rate of microspore was significantly affected by heat stress, while no green plant could be acquired without heat pretreatment. Anthers with or...

Author(s): Yan Cheng, Yansheng Jiao, Ruyi Miao, Ruxia Tian, Yanping Liang and Ning Qiao

Germination studies on seeds of Burkea africana and Erythrophleum africanum from Kazuma Forest Reserve, Northern Botswana

September 2020

Burkea africana and Erythrophleum africanum are characterized by seed coat-imposed dormancy that prevents water entry and gaseous exchange, which are essential for the germination process. The objective of this study was to determine the best possible pre-sowing treatment method that maximizes seed germination of the two species. Seeds of both species were subjected to four experiments, containing 10 levels of presowing...

Author(s): Witness Mojeremane, Kamogelo Makgobota, Demel Teketay, Melusi Rampart, Ronnie Mmolotsi, Ismael Kopong, David Monekwe, Thapoyame Makoi, Joyce Lepetu, Gosiame Neo-Mahupeleng and Kakambi Obusitswe  

Earning trust and building credibility with a new paradigm for effective scientific risk-benefit communication of biotechnology innovations

September 2020

Biotechnology has tremendous potential to transform agriculture and contribute significantly to reduce hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity. Many benefits of biotechnology have been recorded over the years, yet the fears surrounding biotechnology adoption persist in the same measure.  Unfortunately, the reasons for opposition to biotechnology have remained the same over the years. The developing world has...

Author(s): Benard Oloo, Karim Maredia and Ruth Mbabazi  

Characterization of crude invertase extracted from Aspergillus species CSA 35

August 2020

The enzyme invertase is very useful, especially in food industries. Invertase hydrolyzes the disaccharide sucrose into two monosaccharides, glucose and fructose. Invertase was extracted from Aspergillus sp. CSA35, and studied using spectrophotometric methods for enzyme kinetics and determination of other factors affecting enzyme activities such as salt tolerance, pH, temperature and substrate specificity. The invertase...

Author(s): Ohwofasa Aghogho, Aliyu Abubakar Aliyu, Enoch Kwaku Larrey and Ogbodu Ogaga Daniel  

Study of the antibody stimulation potentials of lactobacillus spp isolated from palm wine

August 2020

In this study lactic acid bacteria were investigated for their presence in fresh palm wine and their effects on humoral immunity examined. The bacteria were isolated from fresh palm wine in a tenfold serial dilution. The isolates were purified by repeated subculture on De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar and characterized phenotypically and genotypically. The identified Lactobacillus spp. were investigated for their effects...

Author(s): Eze C. O., Gugu T. H., Evurani S. A., Agbo C. P., Okorie J.E and Oraeluno J.N

Comparative studies between growth regulators and nanoparticles on growth and mitotic index of pea plants under salinity

August 2020

To our knowledge, no research study has been carried out on the effects of ascorbic acid (ASA), 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and Nano selenium (N-Se) on the cytological parameters of pea seedlings under salinity stress. Salinity treatment (60 and 120 mM NaCl) was applied. Two concentrations of ASA (50 and 100 ppm), ALA (25 and 50 ppm), and N-Se (10 and 20 ppm), respectively were used individually and in combination with...

Author(s): Hala G. El-Araby, Sahar F.M. El-Hefnawy, Mohammed A. Nassar and Nabil I. Elsheery  

Molecular identification of indigenous bacteria isolated from pesticides heavily contaminated soils

August 2020

This study was carried out to isolate and identify indigenous bacteria associated with pesticides heavily contaminated soil in Sudan. The samples were collected from pesticides contaminated soil in different locations. The predominant bacterial isolates were then purified by subculturing on selective media. Seven isolates were selected based on their capability to degrade pesticides and three of them having the highest...

