African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5146

AJMR Articles

Diversity of putatively toxigenic Aspergillus species in maize and soil samples in an aflatoxicosis hotspot in Eastern Kenya

February 2016

Aflatoxin contamination impinges on grain quality worldwide. The causative agent, Aspergillus spp. colonizes grain in the field down to postharvest stages in storage where they may produce toxins. Kenya has experienced recurring cases of aflatoxicosis in Eastern region especially during periods of maize grain deficit. The risk of chronic exposure has not been widely studied. Therefore, seasonal variation in abundance...

Author(s): Elsie Nyangweso Salano, Meshack Amos Obonyo, Faith Jebet Toroitich, BenardOmondi Odhiambo and Bonaventure Omondi Aman

Rheological characteristics of Ganoderma applanatum exoploysaccharides

February 2016

Glucose yeast extract peptone media (GYP) proved to be the most suitable medium for organism growth and exopolysaccharides (EPS) production which recorded 0.320 + 0.01 and 0.1+0.01 (mg/ml) dry weight undershaken and static conditions respectively. Rheological study of Ganoderma applanatum exopolysaccharides indicated that viscosity of each EPS concentrations increased with increased shear rate (S.R) values which confirm...

Author(s): Abulaziz Yahya Alghmadi

Research progress in submerged mycelial culture of Grifola frondosa, a culinary-medicinal mushroom

February 2016

Grifola frondosa or maitake, a kind of edible and medical fungus, has become a hotspot. This paper advances how to increase the mycelial growth and bioactive polysaccharide production of G. frondosa by submerged fermentation at home and abroad. It focus on two ways: one is improvement and optimization of G. frondosa self-strain, culture medium and culturing methods, and the other is the effects of adding some...

Author(s): Tianxiang Wu, Na Wang, Yong Zhang and Xiaobao Xu

Characterization of heavy metal (cadmium and nickle) tolerant Gram negative enteric bacteria from polluted Yamuna River, Delhi

February 2016

The presence of heavy metals in aquatic environments poses a serious environmental risk. The usage of heavy metal-tolerant bacteria may serve as a cost-effective tool for bioremediation of polluted water bodies. Thus, the present study aims at the isolation and characterization of heavy metal tolerant gram-negative bacteria collected from the polluted water of the river Yamuna, Delhi, India. The water samples were...

Author(s): Neeta Bhagat, Maansi Vermani and Harpreet Singh Bajwa

Comparative phytochemical and microbiological studies for oil extracts of Australian and Chinese garlic

February 2016

In this study the effect of distillation and solvent extraction methods were studied on many factors; oil percentage, physical and chemical properties, and percentage of decay of both Australian (white and red) and Chinese garlic. On the other hand, the antimicrobial effect of Australian and Chinese garlic plants was determined at various concentrations against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC®25923, Pseudomonas...

Author(s): Mousa Abdullah Alghuthaymi

Sensitivity and lower protease activity of Candida albicans species isolated from Egyptian cancer patients after exposure to cytotoxic and/or radiotherapy treatment

January 2016

Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common disease among cancer patients receiving chemo or radiotherapy which precede systemic candidemia, a life threatening infection. This study investigated the diversity and prevalence of different Candida species among Egyptian cancer patients, evaluated the sensitivity of Candida albicans to the frequently administered antifungal therapies and the effect of different radio and...

Author(s): Mariam Omar Khalaf, Reham Samir Ahmed, Wafaa Hassan El-Metnawy,Tamer Mohamed Essam and Magdy Ali Amin

Foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates: Candidate strains for trivalent vaccine development in Nigeria

January 2016

A quality foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccine is a prerequisite for effective control in addition to other zoosanitary measures and effective biosecurity practices in disease endemic sub-Saharan countries like Nigeria. To ensure an effective control programme by vaccination, countries that practice mass vaccination campaigns need to conduct vaccine matching studies to establish a relationship between prevalent field...

Author(s): Hussaini Ularamu G., John Ibu O., Jerry Abenga N., David Lazarus D., Yiltawe Wungak S., Anthony A. Chukwuedo, David Shamaki and Mohammed Adah I.  

