African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12300

AJB Articles

Screening of spontaneous castor bean accesses for genetic improvement programs

October 2016

The objective of this work was to identify, through the use of multivariate analysis, the spontaneous accesses of castor bean that show promising characteristics for inclusion in genetic improvement programs of this culture in Brazil. The study was conducted at the Paulista State University, Jaboticabal Campus. The accesses of castor bean seeds obtained were identified as ACS-001-CRSP, ACS-001-JASP, ACS-001-MASP,...

Author(s): Rener Luciano de Souza Ferraz, Jane Lima Batista, Marcelo de Andrade Barbosa, Ivomberg Dourado Magalhães, Alberto Soares de Melo and Antonio Sergio Ferraudo

Assessment of the genetic diversity of Kenyan coconut germplasm using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers

October 2016

Genetic diversity and relationship among 48 coconut individuals (Cocos nucifera L.) collections from the Coastal lowland of Kenya were analyzed using 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. Diversity parameters were calculated using Popgene Software version 1.31. The gene diversity values ranged from 0.0408 (CAC68) to 0.4861 (CAC23) with a mean value of 0.2839. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values...

Author(s): Maurice E. Oyoo, Najya Muhammed, Kimani N. Cyrus and Simon M. Githiri

Evaluation of various pesticides-degrading pure bacterial cultures isolated from pesticide-contaminated soils in Ecuador

October 2016

Due to the intensive use of pesticides within the greenhouse-rose production, remediation of polluted soils has become a hot topic for researchers in recent decades. Several bacterial strains having the ability to utilize various pesticides as a sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from pesticide-contaminated soils of Urcuquí, Ecuador. According to phenotypical, physiological, and biochemical...

Author(s): Pérez Mónica, Rueda O. Darwin, Bangeppagari Manjunatha, Johana J. Zúñiga, Ríos Diego, Rueda B. Bryan, Sikandar I. Mulla and Naga R. Maddela

Use of response surface methodology to optimize the drying conditions of a bioactive ingredient derived from the African opaque sorghum beer

October 2016

The present work aims to optimize the heat drying conditions of a bioactive feed ingredient derived from the African opaque sorghum beer. The bioactive ingredient was dried at various temperatures 35 to 50°C and times 5 to 24 h. The effects of the drying conditions on the dry matter, water activity, pH, titratable acidity, bacteriocin, ethanol, lactic acid, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria contents and antimicrobial...

Author(s): I. B. Chabi, A. P. P. Kayodé, B. P. Agbobatinkpo, A. Adénilé, O. A. Mamadou, G. Vieira-Dalodé, L. Baba-Moussa and J. T. C. Codjia

Enzymatic regulation of organic acid metabolism in an alkali-tolerant halophyte Chloris virgata during response to salt and alkali stresses

October 2016

Chloris virgata, an alkali-tolerant halophyte, was chosen as the test material for our research. The seedlings of C. virgata were treated with varying salt and alkali stress. First, the composition and content of organic acids in shoots were analyzed and the results indicated that there was not only a significant increase in total organic acids, but there were also obvious changes in different components of organic...

Author(s): Huan Wang, Bing Bai, Ziyu Bai, Lijun Shi, Jinlin Ye, Siwen Fan, Huahua Xu and Decheng Shi

Comparison of four nonlinear growth models for effective exploration of growth characteristics of turbot Scophthalmus maximus fish strain

October 2016

This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness for non-linear growth models designated as Chapman-Richards, Gompertz, Logistic and von Bertalanffy for selection of fast-growing fish strain of turbot Scophthalmus maximus. These models were compared using the goodness of fit (the coefficient of determination (R2) and the mean square error (MSE)) and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the growth...

Author(s): Xin’an Wang,, and Aijun Ma,,

Genetic determinants of antifungal resistance in Candida species

October 2016

In the previous decades, it has been an increase in cases of resistance to antifungal agents used in the prophylaxis and treatment of infections caused by Candida species. The emergence of resistance to drug classes, it is usually explained by genome alterations ranging from point mutations to gain or loss of whole chromosomes. Therefore, identify and understand into the molecular mechanisms that underlie resistance of...

