African Journal of
Pharmacy and Pharmacology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0816
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPP
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 2125

AJPP Articles

March 2019

Medicines prescribing pattern in northern Ghana: does it comply with WHO recommendations for prescribing indicators?

The prescribing of medicines is critical in the treatment of diseases in general practice. Inappropriate prescribing can negatively influence the goals of treatment, which makes the assessment of the patterns of prescriptions essential. The objective of this study was to assess the medicines prescribing pattern in health facilities in the Northern Ghana, a developing economy in Africa, using the prescribing indicators...

Author(s): Baba Sulemana Mohammed and Salifu Alhassan Tiah  

March 2019

Effect of Maytenus senegalensis roots on OVA-induced airway inflammation in a mouse asthma model

The present work is focused on the evaluation of the Maytenus senegalensis roots effect on bronchial hyperleukocytosis and the search of its antioxidant potential both in vitro and in vivo. The roots of M. senegalensis (Celastraceae) are traditionally used for the treatment of cough and asthma. This study evaluates the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of the roots of M. senegalensis on the bronchial...

Author(s): Pascaline K. Kpoyizoun, Kossi Metowogo, Afiwa Missebukpo, Kwashie Eklu-Gadegbeku, Kodjo A. Aklikokou and Messanvi Gbeassor  

March 2019

Antibacterial resistance modulatory properties of selected medicinal plants from Ghana

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a serious challenge to human and animal health and all efforts are being put together to resolve the menace. In this study the antibiotic resistance modifying activity of ten plants was established by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the plant extracts, the MICs of the antibiotics alone (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline) and...

Author(s): Francis Adu, Yaw Duah Boakye, Christian Agyare, George Henry Sam, Vivian Etsiapa Boamah and Frank Boateng Osei  

February 2019

Endothelium-independent vasorelaxation by dichloromethanolic fraction from Anogeissus leiocarpa (DC) Guill. Et Perr. (Combretaceae) bark of trunk on porcine coronary artery rings: Involvement of [Ca2+]i decreased and phosphodiesterases inhibition

Anogeissus leiocarpa (DC) Guill. et Perr. belongs to the Combretaceae family and was previously named A. leiocarpa (DC) Guill. Et Perr. It has been widely used in Burkina Faso by traditional medicine for the treatment of hypertension. Previous study showed that the dichloromethanolic fraction from the barks of trunk of A. leiocarpa (ALF) has induced an endothelium-independent and endothelium-dependent vasodilation...

Author(s): Belemnaba Lazare, Nitiéma Mathieu, Ouédraogo Sylvin, Auger Cyril, Schini-Kerth Valérie B. and Bernard Bucher  

February 2019

Rats cholestasis instigated by 𝛼-Naphthylisothiocyanate and the impacts of green tea (Camellia sinensis) antioxidant

𝛼-Naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) is known to provoke liver damage with intrahepatic cholestasis. This ANIT is accepted to be important for assessing the effect of medicine instigated cholestasis. This assessment investigated the effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in contrast to that of Vitamin C (VC) against the hepatotoxicity of ANIT. Rats were orally treated with green tea portion (GT50, 75, 100 mg/kg) and CV (250...

Author(s): Wael M. Al-Amoudi  

February 2019

Anti-fertility activity of aqueous root bark extracts of Asparagus africanus Lam and Annona senegalensis Pers combination on female Sprague Dawley rats

Many rural and poor women have now resorted to use of potential medicinal plants as a means of fertility control. Asparagus africanus Lam and Annona senegalensis Pers are some of the plants used for this purpose. The efficacy and safety of many of such plants, however, have not been verified. Therefore, screening for anti-fertility activity of potential medicinal plants, would thus provide alternative safe and...

Author(s): Okidi Oscar P. Okello, Nkwangu David and Joseph Oloro  

February 2019

Good practice guidance to support safe oral medication preparation and administration through feeding tubes

The objective of this work is to elaborate good practice guidance, aimed at preparing and administering drugs through feeding tube. This study was performed at a secondary level hospital in the interior of São Paulo state, Southeast Region of Brazil. For the first phase, a literature review was carried out in the following databases: LILACS, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and MICROMEDEX® Solutions. A manual search...