Antifungal activity of nanofungicide Trifloxystrobin 25% + Tebuconazole 50% against Macrophomina phaseolina

January 2016

This study was aimed to develop the nanoform of a commercial fungicide Trifloxystrobin 25% + Tebuconazole 50% (75 WG) with broad spectrum of action for improving its antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina. The fungicide commercially available as Trifloxystrobin 25% + Tebuconazole 50% (75 WG) was converted into its nanoform using ball milling method and assessed for its efficacy against the soil borne fungal...

Author(s): G. Dileep Kumar, N. Natarajan and S. Nakkeeran

Presence of Helicobacter DNA in hepatic tissues in dogs with nonspecific hepatic lesions

January 2016

Infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter spp. is an important cause of gastric diseases and neoplasms in humans and animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of Helicobacter spp. in the livers of dogs with nonspecific histological changes. The association between Helicobacter spp. infection, hepatocyte proliferation and E-cadherin expression was also evaluated. Liver samples from 39 dogs...

Author(s): Marcasso R. A., Takemura L. S., Camargo P. L., Alfieri A. A. and Bracarense A. P. F. R. L.

Serological survey of foot and mouth disease virus antibodies in apparently healthy domestic pigs in Nigeria

January 2016

Despite the endemic nature of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Nigeria, little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in pigs. FMD could pose a negative economic and social impact in the life of small-holder and commercial pig farmers in the advent of an outbreak. In this report, out of 822 pig sera collected from two states (Plateau and Enugu) in Nigeria, 12 (1.5%) tested positive for antibodies to the highly...

Author(s): Ehizibolo D. O., Ijomanta J. O., Michael C. A., Wungak Y. S., Lazarus D. D., Ularamu H. G., Meseko  C. A. and Umoh J. U.

Biopeptides with antioxidant activity extracted from the biomass of Spirulina sp. LEB 18

January 2016

The microalga Spirulina has been marketed in many countries due to its application in foods, especially for its high protein content, which can be used to obtain protein hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysates are easily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and have significant physiological properties, because during the hydrolysis process, peptides with antioxidant activity can be obtained. The objective of this study...

Author(s): Cristiane Reinaldo Lisboa, Aline Massia Pereira and Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Citrus sinensis var. late Valencia fruits at various stages of development

January 2016

Fruit juice extracts of Citrus sinensis var. late Valencia at different stages of development (3, 6, 10 and 12 months and fallen senescent fruits) were investigated for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Antimicrobial activity was determined using a modified Kirby-Bauer agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by the micro broth dilution method against strains of Bacillus...

Author(s): Francis Adu, John Antwi Apenteng, Noble Kuntworbe, William Gariba Akanwariwiak, Theresa Appiah and David Ntinagyei Mintah

Species identification of Candida isolates in various clinical specimens and their antifungal susceptibility patterns in Côte d’Ivoire

January 2016

The aims of the study were to isolate and identify the Candida species from clinical cases of candidiasis and to determine their anti-fungal susceptibily. Clinical samples such as vaginal swab, nails scrapings and squama were submitted to the Mycology Unit of Institut Pasteur of Côte d’Ivoire, from 2011 to September, 2015. Samples were screened for the growth of Candida species, which were then identified by...

Author(s): Offianan Andre Toure, Bonouma-Ira Ama, Angora Etienne, Vanga Bosson Henriette, Sylla Kady, Ako Ako Berenger and Soumahoro Adama

Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus in HIV seropositive children in Lagos, Nigeria

January 2016

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may influence hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease through immunosuppression. The aim of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of HCV in HIV sero-positive children in Lagos, Nigeria. 132 blood samples of children aged 1-15 years were collected at the HIV clinics of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) and Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH). Confirmatory...

