African Journal of
Biochemistry Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biochem. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0778
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJBR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 381

AJBR Articles

January 2008

Allethrin-induced biochemical changes and properties of human erythrocyte membrane

Erythrocyte membranes from twelve human volunteers exposed regularly to allethrin, a mosquito repellent of type-I pyrethroid, were analyzed for cholesterol (C), phospholipids (P), and individual phospholipid classes to assess changes induced by this toxicant. A decrease in C and P moieties with no change in C: P ratio was observed with allethrin exposure. A significant reduction in the amount of phosphotidyl serine (PS)...

Author(s): Narendra M., Kavitha G., Padmavathi P., Helah Kiranmai A. and Varadacharyulu N. C.

  • Article Number: A39CF9B9208

January 2008

Aeration as a factor in textile dye bioremoval by Aspergillus niger

Experiments were done to study the bioremoval/ biosorption of dis-azo dye byAspergillus niger strain 20 in two concentrations using 5 liter bioreactor at five aeration rates. The experimental results are compared for various operating conditions. The dye used was direct brown and the inlet air flow rate was: 1/8, ¼, ½, 1, 2 v/v/min. The aeration rate of ½ v/v/min yielded 9.2 g fungal...

Author(s): Wafaa M. Abd El-Rahim, Ola Ahmed M. El-Ardy and Hassan Moawad

  • Article Number: B9C21A89221

December 2007

Status of the levels of lead and selected trace elements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Abeokuta, Nigeria

      The study investigated the status of lead and selected mineral elements (copper, zinc and chromium) in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients, so as to establish the possible interactive connections of these metals with the disease and with each other in diabetic patients. Thirty-one patients (15 male and 16 female), clinically diagnosed for...

Author(s): Babalola O. O, Ojo L. O and Akinleye A.O

  • Article Number: 91692679859

December 2007

Molecular studies on the immobility of genomic construction in the random mating population

      Random population studies are very important to estimate the environmental factors in nutritional, physiological and breeding experiments. Studying the quantitative traits, consisting of genetic, environmental factors and interaction between them is very important as well. In a random population study, the genetic variation for 50 chicken individuals...

Author(s): A.E.Elkomy, Hanan.H.Ghanem and Elsayed E. Hafez

  • Article Number: 126C82F9869

December 2007

Phenolic content and phospholipids peroxidation inhibition by methanolic extracts of two medicinal plants: Elionurus muticus and Hypoxis hemerocallidea

      Two commonly known medicinal plants from Zimbabwe were analyzed for total phenolic content, superoxide radical scavenging activity and the ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation in rat brain extracts. The plant samples used in this study were Elionurus muticus and Hypoxis hemerocallidea. The Folin Ciocalteu method was used to determine the...

Author(s): Dzingirai, B. , Muchuweti, M , Murenje, T., Chidewe, C., Benhura, M.A.N and Chagonda, L. S.

  • Article Number: 585BEBB9882

December 2007

Determination of the glycemic index of steamed cakes using two different legumes 'bambara nut (Vigna subterranean) and cowpea (Vigina unguiculata)'

  This study was carried out to determine the blood glucose response and glycemic index of food for diabetics and non-diabetics. The subjects comprised of 10 diabetics and 7 non-diabetics. The results of the physical characteristics showed that the diabetic subjects were on the average older (age bracket between 51 and 70years) than the non-diabetics (18 and 23years). The Body mass index (BMI) values indicated...

Author(s): Onimawo I. A., Ijeh I., Ukoha U. and Nwachukwu G. T.

  • Article Number: 28A55F29886

December 2007

Influence of Cassia auriculata flowers on insulin receptors in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats: studies on insulin binding to erythrocytes

  In this paper, we investigated the insulin-receptor-binding effect of Cassia auriculata flower extract (CFEt) in streptozotocin induced male wistar rats, using circulating erythrocytes as a model system. We measured the levels of plasma glucose and plasma insulin and the binding of insulin to cell-membrane erythrocyte receptors (ER) in CFEt and glibenclamide treated diabetic rats. The mean specific...

Author(s): L. Pari , P. Murugan and C. Appa Rao

  • Article Number: 34FB87C9902

December 2007

Evaluation of biochemical indices of male rat reproductive function and testicular histology in wistar rats following chronic administration of aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Heirn) stem

  The effects of administration of aqueous extracts of Fadogia agrestis stem for 28 days and the 10 days post treatment effects on biochemical indices of reproductive function and testicular histology were evaluated in male albino rats. The rats were randomly selected into four study groups, A, B, C and D of 10 rats per group. Animals in group A (control) received 1 ml of distilled water (vehicle),...