Author(s): Rosana Aparecida Pereira, Adriano Max Reis, André Aparecido Ramos, Raquel Fernandes, Adriana Cristina Bentlin Canalli, Mayara Carvalho Godinho Rigobello, Ana Paula Gobbo Motta, Fabiana Bolela de Souza and Fernanda Raphael Escobar Gimenes  

January 2019

Modern approach of treatment on destroyable pathogenicity of malaria parasite: A review article

Plasmodium is the malaria parasite that completes the life cycle between two different hosts, such as human and Anopheles mosquito. These parasites go through several developmental stages like exo-erythrocytic stage that is absent in Plasmodium falciparum, so relapses do not occur. The drugs which contain three P’s like proguanil, primaquine, and pyrimethamine kill schizonts in the liver. Due to prolonged...

Author(s): Sourav Das, Sabahuddin Siddique, Ahmed  M Shehata, Mohamed A. Shaker, Mohi Iqbal Mohammed Abdul,  Asis Bala, ,Pallab Mandal, Shubhasis Dan and Anirbandeep Bose  

January 2019

Improving blood pressure control in patients with pseudoresistant hypertension – A pilot randomized trial

This study aims to evaluate the effect of an intervention focused on medication adherence to improve blood at three basic health units in Maceió, Brazil. Patients were followed-up for three months. Primary outcomes were pressure control in patients with pseudoresistant hypertension. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted mean values of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure...

Author(s): Dilcy Morgana Barros Maciel Cabral Davino, Rosileide Zeferino Da Silva, Francisco de Assis Costa, Sabrina Joany Felizardo Neves and Alfredo Dias de Oliveira-Filho  

December 2018

Evaluation of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis use in Ethiopia: Prospective study

Appropriate use of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis can prevent approximately 40 to 60% of surgical site infections. Inappropriate  use  is  associated  with  emergency  of antimicrobial resistance,  occurrence  of  side  effects  and  increased  health  care  cost.  We aimed to evaluate surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis use of Hawassa...

Author(s): Tamrat Legesse, Desta Hiko, Eneb Khelifa Ismael and Sadikalmahdi Hussen Abdella  

December 2018

Preclinical 28 days sub-chronic toxicity study of novel formulation of metoprolol tartrate on albino rats using statistical tool

The experimental study mainly focused on evaluation of sub-chronic oral toxicity of sustained formulation of metoprolol succinate. After the formulation development of multiparticulate sustained release capsules, there was an urgent need to analyze their in vivo bioavailability in healthy normal human volunteers. Prior to use in human population, a subchronic oral toxicity study was performed on Swiss Albino rats, of...

Author(s): Sabahuddin Siddique, Sourav Das, Mohi Iqbal Mohammed Abdul, Syed Ata Ur Rahman, Durdana Lateef, Shubhasis Dan and Anirbandeep Bose  

November 2018

A novel green approach for the treatment of immature Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice with; Arabic gum (Acacia senegal); an antischistosomal agent

Praziquantel (PZQ), the only common schistosocidal drug in use, is not efficacious for treatment of immature schistosomiasis infection. Arabic gum (AG) is a complex polysaccharide that acts as an anti-oxidant which modulates the inflammatory and/or immunological processes. This study explores for the first time, the antischistosomal properties of AG in mice infected with the immature stage of Schistosoma mansoni (S....

Author(s): Rabab Selem, Samia Rashed, Mohammad Younis, Boshra Hussien, Fatma Mohamed, Awatif Edrees, Asmaa EL-kholy, Gehan Rashed, Shereen Kishik, Ahlam Moharm, Marwa Nageeb and Manal Kardoush  

November 2018

Effects of combination therapy of Bridelia ferruginea stem bark and diminazene aceturate on testicular and haematological changes in Trypanosoma brucei infected male rats

The study was done to assess the ameliorative effects of co-administration of methanol extract of Bridelia ferruginea stem bark and diminazene aceturate on trypanosomosis induced testicular and haematological changes in infected male rat. Twenty five male rats were used in the study and assigned into five groups (n=5). Trypanosoma brucei was inoculated into Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 rats except Group 5. Diminazene aceturate...

Author(s): Odo Rita Ifeoma, Ihedioha Thelma Ebele and Ukpai Ebubechi Emmanuel  

November 2018

The protective effects of Vitamin E and glibenclamide on spermatogenic and haematological changes in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats

This study was designed to evaluate the preventive potentials of vitamin E and glibenclamide on spermatogenic and haematological damages in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Thirty mature male albino rats randomly assigned into 5 groups (n=6) were used for the study. Diabetes was experimentally induced in groups 1 to 4 while group 5 rats served as the negative control. Rats in groups 1, 2 and 3 were treated with...