Author(s): Oyefolu, Akeeb Oriowo Bola, Ashaka, Oluwaseyi Sedowhe, Anjorin, Abdulazeez Adeyemi, Salu, Olumuyiwa, Akinyemi, Kabiru Olusegun, Omilabu, Sunday and Abidoye, Gbadegesin

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique compared to conventional bacteriological and serological techniques in diagnosis of human brucellosis in Egypt

January 2016

Direct diagnosis of human brucellosis is performed by cultivation with the disadvantage of being time consuming and the increase risk of laboratory acquired infection to laboratory personnel handling and performing culture procedures. Serological techniques as serum agglutination test (SAT) can also be used for diagnosis with the disadvantage of false negative and positive results that may occur. This study aims to...

Author(s): Hanaa Mohammed Refaat, Ola Ibrahim Ahmed, Safia Hamed Elabd and Mohammed Mohammed Sanad

Carbapenem resistance mechanisms among blood isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli

January 2016

The purpose of this study was to characterize the different mechanisms of carbapenem resistance among blood isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Meropenem resistant isolates were included. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, phenotypic and genotypic detection of carbapenemase production were performed. Genetic relatedness of blaNDM-1 producers was determined by pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis...

Author(s): Mohamudha P. Rahamathulla, Belgode N. Harish, Laura Mataseje and Michael R. Mulvey

Molecular detection of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid in tuberculosis patients in Senegal

January 2016

The aim of this study was to use molecular methods to determine the profile of resistance to rifampicin (RMP or RIF) and isoniazid (INH) in mycobacteria from tuberculosis patients in Senegal. Sputum samples (48) received by the mycobacterial laboratory of the National Antituberculosis Program (NATP) in Senegal between 2012 and 2014 were studied. Most of these samples came from patients in treatment failure or relapse...

Author(s): Dia M. L., Gueye P., Ba F., Cisse N. N., Balde O., Diouf B., Sarr M., Sow A. I. and Cisse M. F.

Phenotypic and genotypic methods for detection of metallo beta lactamases among carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates in Alexandria Main University Hospital

January 2016

Dissemination of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) poses a considerable threat to public health. The aim of the present work was to estimate the prevalence of metallo beta lactamases (MBL) among CRE isolated from Alexandria Main University Hospital, Egypt, to evaluate the performance of different phenotypic methods for the detection of MBL, and to investigate the local antimicrobial sensitivity profile of...

Author(s): Iman F. El-Ghazzawy, Marwa A. Meheissen and Doaa A. Younis

Isolation, characterization, and properties study of probiotic lactic acid bacteria of selected yoghurt from Bangladesh

January 2016

Probiotics, as functional food components, are recognized as safe microorganisms of viable single or mixed cultures with claimed health promoting effects on their host by improving the properties of the indigenous intestinal microflora. In the present study, a total of ten probiotic lactic acid bacteria were isolated comprising Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus brevis, Bifidobacterium sp. and Streptococcus...

Author(s): M. Mizanur Rahman, K. Moazzem Hossain and S. M. Mahbubur Rahman

Safety characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from raw milk in Western Algeria

January 2016

Yersinia enterocolitica, an important food-borne enteric pathogen is associated with various clinical manifestations ranging from self-limited gastroenteritis to more invasive syndrome such as terminal ileitis and mesenteric lymphadenitis. The main aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of Y. enterocolitica in milk samples. For this purpose, one hundred (100) samples of raw cow’s milk were collected...

Author(s): Kh. Z. Hadef, Kh. Medjahdi, H. Beldjilali, I. Benamar and B. Moussa-Boudjemâa

Listeria monocytogenes in food: Control by monitoring the food processing environment

January 2016

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that is widely dispersed in the environment; it is found in soil, water and plant material, and can grow at refrigeration temperature and at unfavourable conditions of pH (up to pH 4.7) and salt (up to 10%). It can persist in the harsh conditions of the food processing environment from which it can contaminate food. Listeriosis, infection with L. monocytogenes, can be mild...

Author(s): Dara Leong, Avelino Alvarez-Ordóñez, Piet Jooste and Kieran Jordan

Assessment of the antibacterial effects of Moringa peregrina extracts

December 2015

The antibacterial effect of Moringa peregrina (leaves, roots and seeds) ethanolic extracts were investigated. The effect of plant extracts were tested against three bacterial species: Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC25922), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ATCC 43300)Image and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae ATCC 13883). M. peregrina ethanolic extracts showed significant antibacterial effect on the three tested...