Author(s): Danielly Beraldo dos Santos Silva, Alexéia Barufatti Grisolia and Kelly Mari Pires de Oliveira

Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Quercus L. (Fageceae) from three different sections

October 2016

In this study, the genetic diversity of 6 oak species known as Quercus coccifera L., Q. robur L., Q. infectoria Oliver, Q. cerris L., Q. ithaburensis subsp. macrolepsis (Kotschy) Hedge and Yalt. and Q. trojana P.B. Webb  in 18 populations was screened using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method (RAPD).  10 RAPD primers giving the best results produced 262 total loci. The highest and lowest band sizes...

Author(s): Yılmaz Aykut

Antioxidant assessment on promethazinr HCl decomposition using RP-HPLC assay method

October 2016

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different sodium metabisulfite (SMBS) concentrations under a variety of ICH recommended test conditions. An attempt was made to test the feasibility of increasing shelf life when stored under different conditions. The promethazine hydrochloride (HCL) sample solutions used according to USP 24 and BP 1999 were prepared using different concentration of sodium...

Author(s): Rasha Saad, Heyam Saad Ali, Babiker M. A. Elhaj and Mai Al Ajaji

Molecular identification of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Giles (formerly Anopheles gambiae Savannah Form) in Kamuli District, Uganda

September 2016

Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Giles (formerly A. gambiae S molecular form), the largely anthropophilic species, is reportedly the most important malaria vector in Uganda among the A. gambiae complex species. Indoor and outdoor human-biting mosquitoes were caught for four consecutive nights in each of 48 households in Kamuli district using human-baited bed net traps for subsequent identification of the principal...

Author(s): Fredrick George Kabbale, Anne Margaret Akol, John Baptist Kaddu, Enock Matovu, Anne Kazibwe, Anges Yadouleton and Ambrose Winston Onapa

In vitro methods for mutation induction in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

September 2016

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important vegetable and staple crop worldwide and mainly propagated vegetatively. Breeding of potato is problematic and therefore induced mutation is an attractive means of improving the crop. In vitro culture systems, and especially the production of micro-tubers, are ideal for such purposes in potato improvement. Radio-sensitivity testing (growth reduction, GR and lethal dose, LD)...

Author(s): Souleymane Bado, Matumelo Alice Rafiri, Kaoutar El-Achouri, Enoch Sapey, Stephan Nielen, Abdelbagi Mukhtar Ali Ghanim, Brian Peter Forster, and Margit Laimer

Natural occurrence and pathogenicity of Xanthomonas bacteria on selected plants

September 2016

The bacterial genus Xanthomonas consists of several species of economic importance, among which Xanthomonas campestris pv.musacearum (Xcm), the cause of enset and banana wilt is the most important in tropical Africa. However, the natural occurrence and host range of this species is yet to be clarified. The objectives of this study were to verify the presence of Xanthomonas bacteria on plants growing in and around...

Author(s): Alemayehu Chala, Tadesse Kebede and Guy Blomme

Development of simple kinetic models and parameter estimation for simulation of recombinant human serum albumin production by Pichia pastoris

September 2016

In order to describe and predict the growth and expression of recombinant proteins by using a genetically modified Pichia pastoris, we developed a number of unstructured models based on growth kinetic equation, fed-batch mass balance and the assumptions of constant cell and protein yields. The growth of P. pastoris on both glycerol and methanol could be represented by Monod kinetic equation. A simple simulation...

Author(s): Panchiga Chongchittapiban, Jӧrgen Borg, Yaowapha Waiprib, Jindarat Pimsamarn and Anan Tongta

Improved embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration in big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), a potential bioenergy feedstock

September 2016

The objective of this study was to develop an efficient regeneration protocol in big bluestem, a potential feedstock that produces huge biomass. Embryogenic calli were induced from the seeds of cultivars, Kaw and Earl, on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mg l-1) alone or in combination with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA)...

Author(s): Pramod Pantha, Sathish Kumar Ponniah, Sixte Ntamatungiro and Muthusamy Manoharan

A novel sampler for limnological investigation in developing world

September 2016

A simple pump sampler for shallow water bodies, constructed with materials that are affordable and readily available in the local market is presented. It is simple to operate and no electric motor is required. The challenge of cost of acquisition of conventional samplers for sampling the lentic habitat, especially small water bodies such as small natural lakes, rivers, streams and reservoirs for fisheries and water...