Author(s): Abd Elaziz Sulieman Ahmed Ishag, Azhari Omer Abdelbagi, Ahmed Mohammed Ali Hammad, Elsiddig Ahmed Elmustafa Elsheikh, Ismail Ahmed Mohammed and Jang-Hyun Hur  

Comparative study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of a candidate growth gene (IGF-I) in Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon melanotheron

August 2020

In teleost fishes, the regulation of growth performance by the GH and IGF system also seems to be highly conserved. Adult Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) could reach up to 60 cm maximum length while Sarotherodon melanotheron (black chin Tilapia) has a maximum length of 28 cm. This study describes the analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in isolated, amplified, and sequenced DNA from two common Tilapia species...

Author(s): Sokenu, B. A., Oguntade, O. R., Ogunkanmi, L. A., Oketoki, T. O., Ukenye, E. A. and Usman, A. B.  

Natural occurrence of products of cryptic pathway metabolites of pharmacological importance using liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques in date palm fruit, garlic bulb and groundnuts from North-West Nigeria markets

August 2020

Investigation of secondary metabolites from the cryptic metabolic pathways in date palm fruit, garlic bulb and groundnuts from North-West Nigeria was conducted using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results indicated the presence of several compounds which include Valinomycin, asperglaucide, asperphenamate, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Tyr). Cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val), emodin, physcion, integracin A...

Author(s): Lateef Ariyo Adeniran, Toba Samuel Anjorin, Michael Sulyok, Rudolf Krska and Olatunde Peter Ajagbonna  

Genetic characterization of indigenous Tswana pig population using microsatellite markers

August 2020

The indigenous Tswana pig is currently listed as an endangered animal genetic resource and if not conserved, might go extinct. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity (genetic characterization) of the indigenous Tswana pig population. Blood samples were collected from 30 randomly selected Tswana pigs in Kgatleng and South-East districts of Botswana for the assessment of genetic diversity using a...

Author(s): Mosweu Nicodemus, Thutwa Ketshephaone, Nsoso Shalaulani James and Kgwatalala Patrick Monametsi  

Wolbachia infected anthropophilic mosquitoes in The Gambia are not infected with filarial nematode

August 2020

Wuchereria bancrofti has been reported to cause 90% of all cases of lymphatic filariasis in Africa. wolbachia endosymbiot infect a wide range of insects and nematodes. This study was conducted in 48 settlements (8 from each division). A total of 2003 mosquitoes was pooled into 120 clusters from the 48 settlements in The Gambia. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of Wolbachia and filarial...

Author(s): S. Sanneh, A. Kargbo, M. E. Entonu, Y. K. E. Ibrahim and S. Nasiru

Molecular epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Central River Region of The Gambia

August 2020

Schistosomiasis is the second most prevalent tropical parasitic disease after malaria, and one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries especially in Africa. This study was carried out among students, farmers and fishermen/women from four villages in the Central River Region of The Gambia. The aim of this study was to show the prevalence value of schistosomiasis in Central River Region of...

Author(s): A. Mendy, A. Kargbo, Y. K. E. Ibrahim, M. E. Entonu and T. T. Gbem,  

A survey of the aflatoxin level and molecular identification of fungal contaminants in poultry feed mills from different geopolitical zones of Nigeria

August 2020

Aflatoxin contamination of poultry feeds in Nigeria is a common problem in most feed mills. A survey on the distribution of aflatoxin in feed mills from different parts of Nigeria was carried out. The aflatoxin concentration in most feed mills from the North-western part of Nigeria was low compared to the concentration in the feed mills from the South-eastern part. The total aflatoxin level in three feed mills (B, C and...

Author(s): Anthony C. Mgbeahuruike, Emmanuela I. Nwoko and Onwumere O. S. Idolor  

Analysis of genetic diversity in four Sudanese provenances of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker

July 2020

Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. (Heglig) is a multipurpose tree with considerable potential. The wide range of environments under which it is growing suggests high pattern of variation among and within locations. The scrutiny was undertaken to assess genetic diversity among and within four geographical genotypes of Heglig growing naturally in four different regions of Sudan based on their seed performance using random...