Author(s): Ibrahim S. Majali, Sawsan A. Oran, Khaled M. A. khleifat, Haitham Qaralleh, Walid A. Rayyan and Osama Y. Althunibat

Production of aquatic feed grade algal powder from turtle breeding wastewater using a locally isolated Spirulina sp. JXSC-S1

December 2015

Spirulina sp. JXSC-S1 was isolated from a local turtle breeding wastewater storage pool in Jiaxing City, Zhejiang Province, China. Morphological studies revealed that the color, shape, spiral pitch, spiral wide and cell size of the strain fits the typical morphological characteristics of Spirulina platensis. Growth dynamics of the strain were studied in both Zarrouk medium and turtle breeding wastewater (TBW), and were...

Author(s): Jin Fei Luo and Lu Ping Jiang

Multidrug drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Clinical Specimens in Northern India

December 2015

Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known human pathogen that is primarily associated with nosocomial infections causing variety of diseases with increasing resistance to antibiotics. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and multi drug resistance patterns of both methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) in the studied population. Out of 60 S. aureus isolated, 27...

Author(s): Mohammed Imran, Mohd Imran and Shaista Khan

Aflatoxin B1 in commercial granolas

December 2015

The aim of this study was to measure aflatoxin B1 in granola sold in stores in the city of Teresina, Piauí. Sixty samples of granola sold in four supermarkets were used. The mycological evaluation was carried out immediately, and then the samples were stored at -4°C, for later analysis of aflatoxin B1. Thirty-one strains of Aspergillus flavus were isolated. Two strains demonstrated capacity for...

Author(s): Marta Rejane Ribeiro dos SANTOS, Francisco das Chagas CARDOSO FILHO, Rodrigo Maciel CALVET, Rayllander Ribeiro ANDRADE, Rosana Martins Carneiro PIRES, Maria Marlúcia Gomes PEREIRA, Amilton Paulo Raposo COSTA and Maria Christina Sanches MURATORI

Trichoderma: A scientific approach against soil borne pathogens

December 2015

The members of the genus Trichoderma are widely used as bioagent for the control of phytopathogenic fungi in agriculture sectors. The members of this genus are reproducing asexually by the formation of cyanide and chlamydospore, in wild habitats they reproduce by formation of ascospores. Trichoderma species are well known for the production of cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs). These CWDEs, play a major role in...

Author(s): Mukesh Srivastava, Mohammad Shahid, Sonika Pandey,  Vipul Kumar, Anuradha Singh, Shubha Trivedi, Y. K. Srivastava and Shivram

Antimicrobial activity of Taverniera Abyssinica A. Rich against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi

December 2015

Medicinal plants represent a rich source of antimicrobial agents. Even though hundreds of plant species have been tested for antimicrobial activities, the enormous mass of them have not been adequately evaluated. Taverniera abyssinica A. Rich is a widely used Ethiopian endemic medicinal plant commonly known under the local name of “Dingetegna”. Medicinal plant preparations are generally very popular in...

Author(s): Gemechu Ameya Buli, Abdella Gure and Engda Dessalegn

Developmental biology and infection cycle of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causing stem rot of carnation in India

December 2015

Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is a cut flower with greater stipulation in the world cut flower market. In India, carnations are cultivated under polyhouses in Nilgiris and Kodaikanal districts in the state of Tamil Nadu. Carnations cultivation is impeded by various diseases, among them stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary was found to be predominant in all varieties. Survey among...

Author(s): VINOD KUMAR Selvaraj, RAJESHKUMAR Ponnusamy, NAKKEERAN Sevugaperumal and ERAIVAN Arutkani Aiyanathan K.

Study of resistance mechanism in Enterobacter spp. with special reference to antimicrobials ceftazidime, moxifloxacin and nalidixic acid

December 2015

Microbial resistance to antimicrobials is spreading all over the world making it difficult to treat diseases effectively. This study aims to understand the mechanism of resistance towards the antimicrobials Ceftazidime, Moxifloxacin and Nalidixic acid, by using resistant Enterobacter spp. and sensitive Enterobacter spp. While there was complete inhibition of growth of sensitive Enterobacter spp. at 8 µg/ml...