Author(s): R. I. Odo, N. E. Ugwu and S. Akusu  

October 2018

Physician prescription practice of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infection at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre Moshi, Tanzania

Upper respiratory tract infection occurs commonly in both children and adults and is a major cause of morbidity worldwide. Inappropriate antibiotic prescription for upper respiratory tract infections is associated with increasing antibiotic resistance, healthcare costs, adverse events, and poor patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine physician prescription practices of antibiotics for upper...

Author(s): Aisha Mavura, Geofrey N Sigalla, Florida Muro, Rosemary Malya,, Petro P. Nambunga, Noel Sam and Debora C. Kajeguka  

October 2018

Simple bioanalytical method development and validation of micronised Domperidone 20 mg tablets using LCMS-MS and its pharmacokinetic application in Healthy Indian Volunteers

The current investigation deals with an validated Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method for the quantification of micronised domperidone in plasma of human volunteers. The validation of LC-MS/MS method was accomplished by evaluating the inter-day and intra-day precision and accuracy in a linear concentration range of 3.33-100 ng/ml. The entire study was an attempt...

Author(s): Mohi Iqbal Mohammed Abdul, Sabahuddin Siddique, Syed Ata Ur Rahman, Durdana Lateef, Shubhasis Dan and Anirbandeep Bose  

October 2018

Synthesis, characterization, and anticancer activity against human breast cancer cell-line T47D studies of metal ion Cu(II) complex with 2,4,5-triphenylimidazole ligand

The complex of metal ion Cu(II) with the ligand 2,4,5-trifenilimidazol has been successfully synthesized with mole ratio of metal and ligand 1:2 in N,N-dimethylformamide as a solvent. Complex synthesis results obtained green light crystalline solid. Complex absorbs UV-Vis light at 529 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) characterization results indicate occurrence of bonding of metals and ligand that is Cu-N in region...

Author(s): Teguh Hari Sucipto, Harsasi Setyawati, Irmina Kris Murwani and Fahimah Martak  

September 2018

Acute skin irritation, acute and sub-acute oral toxicity studies of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils in mice and rabbit

In Ankober, Northern Ethiopia, Rosmarinus officinalis has been commonly used for flavoring foods as a condiment; moreover, the plant has also been widely used for different medicinal purposes. The current study was undertaken to provide data on acute and subacute toxicity in mice as well as skin irritation of R. officinalis essential oil in rabbit. Acute dermal and oral toxicity tests were conducted using limited dose of...

Author(s): Berhan Mengiste, Kassahun Dires, Ermias Lulekal,  Mahlet Arayaselassie, Tizazu Zenebe, Gezu Feleke, Eyasu Makonnen and Awol Mekonnen  

September 2018

Healing effect of the microemulsion enriched with hydroalcoholic extract of Abarema cochliacarpa (Gomes) Barneby & J. W. Grimes (Fabaceae)

Abarema cochliocarpa is an endemic plant of Brazil and has been traditionally used as a popular medicine to treat various diseases and mostly as a healing agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing effect of the microemulsion containing hydrometanic fraction of the inner bark (HMF) of the plant, as well as its antioxidant, antitumor and cytotoxic potential. The cytotoxicity of HMF was assessed by the...

Author(s): Antônio Santos Dias, Clívia Rolemberg Andrade, André Luiz Lima Meneses Santos, Sabrina Zelice de Moraes, Jymmys Lopes dos Santos, Silvan Silva de Araújo, Andrea Yu Kwan Villar Shan, Jamylle Nunes de Souza Ferro, Marcelo Cavalcante Duarte, Emiliano de Oliveira Barreto, Anderson Carlos Marçal, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcante Albuquerque Júnior, Antonio Euzebio Goulart Santana, Brancilene Santos de Araújo  and Charles dos Santos Estevam

September 2018

Hypoglycemic profile and ameliorative potential of aqueous garlic extract on sperm characteristics in glibenclamide treated diabetic male rats

This study was carried out to determine the protective effect of aqueous garlic extract on testicular and spermatogenic changes in glibenclamide treated diabetic male rats. Thirty matured male rats were used in this study and were assigned into five groups of six rats each. Diabetes was induced in groups 1, 2, 3, 5 but not induced in group 4. Rats in group 1 were treated with glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg) daily for 21 days....