Author(s): Sawsan A. B. Freigoun, Tahani Y. Elagib and Elamin Y. A. Raddad  

Yield coefficient for the growth of Pseudomonas sp. AQ5-04 at various concentrations of phenol

July 2020

Phenol is widely used by many industries in Malaysia, and is one of the highly toxic environmental pollutants with levels exceeding the regulatory standard that have been reported in Malaysia. A phenol-degrading bacterium; Pseudomonas sp. AQ5-04, a metabolically versatile xenobiotic-degrading bacterium, has been isolated from a local contaminated site. The bacterium was able to withstand a high concentration of phenol....

Author(s): Aisami A., Usman M.M., Siddan A.A., Ramlatu M.A., James I.J., Garba L., Yasid N.A. and Shukor M.Y.

Genetic diversity of Faidherbia albida populations in the Sudano Sahelian region of Cameroon, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers

July 2020

Faidherbia albida (DEL.) A. Chev is widely grown in the northern region of Cameroon because of its many benefits to local communities. However, droughts and deforestation have led to decreases in the abundance of this species, increasing the need to identify improved genotypes for conservation, management, and breeding. The genetic diversity of F. albida in nine populations from the Sudano-Sahelian region of northern...

Author(s): T. Dorothy Tchatchoua, R. Scott Poethig, Erin Doody, T. Casey Weathers, Krystle Swartz, Iain Mathieson, Nicole Zembower, Tetyana Zhebentyayeva and John E. Carlson  

Readiness of the Nigerian public for the introduction of genetically modified crops into the food market

July 2020

Genetically modified crops (GM crops) have gained wide attention over the years some GM crops have been undergoing field trials in Nigeria, but they have not proceeded to commercial cultivation due to the absence of regulatory law. The biosafety act was passed into law in 2015 and the presence of this law, can see to the progression of the GM crops from field trials to commercialization. This study investigated the...

Author(s): Oluwakemi H. Oladipo, Rauf R. Ibrahim, Seyi E. Adeboye and Harry Kuiper

Genetic diversity analysis among soybean genotypes using SSR markers in Uganda

July 2020

The assessment of genetic diversity among improved crop germplasm can facilitate the expansion of the genetic base for crop improvement in breeding program. However, little effort has been made to assess the level of genetic relatedness among released varieties and elite soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes. The objective of this study was to determine the degree of genetic diversity that exists among released and...

Author(s): Clever Mukuze, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Mcebisi Maphosa, Shorai Dari, Isaac Onziga Dramadri, Tonny Obua, Hellen Kongai and Patrick Rubaihayo  

Evaluation of poultry waste medium and light quality for lipid accumulation in fresh water green microalgae isolate

July 2020

The global quest for production of biofuel at a competitive price with fossil fuel has driven research to the exploration of organic waste as a cost-effective growth medium for microalgal biodiesel production. In this study, poultry waste extract (PWE) was explored as growth medium for efficient biomass and some intracellular content accumulation by Chlorella sp. isolate for eight days. The analysis of the poultry waste...

Author(s): Brameta Pamella Ifeoma and Eze, Chijioke Nwoye  

Next generation sequencing as a method to verify virus elimination using heat treatment and meristem tip culture in the five most widely used sweet potato varieties in Ethiopia

July 2020

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has become one of the staple crops in Africa in the last 20 years. In Ethiopia, sweet potato is the second most widely grown root crop and is the first regarding the production per hectare. Thus, there is a great demand of planting material throughout the country. Currently, planting material is usually obtained from own previous season harvest, local markets or from the neighboring...

Author(s): Dereje H. Buko, Carl Spetz and A. K. Hvoslef-Eide  

Stabilisation potentials of the essential oils of Thymus vulgaris L., Cinnamomum zeylanicum B. and Mentha piperita L. on palm olein at accelerated storage

July 2020

This study aims at bringing to light the preservative potential of essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Mentha piperita in the stabilisation of lipids against oxidation. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and chemical composition were analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. In vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oils were tested by the 2,...

Author(s): Wilson Agwanande Ambindei, Pierre Michel Dongmo Jazet, Leopold Ngoune Tatsadjieu, Priya P. and Nisha P.  