Author(s): Nkechinyere O. Nweze

Evaluation of the simultaneous effects of a heat stabilized starter concentration and the duration of fermentation on the quality of the opaque sorghum beer

September 2016

This study evaluates the simultaneous effect of dried starter concentration and fermentation duration on the quality characteristics of the African opaque sorghum beer using response surface methodology. The aim was to improve the beer quality and to optimize its fermentation process. Results show that the granule starter concentration and the fermentation duration have significant effects on the dry matter, refractive...

Author(s): Yves Kadjogbé Djegui, Adéchola Pierre Polycarpe Kayodé, Joseph Dossou and Joseph Djidjoho Hounhouigan

Preliminary investigation into the chemical composition of the invasive brown seaweed Sargassum along the West Coast of Ghana

September 2016

The arrival of the invasive brown seaweed Sargassum in the Western Region of Ghana was first reported in 2009. This impacted negatively on biodiversity, tourism and the livelihoods of the coastal communities. The objectives of the study among others were to identify and determine the nutritional and toxicological contents of the seaweed. Twenty four samples collected from 6 zones along the Western Region were analysed....

Author(s): Gloria Naa Dzama Addico and Kweku Amoako Atta deGraft-Johnson

Characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybrids selected for low volatile acidity formation and the production of aromatic Sauvignon blanc wine

September 2016

Wine yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) vary in their ability to develop the full aroma potential of Sauvignon blanc wine due to an inability to release volatile thiols. Subsequently, the use of ‘thiol-releasing’ wine yeasts (TRWY) has increased in popularity. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that some commercially available TRWY intermittently exhibit undesirable characteristics for example, volatile...

Author(s): Hart R.S., Jolly N.P., Mohamed G., Booyse M. and Ndimba B.K.

Growth, ectomycorrhization and biochemical parameters of Quercus suber L. seedlings under drought conditions

September 2016

Drought conditions are the major constraint to the early establishment of Quercus suber species. However, drought responses of this species depend on provenances. The objective of this study was to obtain more comprehensive knowledge on the influence of drought conditions on the response of Q. suber L. seedlings originating from Algeria. Soil water status in soil (SWC) and relative water content (RWC) in leaves,...

Author(s): Henia Daoudi, Arezki Derridj, Lynda Hannachi and Jean Philippe Mevy

Coating with fungicide and different doses of fertilizer in vinhatico seeds

September 2016

Plathymenia reticulata Benth occurs in open formations of the Brazilian Cerrado and Atlantic Forest. The seeds are affected by pathogens that reduce germination. The use of fungicides is defined for many species, but, for forest species, further studies are necessary. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate and identify the physical and physiological quality of mahogany seeds that are coated with fertilizer and...

Author(s): Priscila Gonçalves Figueiredo de Sousa, Henrique Duarte Vieira, Mariá Moraes Amorim and Amanda Justino Acha

Somatic polyploidization and characterization of induced polyploids of Dioscorea rotundata and Dioscorea cayenensis

September 2016

Genetic improvement of major food yams is constrained by a number of factors, such as the scarcity of flowers and lack of synchronization between male and female flowering. Consequently, somaclonal variation including somatic polyploidization has been considered as a useful tool in yam breeding. Somatic polyploidization and its effect on phenotypic traits of Dioscorea species such as D. alata, D. japonica and D....

Author(s): Pachakkil Babil, Midori Iino, Yukiko Kashihara, Ryo Matsumoto, Hidehiko Kikuno, Antonio Lopez-Montes and Hironobu Shiwachi

Callus induction, direct and indirect organogenesis of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc)

September 2016

The present study aimed to induce callus, direct and indirect organogenesis of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) by using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators. Shoot tip, in vitro leaf and root segments were used as explants to induce callus by MS medium containing (0.00 as control, 0.5, 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00 mg/L) of 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid...

Author(s): Ammar Mohammed Ahmed Ali, Mawahib ElAmin Mohamed El-Nour and Sakina Mohamed Yagi

Antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticle synthesized by marine actinomycetes in reference with standard antibiotics against hospital acquired infectious pathogens

September 2016

Multi resistance to antibiotics is a serious and disseminated clinical problem, common to several new compounds that block the resistance mechanism. The present study aimed at the comparative study of silver nanoparticles synthesized through actinomycetes and their antimicrobial metabolites with standard antibiotic. Marine actinomycetes collected from Gulf mannar costal region, Kayalpatnam, located at Tuticorin...