Author(s): Nirbhavane, H. M. and Bagde, U. S.

Serogroups and antibiotics susceptibility pattern of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains responsible for colibacillosis in broiler breeding farms in the east of Algeria

December 2015

In East Algeria, 100 Escherichia coli strains were isolated from livers and spleens of 120 broiler carcasses that presented colibacillosis lesions at autopsy. Serogrouping of these strains demonstrated that 83% of their serogroups belong to the most pathogenic serogroups of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC): O1 (14%), O2 (53%) and O78 (16%). In vitro susceptibility to antimicrobials of veterinary significance was...

Author(s): Chafik Redha Messaï, Khatima Aït-Oudhia, Djamel Khelef, Taha Mossadek Hamdi, Nadia Safia Chenouf and Mohamed Ramzi Messaï

Chromogenic agar media for rapid detection of Enterobacteriaceae in food samples

December 2015

Recently, chromogenic media were used for rapid detection of pathogenic agents isolated from different materials (food, water and stool). Results of the present study indicated that specific and rapid identification of Enterobactiriaceae isolates from 46 food samples (egg, dairy products, meat, salads and cooked rice) as compared to conventional methods of biochemical test and plating selective media consume times, are...

Author(s): Manal A. H., Saad S. F., Zahraa A. J. and Saba T. H.

Symbiotic effectiveness of different indigenous Bradyrhizobium strains on selected Rj-genes harboring Myanmar soybean cultivars

December 2015

Many scientists are working to identify effective strains of rhizobia to increase nitrogen fixation and reduce nitrogen fertilizer application. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of leguminous crops has become an alternative to nitrogenous fertilizer, due to its higher efficiency for nitrogen fixation. This experiment was conducted to select strains for improved nitrogen fixation of soybean (Glycine max L.). Bradyrhizobium...

Author(s): Aung Zaw Htwe, Takeo Yamakawa, Kyi Moe and Doan Cong Dien

Enhanced plant growth and/or nitrogen fixation by leguminous and non-leguminous crops after single or dual inoculation of Streptomyces griseoflavus P4 with Bradyhizobium strains

December 2015

Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria have been widely used during crop production for either single inoculation or co-inoculation with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The effect of Streptomyces griseoflavus P4 on growth of various crops was studied and the effects of co-inoculation on plant growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation by soybean was investigated. Pot experiments were conducted in an environmentally...

Author(s): Aung Zaw Htwe and Takeo Yamakawa

Salmonella Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Infantis and Derby in pasty dulce de leche

December 2015

In order to evaluate the fate of Salmonella Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Infantis and Derby in pasty dulce de leche, aliquots of this sweet were experimentally contaminated with these pathogenic microorganisms at 102 bacterial cells per gram, and later analysed to evaluate microorganism count after storage for 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10 and 20 days. Salmonella Enteritidis was able to survive for up to 20 days in dulce de leche,...

Author(s): Débora Rodrigues Silveira, Nathalie Almeida Lopes, Helenice de Lima Gonzalez and Cláudio Dias Timm

Arsenite-oxidizing bacteria isolated from arsenic contaminated surface and ground water of Uttar Pradesh, India

December 2015

Arsenic (As) contamination of surface and ground waters in Uttar Pradesh (UP) is geological in nature, even though some degree of As contamination may be due to anthropogenic activities. Little is known about the arsenite oxidizing bacteria in aquatic environments of UP. In this study we isolated the As resistant bacteria from both surface and ground waters of UP. Seven potential strains were isolated by culture method...

Author(s): Bilal Ahmad Tantry, Ibrahim Taher, Divya Shrivastava and Mudasar Nabi

Effects of plasmid acquisition by Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation

December 2015

This work aimed to study the influence of plasmid acquisition on the mutual interaction of certain Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates. In this study, two mixed cultures were used: i) P. aeruginosa clinical isolate P14 which co-existed with MRSA isolate S14; and ii) P. aeruginosa clinical isolate P12 which co-existed with MRSAisolate S12. The...