Response of catalase to drought in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings and its purification

July 2020

Drought induced oxidative stress triggers anti-oxidative system in cell to minimize oxidative damage where catalase plays vital role to neutralize H2O2. In this work, catalase activity was evaluated to examine the role of catalase in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings under drought stress. As compared to control, catalase activity increased with decreasing soil moisture where 219% higher activity were recorded at 10%...

Author(s): Md. Motiar Rohman, Sadia Sabrina Alam, Afsana Hoque Akhi, Ferdousi Begum and Mohammad Amiruzzaman

Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and soils potential infectivity of Vachellia nilotica (L.) P.J.H. Hurter & Mabb. rhizosphere in Senegalese salt-affected soils

July 2020

Vachellia nilotica, a multipurpose tree useful to rural populations, is often used to rehabilitate Senegalese salt-affected soils due to its salt-tolerance probably related to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) symbiosis. This work aimed to determine the AMF communities associated with V. nilotica rhizosphere in salt-affected soils and their potential infectivity. Soils were sampled from six sites in the...

Author(s): Samba-Mbaye, R. T.,, Anoir, C. M.,, Diouf, D.,, Kane, A.,, Diop, I., Assigbete, K., Tendeng, P., and Sylla, S. N.,

Cytotoxic effects of some essential oils on Mcf-7, Hfs and Hct116 cell lines

June 2020

This study investigates the chemical composition and cytotoxic effects of three essential oils of rosemary, lemon and orange, as well as its effects on breast cancer (MCF-7), human foreskin fibroblasts (HFS) and colorectal carcinoma (HCT116) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods, leading to identification of a different compound by GC-MS. Eicosapentaenoic acid (13.79%) and heptatriacotanol (13.79%)...

Author(s): Nehad A. Shaer, Nouf  S. Al-Abbas, Amal A. Mohamed, and  Mehal A. Alqriqri  

Assessment of genetic diversity among cassava landraces using single nucleotide polymorphic markers

June 2020

This study seeks to determine the genetic diversity among cassava landraces using single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers. One hundred and five cassava landraces were assayed with 195 SNP markers. Major allele frequency varied from 0.500 to 0.942 with an average of 0.728. Average gene diversity, heterozygosity and polymorphic information content (PIC) were 0.359, 0.314 and 0.286 respectively. These values were...

Author(s): Ruth Naa Ashiokai Prempeh, Joseph Akwasi Manu-Aduening, Marian Dorcas Quain, Isaac Kwasi Asante, Samuel Kwasi Offei and Eric Yirenkyi Danquah  

Potential applications of enzymes on the extraction of vitexin from dried Mas Cotek leaves

June 2020

Mas Cotek or Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea leaves extracts contain various beneficial properties such as antidiabetic, antihypoglycemic and antioxidant activities, which can be enzymatically extracted in water. Vitexin is one of the antioxidants and remarkable compound of flavone C-glycosides found in Mas Cotek leaves. Cellulase is one of the essential enzymes applied to hydrolyze cellulose into fermentable sugars and...

Author(s): N. Alim, A. Naila, A. Ajit, A. Z. Sulaiman and M. N. Che Isa

TetraSOD® activates the antioxidant response pathway in human cells: An in vitro approach

June 2020

The combined action of both endogenous and exogenous factors stimulates the production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. They are neutralized by an elaborate antioxidant defense system, superoxide dismutase (SOD) being the first line of enzymes involved in ROS scavenging. However, when ROS production cannot be counteracted by cellular antioxidant mechanisms oxidative stress happens, inducing...

Author(s): Pilar Ramírez, Sonia Torres, Carmen Lama, Lalia Mantecón, Carlos Unamunzaga and Carlos Infante  

Lactic acid bacteria fermentation of coconut milk and its effect on the nutritional, phytochemical, antibacterial and sensory properties of virgin coconut oil produced

June 2020

Coconut oil has profound health benefits but the high content of fatty acids is a concern to many consumers, as several processing methods have failed to produce oil with considerable change in fatty acid content. In this study, selected lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Enterococcus faecium were used to ferment coconut milk for production of...