Author(s): Mohamed Mahroop Raja M. and Ahmed John S.

Perennial soybean seeds coated with high doses of boron and zinc

September 2016

The objective of this work was to study combinations of high doses of boron (B) and zinc (Zn) in the recoating of perennial soybean seeds, in order to provide these nutrients to the future plants. The physical, physiological and nutritional characteristics of the coated seeds and initial development of plants in a greenhouse were evaluated. Tests carried out in the laboratory were conducted in a completely randomized...

Author(s): Amanda Justino Acha, Henrique Duarte Vieira and Marta Simone Mendonça Freitas

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Jatropha curcas leaf explants with a fungal chitinase gene

September 2016

Jatropha curcas L. oil has been shown to be suitable for the production of biodiesel. However, this species has not been domesticated yet. Genetic breeding through conventional methods is time consuming and costly, hence, genetic transformation could contribute positively to the improvement of interesting traits. Although in vitro regeneration and stable genetic transformation has been pursued for several years,...

Author(s): Mariana Crotti Franco, Kleber Alves Gomes, Marcel Mamede de Carvalho Filho, Ricardo Harakava, Nicolas Carels, Walter José Siqueira, Rodrigo Rocha Latado and Daniela de Argollo Marques

Germination, growth and physiological responses of Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton, Vachellia seyal (Delile) P. Hurter and Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC to salinity stress in greenhouse conditions

September 2016

Salinity is among the most widespread environmental threats to global plant production, especially in arid and semi-arid climates. Thus, the selection of salt tolerant species is necessary for sustainable plant productivity. The purpose of this study was to measure and understand the salt tolerance of three multipurpose trees used in reforestation programs in many Sahelian countries (Senegalia senegal, Syn. Acacia...

Author(s): Dioumacor Fall,, Niokhor Bakhoum, Fatoumata Fall,, Fatou Diouf, Mamadou O. Ly, Mayécor Diouf, Djamel Gully, Valérie Hocher and Diégane Diouf,

Somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and thin cell layers (TCLs) of Brazilian oil palm (Elaeis guineensis × Elaeis oleifera)

September 2016

Oil palm hybrid BRS Manicoré is important for plantations in the north of Brazil, as it is resistant to fatal yellowing and is compact. Seed germination is slow and reduced, so somatic embryogenesis is a promising alternative for its propagation. Two kinds of starting explants were used: Zygotic embryos (ZE) and thin cell layers (TCL) from the base of seedling aerial parts. Two culture medium formulae were...

Author(s): Bonetti, K. A. P., Nesi, J., Quisen, R. C. and Quoirin, M.

Genetic diversity of rice (Oryza sativa) germplasm from six countries using simple sequence repeats markers

September 2016

This experiment was carried out to determine the genotypic variation among rice (Oryza sativa) accessions using simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. In the present study, a total of 12 SSR markers were used across 87 rice accessions from six countries. NTSYS-pc and PowerMarker software were used for data analysis. Six primers out of these 12 primers showed DNA amplification and polymorphism among the 87 rice...

Author(s): Ibrahim Soe, Richard Akromah, Daniel Nyadanu, Maxwell Darko Asante and Alex Tamu

The rolling circle amplification and next generation sequencing approaches reveal genome wide diversity of Kenyan cassava mosaic geminivirus

September 2016

Rolling circle amplification is a simple approach of enriching populations of single-stranded DNA plant begomovirus genomes (genus, Begomovirus; family, Geminiviridae). This is an innovative approach that utilizes the robustness of the bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase used in circle amplification, together with deep sequencing using Illumina Miseq and bioinformatics to assess population diversity of begomoviruses in...

Author(s): T. M. Kathurima, , E. M. Ateka, A. B. Nyende and T. A. Holton

Influence of recirculation rate on the performance of a combined anaerobic-aerobic reactor applied to the removal of carbon and nitrogen from poultry slaughterhouse wastewater

September 2016

The objective of this study was to evaluate a combined anaerobic-aerobic upflow fixed-bed reactor with liquid phase recirculation for the removal of nitrogen and organic matter from poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. The reactor performance was evaluated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 11 h and three different recirculation rates (R=0.5; 1 and 2). The highest nitrogen removal efficiency value was obtained with...