Author(s): Odo Rita Ifeoma, Mbegbu Edmund, Samuel Okezie Ekere and C.F. Amaeze      

September 2018

Analysis of patient information leaflets on Artemisinin-based combination therapy

The objective of this research was to analyze the various patient information leaflets on Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACTs) sold in Côte-D’Ivoire. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1st to February 20th, 2016, that included all patient information leaflets relating to ACTs registered and marketed in Côte-d’Ivoire. The leaflets were compared to European...

Author(s): Thérèse Daubrey-Potey, Mamadou Kamagaté and Henri Die-Kacou  

September 2018

Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance gene status in the Horn of Africa: A systematic review

Antimalarial drug resistance monitoring is the key factor in malaria control policy for early detection and subsequent prevention of drug resistance spread. This review was performed to collate all available data of P. falciparum resistant genes in the Horn of Africa as a baseline for future appraisal of the regional malaria control policy. The search of this review was performed in January 2018 using the scientific...

Author(s): Abdifatah Abdullahi Jalei, Wanna Chaijaroenkul and Kesara Na-Bangchang,  

August 2018

Study on increasing the solubility and dissolution rate of sulfamethoxazole by cyclodextrins

The aim of this study was to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) by preparing the inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβ-CD) and γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). The effect of the type of cyclodextrins used for the preparation of complexes, on the in vitro dissolution profiles and solubilities in different mediums (pH 4.5...

Author(s): Jülide Şahin and Nurten Özdemir  

August 2018

Extrapyramidal and purgative effects of fluphenazine in turkeys

Fluphenazine is a typical antipsychotic medicine with extrapyramidal effects. It was tested for purgative and neurological effects in turkeys. The results showed that the drug induced purgation at a dose range of 5 to 200 mg/kg body weight causing highest frequency of fecal droppings (7) at 10 mg/kg in 7 min and lowest frequency of dropping (1) at 50 mg/kg. However, the number of fecal droppings was not linearly...

Author(s): Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan  

August 2018

Anti-ulcer and hematological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO) against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in experimental rats

Previous studies have reported various health benefits of virgin coconut oil (VCO) such as weight management, treatment of burns, infections, improve phagocytic activity, etc. The present study was conducted to investigate the anti-ulcer and hematological properties of VCO against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers using rat model. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were used for the study and were divided into 6 groups of...

Author(s): Joshua Onyeagoziri Okafor, Parker Elijah Joshua and Chimere Young Ukegbu  

August 2018

Cross-cultural adaptation and validation to Brazil of the “Medication Counseling Behavior Guidelines”

This work aimed to translate cross-culturally adapts, and validate the “Medication Counseling Behavior Guidelines” instrument into Brazilian Portuguese. The process of cross-cultural adaptation was carried out using international recommendations. The generated versions were evaluated for the semantic, idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalences and the pre-test was carried out with undergraduate...

Author(s): Anne Caroline Oliveira dos Santos, Felipe Pimentel Paixão, Alessandra Rezende Mesquita, Izadora Menezes da Cunha Barros, Kérilin Stancine Santos Rocha, Sabrina Cerqueira Santos, Chiara Ermínia da Rocha, and Divaldo Pereira de Lyra Júnior  

August 2018

Cytotoxic potential of ethanol extract of Parquetina nigrescens on MCF-7, C4-2WT, HT 29 and HTC 116 cell lines

The cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of Parquetina nigrescen was investigated using a (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, methylene blue and Trypan Blue exclusion assay on four human cancer cell lines, MCF-7, HT 29, HTC 116 and C4-2WT. A mitochondrial enzyme in living cells, succinate-dehydrogenase cleaves the tetrazolium ring and converts the MTT to an insoluble purple...

Author(s): Blessing M. Onyegeme-Okerenta, Christian Agyare, Tracey D. Bradshaw and Keith A. Spriggs

July 2018

Assessment of antimalarial activity and proteomics analysis of Dioscorea membranacea Pierre.

Multidrug resistance Plasmodium falciparum remains a significant global health problem worldwide. New alternative antimalarial drugs are urgently needed. Dioscorea membranacea Pierre. is a Thai-medicinal plant that has been shown to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. The study aimed to investigate antimalarial activity and possible protein targets of action of the crude ethanolic extract of the rhizome...