Author(s): Yakubu, M. T., Oladiji, A. T. and Akanji, M. A.

  • Article Number: 6C81B689909

November 2007

Lavudine therapy and hepatotoxicity as seen in a Nigerian tertiary antiretroviral treatment centre

      Hepatic toxicity is a common complication of anti-retroviral treatment in HIV patients, usually indicated or heralded by the elevation of liver transaminases measured in the blood. There had been reported evidence of hepatic toxicity in all the three currently approved classes of anti-retroviral drugs. However, its severity in some cases...

Author(s): Akande A.A, Olaosebikan O.F, Jimoh A.K, Abdulazeez, Olawumi H.O

  • Article Number: 5DBBB069800

November 2007

Quantitation of alcohols in orange wine fermented by four strains of yeast

  Gas liquid chromatography was used to identify the types of alcohol present in wines produced by fermenting orange juice with four strains of yeast; Saccharomyces cerevisiae (isolated from yam), S. cerevisiae (from sugarcane molasses),Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (from sugarcane molasses) and S. cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus (from orange juice). Ethanol and methanol were the...

Author(s): Okunowo, Wahab Oluwanisola and Osuntoki, Akinniyi Adediran

  • Article Number: 31BF88F9810

November 2007

Effect of Emblica officinalis against alcohol-induced biochemical changes in plasma and red blood cells of rats

  Alcohol is widely abused as a psychoactive drug. Emblica officinalis is known for its therapeutic effects and the present study is aimed at investigating therapeutic efficacy of aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis (AEEO) against alcohol-induced damage. Thirty three percent (v/v) alcohol (10 g/kg body weight) and AEEO (250 mg/kg body weight/day) was orally administered once a day for 60...

Author(s): Damodara Reddy. V, Saayi Krushna G, Padmavathi. P and Varadacharyulu. N.Ch

  • Article Number: D52468A9819

November 2007

Biochemical characterization of two α -mannosidases from breadfruit (Artocarpus communis) seeds

  The importance of α -mannosidases in glycoproteins processing and their application in food and pharmaceutical industry led us to further explore plant α -mannosidases. Thus, two α -mannosidases were purified from matured breadfruit (Artocarpus communis) seeds, by successive chromatography on Diethylaminoethyl-Sepharose CL-6B and Sephacryl S-200 HR to apparent...

Author(s): Amedée Pascal Ahi, Jean Tia Gonnety, Betty Meuwiah Faulet, Lucien Patrice Kouamé and Sébastien Niamké.

  • Article Number: CAC75479830

November 2007

Protective effect of betaine on changes in the levels of protein, glycoproteins and amino acids in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats

      The protective effect of betaine administration on changes in the levels of protein, glycoproteins and amino acids was studied in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats as an animal model of myocardial infarction in man. Oral pre-treatment with betaine significantly (P<0.05) attenuated the isoprenaline-induced rise in the levels of troponin-T...

Author(s): B. Ganesan, R. Rajesh, , R. Anandan , and N. Dhandapani,

  • Article Number: 5698B059836

November 2007

Garcinia kola extract reduced cisplatin-induced kidney dysfunction in rats

  The effect of Garcinia kola extract on cisplatin-induced renal insufficiency in rats was studied. A total of fifteen rats were used for the study and were split into three groups of five rats per group. Rats in group I were normal controls. Renal insufficiency was induced in rats of groups II and III by a single intraperitoneal administration of cisplatin (5 mg/kg b.w.). After three days, rats in...

Author(s): Okoko Tebekeme and Awhin Ejiro Prosper

  • Article Number: 14F9A3F9844

October 2007

Impact of processing technique on the apparent bioavailability of cooking banana (matooke) starch

  The aim of the study was to compare the apparent bioavailability of starch in raw, cooked and extruded matooke flours using weanling mice. Two control and three test groups consisting of seven mice each (initial body weight of 21.32 ± 1.05 g) were fed diets incorporating soluble unavailable starch (Control I), soluble starch (Control II) and raw, cooked and extruded matooke flours as carbohydrate...

Author(s): Florence Isabirye Muranga, Harini Sampath, Judith A. Marlett and James M. Ntambi,

  • Article Number: 7229DFE9764

October 2007

N-nitrosodimethylamine induced changes in the activities of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in the liver of male mice: role of glutathione and gossypol as antioxidants

  The importance of nutrition in protecting living organisms from the toxic effects of environmental carcinogens has attracted the attention of many researchers. In order to exert their toxic and/or carcinogenic effects, most carcinogens need to be activated primarily by phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes including; cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), N-nitroso-dimethylamine...

Author(s): Sheweita S. A., Mousa N. and Newairy A. A.