Author(s): Sarra E. Saleh, Khaled M. Aboshanab, Mohammad M. Aboulwafa and Nadia A. Hassouna

Etiology and microbiology of periodontal diseases: A review

December 2015

Nowadays, there is a high prevalence of periodontal disease worldwide, and knowing the etiology is basic for its control. Biofilms that colonize the oral cavity are among the most complex of nature. Besides pathogenic microorganisms, genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of this disease. Periodontal disease can be increased by several risk factors such as smoking, systemic diseases, medications...

Author(s): Vargas Segura A. I., Ilyina A., Segura Ceniceros E. P., Silva Belmares Y. and Méndez González L.

Carbon and nitrogen sources differently influence Penicillium sp. HC1 conidiation in solid and liquid culture

November 2015

This work evaluates the effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources on conidiophore and conidia formation in Penicillium sp. HC1, a cellulolytic and xylanolytic fungi arousing industrial interest. A factorial design was used having two variables: A carbon source (glucose, sucrose, cassava starch, wheat bran, and rice flour) and a nitrogen source (tryptose, yeast extract, (NH4)2HPO4, and KNO3). The resulting 20...

Author(s): Ivonne Gutierréz-Rojas, Geraldine Tibasosa-Rodríguez, Nubia Moreno-Sarmiento, María Ximena Rodríguez-Bocanegra and Dolly Montoya

Microalgae cultivation for biosurfactant production

November 2015

Microalgae can be used as both food and a source of bioactive compounds, such as oils, vitamins and biosurfactants. An important factor contributing to the production costs of bioactive compounds, such as biosurfactants, is the carbon source. One way to decrease production costs is by reducing carbon without a concomitant reduction in productivity. Biosurfactants have a wide range of industrial applications,...

Author(s): Elisângela Martha Radmann, Etiele Greque de Morais, Cibele Freitas de Oliveira, Kellen Zanfonato and Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa

Fungi and aflatoxins associated with wheat grains in Gaza governorates

November 2015

Cereal and its products are susceptible to mold damage during pre-and post-harvesting stages of the production. This study was carried out to determine the extent of fungal contamination and the aflatoxins AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 levels of fifty wheat grain samples were collected randomly from different markets in the five Gaza governorates. The obtained results indicated that the most common molds isolated from...

Author(s): Ghada, S. R. Al-Sagga, Ahmed, M. Alian, Ferial, A. Ismail and Sherif, R. Mohamed

Serological evidence and public health implication of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs found in Zaria, Kaduna State

November 2015

The presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has recently been demonstrated in humans, in Nigeria. Considering the zoonotic nature of the virus and its serious public health implication, it becomes imperative to determine its presence in animal reservoirs in the study area where pig’s husbandry is largely practiced. The level of awareness of the disease among pig farmers in the study area was also assessed...

Author(s): Alkali, B. R., Bello, M, B., Hussaini, S., and Onwuliri C. O.

Natural occurrence of Fusarium species and fumonisins in stored cassava chips

November 2015

Cassava chips are transformed products obtained following the fermentation and drying of cassava fresh roots. Once produced, chips can be stored for more than 180 days in conditions conducive for the development of toxigenic moulds. In this study, the incidence of Fusarium spp. is assessed from a set of 72 home-stored samples of cassava chips collected from farmers, during a 2-month monitoring survey period. Results...

Author(s): B. Onana, G. Essono, M. Nyegue, R. Tchikoua, Z. Ambang and M. Ayodele

Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella in Ethiopia: A review

November 2015

Foods of animal origin have been consistently implicated in sporadic cases and outbreaks of salmonellosis, and are widely acknowledged to be a significant reservoir for Salmonella. The usage of growth promoting agents (GPAs) in food animal production is a major public health threat that can contribute to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance bacteria. Extensive and improper use of antimicrobial drugs in food animal...