Author(s): Phunuch Muhamad, Luxana Panrit, Artitiya Thiengsusuk, Wanna Chaijaroenkul and Kesara Na-Bangchang  

July 2018

Ethnomedicinal plants used for the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasitic diseases in human in Yeki district, Southwest Ethiopia

The use of medicinal plants plays a major role in the primary health care of human beings in Ethiopia. A study was carried out to document ethnomedicinal plants used for the treatment of gastrointestinal parasitic diseases of human in Yeki district, southwest Ethiopia. The key informants were selected using purposive sampling method. The information was obtained from 26 informants and 8 herbalists through the use of a...

Author(s): Belachew Garedew and Dagne Abebe  

July 2018

Antioxidant activity of selenium on bisphenol-induced apoptosis and testicular toxicity of rats

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical widely used to make polycarbonate plastics for packaging and epoxy resins. This study sought to examine how selenium (Se) affects BPA toxicity in terms of albino rats’ histological structure, antioxidant enzymes, sexual hormones, and reproductive organs (seminiferous tubule (coiled tubule) diameter, epithelial height and sperm count). Adult male rats were divided into...

Author(s): Wael M. Al-Amoudi  

July 2018

Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and kidney protective potential of combined formulation of Tribulus terrestris and Andrographis paniculata in alloxan induced mice

The study aims to evaluate the effect of Tribulus terrestris and Andrographis paniculata on body weight, blood glucose, lipid profile and renal protective capability in alloxan induced type-1 diabetic mice. Six groups of five male Swiss Albino mice each, at four weeks of age were used in this experiment. Group-X were fed saline water and Group-Y with combined herbal formulation at a high dose (1 g/kg bwt) to asses...

Author(s): Istiak A., Hazra P., Das S. R., Hossain M. I., Aminatu A. S., and Rafiq K.  

June 2018

Utility of silver nanoparticles for the analysis of diosmin and rutin in Persicaria salicifolia extract, authentic and pharmaceutical dosage forms monitored with their haemostatic activity

The present work was conducted to evaluate a simple effective technique for spectrophotometric determination of two flavonoids namely diosmin (1) and rutin (2) in the isolated fractions obtained from Persicaria salicifolia, authentic and pharmaceutical dosage forms, the method is based on the reduction of Ag+ cations to silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) by the effect of these flavonoids in the presence of...

Author(s): Hesham Salem, Atef Ahmed Elhela and Nevein Mohamed Abdelhady

June 2018

Caffeic acid reduces lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species production in adipocytes

Caffeic acid (CA) is a hydroxycinnamic acid, a group of natural organic phenolic compounds used in folk medicine and in foods for the prevention and treatment of obesity. CA is present in a variety of plants, as it is an intermediate in secondary metabolism. It is found in coffee, wine and olive oil. The aim of this work was to study the influence of caffeic acid (CA) on the reduction of intracellular lipid...

Author(s): Mariana Brito Dantas, Tiago Lima Sampaio, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes, Jamile Magalhães Ferreira, Tiago Sousa Melo, Richard Rarison Cavalcante Meneses , Hector Galdino Rodrigues, Dânya Bandeira Lima, Alice Maria Costa Martins and Maria Goretti Rodrigues de Queiroz

June 2018

Anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina in Wistar rats

Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder characterised by impaired glucose tolerance and hyperglycemia, which is caused by either lack of or resistance to insulin in tissues; this disease causes significant morbidity and mortality largely due to its end–organ complications. Traditional treatment of diabetes mellitus has involved the use of several plant extracts; in this study the efficacy of aqueous leaf...

Author(s): Ibegbu, Madu D., Nnaemeka, Emmanuel J., Ikele, Ikenna T. and Nwachukwu, Daniel C.  

June 2018

Neurohistological and immunohistochemical effects of prophylactic ethanolic leaf extract of Nauclea latifolia and Artemether/Lumefantrine on the hippocampus of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice

The prophylactic effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Nauclea latifolia, widely used in herbal malarial treatment, was compared against standard drug Coartem® (Artemether/Lumefantrine) in Plasmodium-infected mice was investigated, and thereafter analysed for organosomatic index, parasitemia, histomorphological and immunohistochemical changes in the hippocampus. Twenty male mice about 6 to 8 weeks weighing 20 to 24 g...