  • Article Number: 0F91EF89774

October 2007

Biochemical assessment of the effects of crude oil contaminated catfish (Clarias gariepinus) on the hepatocytes and performance of rat

      Biochemical investigations were carried out to assess the effect of consumption of crude oil contaminated catfish on the hepatocytes and performance of rat. Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) (n = 120) were grouped into 6 of 20 catfish each and held for 30 h in 5 different mixtures of crude oil polluted water (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% v/v). Catfish in the...

Author(s): T. O. Sunmonu and O. B. Oloyede

  • Article Number: 030B4719783

September 2007

Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of optimized and traditional shea butters from Côte d’Ivoire

  A comparison was realized between the characteristics of shea butters from local markets in Côte d’Ivoire and optimized shea butters, manufactured in a laboratory, in order to valuate the improvements in quality. Large diversity concerning the colour (beige, grey and yellow), odour (odourless, moderate, fragrant and rancid) and the consistency (soft and hard) was found for the ordinary shea butter...

Author(s): Rose-Monde Megnanou , Sébastien Niamke and Jacques Diopoh

  • Article Number: 4B7B7C09723

September 2007

Sickle-cell anaemia in Nigeria: dermatoglyphic analysis of 90 cases

  Dermatoglyphic analysis of 90 Sickle-cell Anaemia cases and 90 normal subjects was carried out in this study.  It involved the digital patterns, ATD angle, A – B ridge count, axial triradius, digital triradius and palmar crease on the hands. 58.44% of the digital patterns in sickle-cell cases were ulnar loop as against 60.14% in the normals. The percentage of Whorl, arch and radial loop in...

Author(s): Oladipo GS, Olabiyi O, Oremosu AA, Noronha CC, Okanlawon AO and Paul CU.

  • Article Number: F968AD19737

September 2007

Xylanase production by Penicillium chrysogenum (PCL501) fermented on cellulosic wastes

  Xylanase production by Penicillium chrysogenum PCL501, newly isolated from wood-wastes, was monitored at 24 h intervals for a period 168 h in media containing four different carbon sources (oat-spelt xylan, wheat bran, sawdust, and sugarcane pulp). The highest xylanase activity of 6.47 Units mL-1 was obtained at 96 h in media containing wheat bran whereas media containing sugarcane pulp gave a...

Author(s): Okafor, U. A., Emezue, T. N., Okochi, V. I. , Onyegeme-Okerenta, B. M.  and Nwodo-Chinedu, S. 

  • Article Number: AD0DF299733

September 2007

Biological responses of injured human skin fibroblasts to assess the efficacy of in vitro models for cell stress studies

  The classical central scratch method has been used to successfully induce a wound environment however this model has been criticized. This study aimed to compare the cellular responses of normal fibroblast cells with those of wounded, diabetic wounded, acidic and hypoxic cells to determine if the latter two models are more effective in inducing an injured environment than the central scratch method. The...

Author(s): Innocent Lutho Zungu, Denise Hawkins Evans, Nicolette Houreld and Heidi Abrahamse

  • Article Number: EA8EAC49751

August 2007

Suppression-subtractive hybridization: A rapid and inexpensive detection methodology for up-regulated Perkinsus olseni genes

  A cDNA forward subtraction library was constructed from the mollusc parasite Perkinsus olseni exposed to hemolymph from its natural host, the clam Ruditapes decussatus, and two different methodologies were used to unravel different non-redundant contigs. Our results demonstrated that screening of the non-enriched direct cDNA subtractive library (Dfsl) was the most efficient and least time-...

Author(s): Ascenso R. M. T., Leite R. B., Afonso R., Cancela M. L.

  • Article Number: 22BEAF69691

August 2007

Analysis of phenolic compounds in Ugandan sweet potato varieties (NSP, SPK AND TZ)

      Sweet potato varieties: Nsp, Tz and Spk obtained from Uganda were used in this study. Several phenolic compounds were identified on the basis of their mass spectra in full scan mode and the pattern of their fragmentation. The major compounds found were caffeoylquinic acid, dicaffeoylquinic acid, coumaroylquinic acid,...

Author(s): Agnes M. Nandutu, Mike Clifford and Nazlin K. Howell

  • Article Number: 1721B739694

August 2007

Altered plasma hexose sugar metabolism in sickle cell anaemia

  Theoretical suggestion that the metabolism and plasma levels of some hexoses (glucose and fructose) in sickle cell anaemia could be altered was investigated.  The levels were determined for 35 normal (HbAA) and for the three sickle cell states (32 HbAS; 35 HbSS, and 33 HbSS-in-crisis, HbSSc). The enzymatic glucose-oxidase method was employed in glucose estimation. The reaction of fructose with...