Author(s): Olateru Comfort T., Popoola Bukola M., Alagbe Gbolahan O. and Ajao Omobayonle  

Comparison and optimization for DNA extraction of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

June 2020

The extraction of high-quality DNA from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) is notoriously troublesome due to the high contents of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and different secondary metabolites. We have tested seven extraction buffers on silica dried okra leaves. Here, we describe a simple, rapid and modified procedure for high-quality DNA extraction from okra, which is amenable for downstream analyses. In...

Author(s): Letebrhan Kidane, Marie Kalousova and Hewan Demissie

Selection for and biochemical characterization of DDT resistance in laboratory strains of Anopheles arabiensis

June 2020

Resistance to conventional insecticides still constitutes a major obstacle to control of malaria vectors. Xenobiotic pollutants encountered by aquatic stages of natural populations of malarial vector species in agricultural and domestic environment are often selected due to resistance to various insecticides. The Laboratory Matatuine (MAT) and Kayamba (KGB) strains of Anopheles arabiensis were subjected to controlled...

Author(s): Yayo A. M., Ado A., Safiyanu M. and Hemingway J.  

Optimization of plant growth regulators for meristem initiation and subsequent multiplication of five virus tested elite sweet potato varieties from Ethiopia

June 2020

Vegetatively propagated crops are exposed to pests every growing season, providing them with the opportunity to feed on the plants and transmit diseases. Meristem culture is an important method to clean for viruses to restore high yields. Media optimizations with different concentrations and combinations of 6-benzylamino purine (BAP) and Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) were tested for their effects on shoot initiation...

Author(s): Dereje H. Buko, and Trine A. K. Hvoslef-Eide  

Sub-acute and chronic toxicity of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Azadirachta indica extract

June 2020

In this study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and its toxicity were investigated. Different functional groups responsible for adsorption, morphology and absorption of the nanoparticle were characterized using UV-Vis, Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses, respectively. The toxicity of orally administered Azadirachta indica AgNPs was assessed in...

Author(s): Emma Nghilokwa, Judith Sokei, Peter Mwitari and Naomi Maina

Responses of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) associated with variable plant density stress applied at different phenological stages: Plasticity or elasticity?

June 2020

The study evaluated developmental responses associated with plant population density stress applied at different phenological phases and effects on grain yield in determinate and indeterminate soybean (Glycine max L.). A split-split plot design with four replications, with variety (main plot), plant density (sub plot) and thinning time (sub-subplot) was adopted. Two determinate genotypes (Lukanga and SC Semeki) and an...

Author(s): Noah Manda and Mebelo Mataa  

HPTLC fingerprint profiles and UPLC-MS identification of potential antioxidant fractions and compounds from Ambrosia maritima L. and Ammi majus L.

May 2020

This study aimed to develop HPTLC fingerprint profile and identification of antioxidant molecules from active extract and fractions of Ambrosia maritima and Ammi majus using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS). The antioxidant activity evaluated by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) method and HPTLC fingerprinting were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with...

Author(s): Nazik Salih Mohamed, Mona Salih Mohamed, Ramzi Ahmed Mothana, Wadah Jamal Osman and Hassan Subky Khalid  

Diallel analysis for the inheritance study of phytic acid along with morpho-yield traits in bread wheat

May 2020

In the kernels of wheat, a macro molecule called phytic acid acts as an inhibitor of nutrients. Phytic acid in high concentration is undesirable as it hinders the absoption of other molecules. Regression analysis, the model of additive-dominance and Hotelling’s t2 test were adequate for biological yield, grains spike-1 and phytic acid, while partially adequate results were found for grain yield and 1000-grain...

Author(s): Ijaz Ahmad, Fida Mohammad, Sultan Akber Jadoon, Aurang Zeb, Fazal Munsif and Wiqar Ahmad  

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