Author(s): Carla L. Lopes, Adriana N. de Lima Model, Jackeline T. Gotardo, Fernando H. Passig, Eloy L. de Mello, Benedito M. Gomes and Simone D. Gomes

Comparison between Giemsa and Van Geison stains in demonstration of collagen fibers (Kosti-2016)

September 2016

Trichrome stain (such as Van Geison) is usually used in histopathology laboratory for demonstration of collagenic fibers. Lack of selectivity and tendency of stain to fade makes van Gieson not ideal for collagen demonstration. This study was aimed to compare between Giemsa's and van Gieson's stains in collagen fibers demonstration. Twenty biopsies were obtained from rabbit’s skin after anesthesia by...

Author(s): Ziyad Mudasir, Salma Adil and Ahmed Ibn Edriss

Ex-vivo evaluation of crab shell chitosan as absorption enhancer in ciprofloxacin tablet formulation

September 2016

This study was aimed at evaluating crab shell chitosan as absorption enhancer in ciprofloxacin tablet formulation using the ex-vivo model. Six batches of ciprofloxacin tablets containing varying concentrations of crab shell-derived chitosan ranging from 0 to 5% w/w at 1% w/w intervals were produced. Batch CTS-0 containing no chitosan served as the control. The crushing strength, friability, disintegration time,...

Author(s): Emmanuel O. Olorunsola, Timma O. Uwah, Olubunmi J. Olayemi and Unyime B. Etukudo

Optimization of somatic embryogenesis procedure for commercial clones of Theobroma cacao L.

September 2016

The first objective of this study was to assess and optimize somatic embryo production in a genetically diverse range of cacao genotypes. The primary and secondary somatic embryogenesis response of eight promising cacao clones and a positive control was evaluated using modified versions of standard protocols. The second objective was to optimize the efficiency of primary somatic embryogenesis for a commercially...

Author(s): Garcia Claudia, Corrêa Fabio, Findley Seth, Almeida Alex-Alan, Costa Marcio, Motamayor Juan Carlos, Schnell Ray and Marelli Jean-Philippe

Physiological responses by Billbergia zebrina (Bromeliaceae) when grown under controlled microenvironmental conditions

September 2016

Sucrose, the most commonly used carbon source in conventional in vitro culture, and limited air exchange in the culture containers are factors that affect the growth of in vitro-cultured plants. They may induce physiological disorders and decrease the survival rate of plants after transfer to ex vitro conditions. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of gas exchange and sucrose concentration on...

Author(s): João Paulo Rodrigues Martins, Veerle Verdoodt, Moacir Pasqual and Maurice De Proft

Fruit production and quality of guava ‘Paluma’ as a function of humic substances and soil mulching

September 2016

The uses of humic substances and organic residues for soil mulching have been more common during last years. This way, an experiment was carried out to evaluate the fruit quality and yield of guava cv. Paluma as a function of humic substances and organic soil mulching in Brazil. The experiment was performed from January 2012 to June 2013 (first trial) and from July to November 2013 (second trial) using a randomized...

Author(s): Leonardo Fonseca da Rocha, Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante, Járisson Cavalcante Nunes, Antônio Gustavo de Luna Souto, Alian Cássio Pereira Cavalcante, Ítalo Herbert Lucena Cavalcante and Walter Esfrain Pereira

Growth and physiological aspects of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) under saline stress and exogenous application of proline

September 2016

This study aimed to evaluate growth and physiological aspects of ‘All Big’ bell pepper, under saline stress and exogenous application of proline on the leaves. The research was conducted in pots adapted as drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions, using sandy-loam eutrophic Regolithic Neosol, in the municipality of Campina Grande-PB, Brazil. The experiment was set in randomized blocks, in order to...

Author(s): Francisco Vanies da Silva Sá, Geovani Soares de Lima, João Batista dos Santos, Hans Raj Gheyi, Lauriane Almeida dos Anjos Soares, Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante, Emanoela Pereira de Paiva and Leandro de Pádua Souza

Protective effects of some fruit juices with low-fat diet on rat testis damaged by carbon tetrachloride: A genetic and histological study

September 2016

Oxidative stress, free radical, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant have become a common expression with most disease and methods for protection. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an industrial solvent which has destructive effects on a cell while most fruit juices have antioxidant effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of fruit juice on testis after toxic effect with CCl4 through oxidative...