Author(s): Innocent A. Edagha, Inyang A. Atting and Moses U. Ekanemesang

May 2018

Dapsone in topical niosomes for treatment of acne vulgaris

Acne vulgaris is a common inflammatory skin disorder. It affects the pilosebaceous units followed by an overgrowth by Propionibacterium acne bacteria. Dapsone is a sulfone antibiotic with an anti-inflammatory effect, which is considered to be accountable for its effectiveness in the treatment of acne vulgaris. The present study aims to prepare and evaluate the effectiveness of dapsone niosomes for topical application...

Author(s): Hatem Al Sabaa, Fatma M. Mady, Amal K. Hussein, Hossam M. Abdel-Wahab and Maha H. Ragaie

May 2018

Safety and toxicity of aqueous leaf extracts of Camellia sinensis, Parquetina nigrescens and Telfairia occidentalis in mice

Plant extracts as potential phytotherapeutic products are supposed to be safe. However, adverse and untoward fatal effects have been reported.  Study aimed to evaluate the safety and toxicity of aqueous extracts of Camellia sinensis, Parquetina nigrescens and Telfairia occidentalis leaves. The extracts were subjected to brine shrimp lethality bioassay and toxicities by Lorke’s method. Mice were given oral...

Author(s): Olatunbosun Luqman Olayinka, Eltahir Awad Gasim Khalil, Atunwa S. A., Abdullaahi A. A., Salawu M. K., Ogunwale K. A. T., Olalere F. D., Lawal S. A., Abdulrafiu Majeed, Olutunde O. A., Afolabi O. O. and Nafiu A. B.  

May 2018

Febuxostat in patients with hyperuricemia and severe chronic kidney disease

Febuxostat is a non-purine, selective inhibitor of both isoforms of xanthine oxido-reductase (XOR). Its pharmacokinetics is not dependent on renal clearance, and it may be advantageous in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although febuxostat is effective in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD, its efficacy and safety in patients with severe CKD remain unclear. This retrospective study included patients with an...

Author(s): Ai Yu Yang  

May 2018

Gamma oryzanol loaded microspheres with improved bioavailability

Gamma oryzanol is a phytosterol that is extracted from rice bran oil. It is an antioxidant that possesses a curative effect for many diseases. Gamma oryzanol is a water insoluble compound supporting the idea that it has a low bioavailability due to low intestinal absorption. In this study, γ-oryzanol was loaded in biodegradable microspheres. Intestinal absorption of γ-oryzanol from microspheres was compared...

Author(s): Malik AL-Qdah, Wafaa Hailat, Houssam R.E.H. Bouchekara and Muhammad Sharjeel Javaid  

April 2018

In-vitro membrane stabilizing, thrombolytic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Bangladeshi origin Coccinia indica (Cucurbitaceae)

This study was made to investigate in-vitro membrane stabilizing, thrombolytic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Coccinia indica. Different extractives showed significant membrane stabilizing activity. The ethanol soluble fraction showed (45.36±0.45 % and 64.05±0.22 %) of Red blood cells haemolysis inhibition under heat and hypotonic solution induced conditions,...

Author(s): Razia Sultana, Kamrun Nahar and Sitesh Chandra Bachar  

April 2018

Effect of erythrinaline alkaloids from Erythrina lysistemon on human recombinant caspase-3

Prostate cancer is a leading killer disease among men all over the world. Inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) is a strategic chemotherapeutic approach. Caspase-3 is a key effector of apoptosis, and its activation promotes apoptosis. It was hypothesized that erythrinaline alkaloids activate caspase-3. The alkaloids were isolated from the flowers and pods of Erythrina lysistemon. Their effect on human recombinant...

Author(s): Shanta Armwood, Bernard F. Juma, Japheth O. Ombito, Runner R. T. Majinda and Ephraim T. Gwebu  

April 2018

In vivo assessment of the antipyretic activity of tilmicosin

The aim of the present study was to assess the antipyretic activity of the macrolide antibiotic, tilmicosin, at dose levels of 20 and 40 mg/kg of body weight, subcutaneously, in Brewer's yeast-induced fever model in mice. Pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 20 mL/kg of 20% (w/v) Brewer’s yeast suspension into the animal’s scruff region. Eighteen hours later, feverish animals were treated...