Author(s): Jelalu Kemal, Berhanu Sibhat, Sissay Menkir, Yitagele Terefe and Yimer Muktar

Use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in experimentally and naturally infected birds

November 2015

The objective of the present study was to standardize an immunohistochemical reaction (IHC) for the diagnosis of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in tissue samples. In order to achieve this aim, pigeons (Columba livia) and chicken (Gallus gallus) were experimentally infected with a pathogenic sample of NDV (São Joao do Meriti strain). The IHC reaction was standardized and tested in samples of lung, liver, spleen and...

Author(s): Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco, Meire Christina Seki, Tiago Wilson Patriarca Mineo, Jayme Augusto Peres, Laura Marques Knychala, Mario Henrique Alves, Jyan Lucas Benevenute, Priscila Ikeda and Aramis Augusto Pinto

Molecular detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) in captured Culicoides spp. in the northeastern regions of Mexico

November 2015

Midges of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) captured in 2013 (February to November) in four micro-regions located in the northeast of Mexico were analyzed to determine the presence of genetic sequences of the viruses of Bluetongue (BT) and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD) by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction  (RT-PCR). In all the micro-regions sampled, it was possible to detect the...

Author(s): Lozano-Rendón, J. A.,  Contreras-Balderas, A. J., Fernández-Salas, I., Zarate-Ramos, J. J. and Avalos-Ramírez, R.

Diversity and antibiotic susceptibilities of bacterial species from surfaces of publicly used equipment in a medical education setting

November 2015

Medical and health science colleges have firm links to hospitals and health services centres through clinical training activities. Such colleges are expected to house microorganisms of nosocomial-infection significance that can be transmitted to and from students’ hands and bodies through publicly used equipment, including food and drink vending machines, elevators and computer keyboards. This study aimed to...

Author(s): Nazik Mustafa, Badriah Ibrahim, Mariam Jasim, Mira Salim, Qumasha Abdalla and Shaima Saleh

Is the recently described Macrophomina pseudophaseolina pathogenically different from Macrophomina phaseolina?

November 2015

Charcoal rot disease causes heavy yield losses to many hosts including cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and groundnut (Arachis hypogea) in Senegal. The causal agent of the disease was a longtime considered to be Macrophomina phaseolina. However, a new Macrophomina species, Macrophomina pseudophaseolina was reported recently to also cause charcoal rot disease alone or in association with M. phaseolina on several hosts in...

Author(s): Mbaye Ndiaye, Mame P. Sarr, Ndiaga Cisse and Ibrahima Ndoye

Biofixation of carbon dioxide from coal station flue gas using Spirulina sp. LEB 18 and Scenedesmus obliquus LEB 22

November 2015

The atmospheric concentration of CO2, the main greenhouse gas (GHG), has increased rapidly since the beginning of the industrial age. Anthropogenic emissions from coal-fired power plants are responsible for approximately 7% (w/w) of global CO2 emissions. Microalgae CO2biofixation is a technology that reduces GHGs based on the use of solar energy through photosynthesis to capture and use the CO2 that is produced by...

Author(s): Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa, Michele Greque de Morais, Elisângela Martha Radmann, FabrícioButierres Santana, Felipe Camerini, Michele da Rosa Andrade Zimmerman de Souza⊃, Adriano Arruda Henrard⊃, Ana Priscila Centeno da Rosa⊃ and Lúcio Brusch

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from bovine milk in central highlands of Ethiopia

November 2015

Antimicrobial resistance is becoming an extremely serious global problem. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk and milk product samples in Ethiopia and also to determine the presence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A total of 577 milk and milk product samples were collected from central...

Author(s): Eyasu Tigabu, Tesfu Kassa, Daniel Asrat, Haile Alemayehu, Thomas Sinmegn, Pamela R.F. Adkins and Wondwossen Gebreyes

Diversity and distribution of soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia isolated from major soybean-growing regions in Myanmar

October 2015

Rhizobia play an important role in plant nutrition by fixing nitrogen that is subsequently available for uptake by plants. In Myanmar, it has been difficult to characterize the nitrogen-fixing indigenous bradyrhizobia strains. In this study, 120 strains were isolated from five major soybean-growing regions of Myanmar. The strains were characterized based on sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed...

Author(s): Aung Zaw Htwe, Takeo Yamakawa, Papa Saliou Sarr and Tomoyuki Sakata

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