Author(s): Chidi G. Osuagwu and Chika U. Mbeyi

  • Article Number: F653AB79706

July 2007

Numerical simulation of the internal vibrations of COOH group in amino-salicylic acids

  Our present work reports the IR spectra of amino substituted salicylic acids recorded by FTIR spectrometer and also simulated theoretically. The simulation was performed using GF matrix and AM1, PM3, DFT method. In this work, the following steps were taken: optimizing the geometry, computing the IR spectra and comparing it with experimental spectra. Assuming Cspoint symmetry, vibrational assignments for the...

Author(s):   Y. P. Singh, Ratnesh Das and R. A. Singh    

  • Article Number: B57A87C9671

July 2007

Removal of iron, zinc and magnesium from polluted water samples using thioglycolic modified oil-palm fibre

  Various kinds of agro and wood based fibres can be used to filter both trace and heavy metals from contaminated solutions. The efficacy of thioglycolic acid treated oil-palm fibre was investigated in this study. The result showed maximum absorptions (at pH = 6) of 83.6, 75.6 and 50.8% for Fe++, Zn++ and Mg++ respectively in the Southern Point (SP) samples. Similarly, 79.1, 78.3 and 77.5% for Fe++,...

Author(s): J. O. Akaninwor, M. O. Wegwu and I. U. Iba

  • Article Number: 2269D6D9659

July 2007

Some valuable fatty acids exposed from wedge clam Donax cuneatus (Linnaeus)

  The fatty acid composition of the wedge clam Donax cuneatus collected from the sandy beach of Cuddalore (southeast coast of India) was determined. In the analysis, the fatty acid profile by gas chromatography revealed the presence of higher amount of saturated fatty acids (35.28%) than mono (12.71%) and polyunsaturated (11.72%) fatty acids. Among the saturated fatty acids, the stearic acid...

Author(s): Annaian Shanmugam, Chendur Palpandi and Subramanium Sambasivam

  • Article Number: 60791CA9667

June 2007

Occurrence of malondialdehyde and N- nitrosamines and their precursors in some Nigerian ice creams, yogurts, meat and fish species

  The malondialdehyde (a deleterious by-product of lipid peroxidation) and N-nitrosamines and their precursors (nitrate and nitrite) content of seven (7) and three (3) brands of Nigerian yogurts and ice-creams respectively as well as that of some meat and fish samples were determined using chemical methods. Malondialdehyde and nitrite were estimated spectrophotometrically, nitrate after reduction to nitrite...

Author(s): Okafor, P. N, Nwosu, O, Chukwu, J, Agbayi, J and Maduagwu, E. N

  • Article Number: 08041929637

June 2007

Effect of carbon sources on cellulase (EC 3. 2. 1. 4) production by Penicillium chrysogenum PCL501

  The effects of glucose, crystalline cellulose and sawdust of Mitragyna cilata on the growth and cellulase production, inferred from cellulase (EC 3. 2. 1. 4) activity, of Penicillium chrysogenum PCL501 was determined. Glucose-containing media gave the highest mycelia weight of 1.78 mg mL-1 in 120 h of incubation. This is about 3.5 – 4.5 times the maximum weights of 0.51 and 0.40...

Author(s): Nwodo-Chinedu, S., Okochi, V. I., Smith, H. A., Okafor, U. A., Onyegeme-Okerenta, B. M. and Omidiji, O. 

  • Article Number: 305F2809646

May 2007

Effect of aerobic pre-treatment on production of hydrolases and volatile fatty acids during anaerobic digestion of solid sisal leaf decortications residues

  The effect of aerobic pretreatment on the production of hydrolases and volatile fatty acids during anaerobic digestion of solid sisal decortications leaf residue (SLDR) was investigated. Batch solid waste bioreactors with working volume of 2 litres were used in this study.  Batch loads of aerobically treated or untreated sisal leaf residue inoculated with activated sludge mixed culture were packed into...

Author(s): Anthony Manoni Mshandete, Lovisa Björnsson, Amelia Kajumulo Kivaisi, Mugassa Steven Thomas Rubindamayugi and Bo Mattiasson

  • Article Number: 66ED38810047

April 2007

Oxidative injury and enzymic antioxidant misbalance in schizophrenics with positive, negative and cognitive symptoms

  With its hallucinations, delusions, thought disorder, and cognitive deficits, schizophrenia affects the most basic human processes of perception, emotion, and judgment. Evidence increasingly suggests that schizophrenia is a subtle disorder of brain development and plasticity and oxidative injury contributes largely to pathophysiology of schizophrenia, indicated by the increased lipid peroxidation products in...

Author(s): Uma Devi P and Chinnaswamy P

  • Article Number: E5E62B710011

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