Author(s): A. M. El-Mahmoudy, I. M. Gheith, A. A. Elmajdoub and S. K. Awidat

April 2018

A systematic review: Application of in silico models for antimalarial drug discovery

Malaria remains the global public health problem due to the reemergence of drug resistance. There is an urgent need for development of new antimalarial candidates which are effective against resistant malaria parasite. This systematic review evaluates the published research studies that applied in silico modeling during the discovery process of antimalarial drugs. Literature searches were conducted using PubMed, EBSCO,...

Author(s): Anurak Cheoymang and Kesara Na-Bangchang,

April 2018

In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Vangueria infausta: An edible wild fruit from Zimbabwe

This study set out to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Vangueria infausta, an edible wild fruit from Zimbabwe. The importance lies in the fact that this plant species could be developed as a low cost and effective therapeutic agent, with little or no side effects from natural sources. The fruit pulp of V. infausta was subjected to cold ethanol extraction to get crude extract. Flavonoids were isolated by...

Author(s): Luke Gwatidzo, Leo Chowe, Cexton Musekiwa and Netai Mukaratirwa-Muchanyereyi  

March 2018

Extract and chloroform fraction from Syzygium cumini leaves with vasorelaxant effect mediated by inhibition of calcium channels

Hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction characterized by decreased vasorelaxation. Our research group recently demonstrated that hydroalcoholic extract of Syzygium cumini leaves (HESc) reduces the blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). This study evaluated the ability of HESc and chloroform fraction (CF) in promoting vasorelaxation on resistance arteries rings. Endothelium-deprived...

Author(s): Rachel Melo Ribeiro, Matheus Brandão Campos, Ellen Julli da Silva Passos Maia, Gizele Oliveira Santos-Silva, Iracelle Carvalho Abreu, Vicente Ferrer Pinheiro Neto, Marilene Oliveira Rocha Borges and Antonio Carlos Romão Borges

March 2018

Antibacterial activity of crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from Vernonia galamensis leaves

The aim of this study was to test the antibacterial property of the extract of the leaves and isolated compounds of Vernonia galamensis that is traditionally claimed to have diverse medicinal use. The disk diffusion method was used to test the successively extracted dried leaves of V. galamensis on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Shigella boydii. Further fractionation of the acetone extract...

Author(s): Geremew Tafesse, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen, Eyasu Makonnen, Runner R. T. Majinda, Gomotsang Bojase-Moleta and Samuel O. Yeboah

March 2018

Characterisation of drug loaded with poly-beta-hydroxyl-butyrate (PHB) nanoparticles onto the cotton gauze for tuberculosis

Nanoparticles are of current interest because of their emerging understanding effects on human health. Many developed nanoparticles were created based upon the current application. The application of nanoparticles in drug delivery of pharmaceuticals offers many advantages on the treatment strategies and therapy outcomes. Poly-beta-hydroxyl-butyrate (PHB) nanoparticles are very versatile and its design could be tailored...

Author(s): Mekala M. and Suganya K.

March 2018

In vitro antimicrobial activities of Plocamium rigidum and Plocamium cornutum from the Namibian coast line

The aim of this study was to determine suitable extraction solvents for antimicrobial compounds and the antimicrobial activity of two algal species, Plocamium cornutum and Plocamium rigidum collected from the coastline of Namibia. Samples were collected at low tide from the intertidal area of the coastline at Lüderitz and Henties Bay. The samples were collected about 5 to 10 cm under water by hand and placed in a...

Author(s): Anthony Ishola, Michael Knott and Jane Misihairabgwi

March 2018

A Study on Spurious and Not of Standard Quality Drugs in the State of Andhra Pradesh

Indian Pharmaceutical Industry is the third largest in the world in terms of volume and this industry has a business of about USD 30 billion annually. Availability of quality medical products, especially drugs is important from the perspective of health of the consumers. The manufacture and sale of drugs in India is a licensed activity under Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945. The use...

Author(s): Praveen Kumar G. and Ravi Shankar A.

March 2018

Anti-hemolytic and reduction of lipid peroxidation capacities of Detarium microcarpum Guill. and Perr. fruits

This study was designed to investigate the ability of ethanol fruit extract from Detarium microcarpum to protect erythrocytes against hemolysis and lipid peroxidation. To achieve this objective, hemolytic, anti-hemolytic and lipid peroxidation from cell membrane assays were used. Hemolytic and anti-hemolytic activities (regarding H2O2 induced hemolysis) were assessed by determination of free haemoglobin at 540 nm....

Author(s): Ablassé Rouamba, Moussa Compaoré and Martin Kiendrebeogo  

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