Author(s): Medhat R. Rehan, Amina M. G. Zedan, Samah A. El-Hashash, Mona A. Farid and Gehan A. El-Shafie

Confirmation of antibodies against L-tryptophan-like epitope in human African trypanosomosis serological diagnostic

September 2016

Antibodies directed against L-tryptophan epitope (WE - W for tryptophan, E for epitope), a constant epitope borne by variant surface glycoproteins (VSG), have been detected in sera of all 152 Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT) patients from Angola. The WE is present in VSG hydrophobic regions of the C terminal domains. In the assay, L-tryptophan was linked to bovine serum albumin (BSA) with glutaraldehyde to synthesize...

Author(s): Silla Semballa,, Romaric Nzoumbou-Boko, , Philippe Holzmuller , Paul Chuchana , Jean-loup Lemesre, Philippe Vincendeau, Pierrette Courtois, Sylvie Daulouède and Philippe Truc,

Evaluation of phenolic compounds of two Lygeum spartum L. cytotypes

September 2016

Lygeum spartum represents a natural barrier in the Algerian high plateaus against the advance of sand and the desertification. The plant is of interest due to its tolerance to environmental stress. There are two levels of ploïdy in this species; the diploid cytotype 2n = 16 which is confined in the locality of Ain Benkhllil and the polyploid cytotype 2n = 40 which thrives in semi-arid climates and has a large...

Author(s): Louerrad Yasmina and Kaid-Harche Meriem

Sodium hypochlorite sterilization of culture medium in micropropagation of Gerbera hybrida cv. Essandre

September 2016

Micropropagation requires controlling contamination that might compromise the success of the process. Thermal sterilization is traditionally used; however, costs deriving from equipment acquisition and maintenance render this technique costly. With the purpose of finding an alternative to thermal sterilization, this research aimed at assessing the efficiency and ideal concentration of sodium hypochlorite for...

Author(s): Ana Karolina Pais, Ana Paula da Silva, Joselita Cardoso de Souza, Silvio Lopes Teixeira, Juliana Martins Ribeiro, Ana Rosa Peixoto and Cristiane Domingos da Paz

Pharmacological properties of cashew (Anacardium occidentale)

August 2016

Anacardium occidentale L. is a tree native to Brazil, which is rich in phenolic lipids. Nowadays, the cashew bark (Cashew Nut Shell Liquid) has received great attention in the pharmaceutical industry, due to its economy, abundance and important chemical compounds. Net of cashew nut shell is classified according to the method of production of: (1) net of the shell of natural cashew nut (60-65% anacardic acid; 15-20%...

Author(s): Aracelli de Sousa Leite,, Md. Torequl Islam,, Antonio Luiz Gomes Júnior,,  João Marcelo de Castro e Sousa, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar,, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Hercília Maria Lins Rolim, Maria das Graças Freire de Medeiros, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, and José Arimatéia Dantas Lopes,

Aflatoxins: A silent threat in developing countries

August 2016

Several mycotoxins are known to contaminate crop produce and processed forms but aflatoxins are the most common. They are mainly produced by fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. Cereals and their products which constitute the staples in most developing countries are particularly vulnerable to attack by aflatoxigenic fungi. Despite the potential health risk posed to animals and humans, many people...

Author(s): Elias Nortaa Kunedeb Sowley

Phylogenetic analysis of 23S rRNA gene sequences of some Rhizobium leguminosarum isolates and their tolerance to drought

August 2016

The phylogenetic relationships among thirteen Rhizobium leguminosarum  bv. viciae isolates collected from various geographical regions were studied by analysis of the 23S rRNA sequences. The average of genetic distance among the studied isolates was very narrow (ranged from 0.00 to 0.04) and the studied isolates formed two main groups based on cluster analysis. The isolates were tested for their growth on YMA...

Author(s): Khalid S. Abdel-Lateif, Omar A. Hewedy and Abdel Fattah M. El-Zanaty.

Resistance of corn genotypes to fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

August 2016

The objective of this study was to evaluate resistance mechanisms in 12 corn genotypes (transgenic hybrids: 30A91 PW, 20A78 HX, Impacto VIP 3, 20A55 HX, NS90 PRO 2, Maximus VIP 3, BX 1293YG, RB 9004 PRO, Feroz VIP 3, LG 6036 PRO; conventional: AG 1051 and variety: AL Bandeitante). Attractiveness, aversion to feeding, and antibiosis were evaluated via free and no choice tests in the laboratory. Attractiveness was...

Author(s): Lígia Alves de Paiva, Fernanda Corrêa, Cinthia Luzia Teixeira Silva, Tony de Lima Moura, Franciele Cristina da Silva, Marcio da Silva Araújo and Flávio Gonçalves de Jesus

Genetic diversity assessment of farmers’ and improved potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars from Eritrea using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers

August 2016

Sixty three potato clones (51 farmers’ and 12 varieties) from Eritrea, 18 and 12 varieties from Kenya and Rwanda, respectively were characterized using 12 highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The study was designed to assess the genetic diversity and varietal distinctness among the different samples. In total, 91 alleles ranging between 2 (STM1053) to 13 (STM0031) alleles per marker were...

Author(s): Biniam Mesfin Ghebreslassie, S. Mwangi Githiri, Tadesse Mehari, Remmy W. Kasili, Marc Ghislain  and Eric Magembe

Efficiency and response of conilon coffee genotypes to nitrogen supply

August 2016

The objective of the study was to differentiate genotypes with higher efficiency and responsiveness to nitrogen supply, to understand how the nitrogen supply can impact the dry matter allocation and the accumulation of this nutrient in the different plant compartments of genotypes of conilon coffee, cultivated under contrasting conditions of nitrogen availability in the soil. The plants were cultivated during 150 days...

Author(s): Lindomar Souza Machado, Lima Deleon Martins, Wagner Nunes Rodrigues, Daniel S. Ferreira, Adan Dezan Côgo, Marcelo Antônio Tomaz and José Francisco Teixeira do Amaral

Phosphate solubilization and multiple plant growth promoting properties of rhizobacteria isolated from chickpea (Cicer aeritinum L.) producing areas of Ethiopia

August 2016

Chickpea is one of the major legume crops widely grown in Ethiopia. The low availability of phosphorus in soil is among the stresses that constrain the production of this crop in the country. However, there are rhizobacteria capable of solubilizing insoluble forms of phosphorus in soil and make it available to the plant. Thus, this study was aimed at isolation and characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria from...

Author(s): Mulissa J. Midekssa, Carolin R. Löscher, Ruth A. Schmitz and Fassil Assefa

Effect of packaging and chemical treatment on storage life and physicochemical attributes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Roma)

August 2016

Fresh fruits and vegetables are inherently more liable to deterioration under tropical conditions characterized by high ambient temperatures and humidity. In determining the effects of chemical treatment on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Roma), fruits purchased at turning stage of ripening were packaged in low density polyethylene bags (60 µ) containing wooden dust particles moistened with 400 ppm...

Author(s): Tonna A. Anyasi, Charles O. Aworh and Afam I. O. Jideani

Response of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to inoculation with native and exotic Mesorhizobium strains in Southern Ethiopia

August 2016

A series of pot and two consecutive crop-year field experiments were conducted from 2011 to 2012 in Southern Ethiopia to determine the effectiveness of Mesorhizobium strains on two cultivars of chickpea (Shasho and Nattoli). The eight treatments included: Six rhizobial inoculants, the four best indigenous strains (Cp8, Cp41, Cp97 and Cp105); CpNSTC (National Soils Testing Center inoculant); and CpSK (Canadian...

Author(s): Wondwosen Tena, Endalkachew Wolde-Meskel and Fran Walley

Evaluation methods used for phosphate-solubilizing bacteria

August 2016

Phosphorus solubilizers naturally acidify rhizospheric soil and increase phosphorus availability; therefore, their evaluation may help to reduce phosphorus fertilizer use. This work aimed to evaluate the different selection methods and select inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria as potential plant-growth promoters. Bacterial isolates obtained from sugarcane roots and soil were tested using solid growth media...

Author(s): Clayton Albuquerque Sousa, Mario de Andrade Lira Junior, Giselle Gomes Monteiro Fracetto, Fernando José Freire, and Júlia Kuklinsky Sobral

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